Friday, 29 November 2019
Effects of co-administration of methanol leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin and glibenclamide in rats
Plant-plant combination: an important option in the phase of failing anthelmintics to control nematodes in small ruminants
Sunday, 24 November 2019
Estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens derived from Flemingia strobilifera in MCF-7 cells and immature rats
Arch Pharm Res. 2018 May;41(5):519-529. doi: 10.1007/s12272-018-1027-1. Epub 2018 May 24.
Jeong SY1, Chang M2, Choi SH3, Oh SR3, Wu HH4, Zhu Y4, Gao XM4, Wang X4,5, Zhang B1, Lim DS1, Lee JY1, Kim SD1, Song YS6.
Phytoestrogen (PE) has received considerable attention due to the physiological significance of its estrogenicity. Flemingia strobilifera (FS) has been used as a folk medicine in Asia for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and infection; however, the estrogenic effects and chemical components of FS have not yet been reported. We aimed to uncover the estrogenic properties and PEs derived from FS using phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PEs from FS extract (FSE) were analyzed by NMR, HPLC, and MS. To evaluate estrogenic activity, FSE and its compounds were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays, including human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα) binding, estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase reporter assays, and uterotrophic assays. FSE and its compounds 1-5 showed binding affinities for hERα and activated ERE transcription in MCF-7 cells. Additionally, FSE and compounds 1-5 induced MCF-7 cell proliferation and trefoil factor 1 (pS2) expression. In immature female rats, significant increases in uterine weight and pS2 gene were observed in FSE-treated groups. We identified estrogenic activities of FSE and its bioactive compounds, suggesting their possible roles as PEs via ERs. PEs derived from FSE are promising candidates for ER-targeted therapy for post-menopausal symptoms.
ERE transcription; Estrogen receptor; Flemingia strobilifera; Immature rat; Phytoestrogen; Uterotrophic effect
- [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Saturday, 23 November 2019
- December 2018
- Tropical Conservation Science 12(2):194008291987931
The ethnobotanical importance of the family Piperaceae is recognized mainly for its medicinal properties. A total of 106 species of two genera of this family (Piper and Peperomia) have been collected in Oaxaca, but only 18 are recorded in scientific publications as medicinal, edible, veterinary, or ritual plants. The objectives of this study are to describe the traditional knowledge and uses of the Piperaceae in areas of high biocultural diversity of Oaxaca and to analyze the relationship between its geographic distribution with ethnobotanical records among ethnic groups. Fieldwork was carried out between 2013 and 2016, and voucher specimens were reviewed in Mexican herbaria. Two multivariate analyses were applied to compare the geographic distribution of Piperaceae with ethnobotanical knowledge in Oaxaca. A total of 13 species of Peperomia, and 7 of Piper were collected, besides some unidentified species of both genera. Seven use categories were registered, with medicinal and edible being the most important. A high percentage (65%) of the species is named in at least one native language. Most species have a single use, mainly medicinal. Peperomia has been collected in Oaxaca since 1980, while Piper since 1960. Multivariate analysis indicated the existence of a differentiated ethnobotanical knowledge of this family among ethnic groups, related to the geographic distribution of species. This study evidences that ethnic groups, who maintain areas of higher biodiversity, obtain these species mainly from the wild, from specific microenvironments; hence, conservation practices must be reinforced for them, as for all ecosystems in general.
Thursday, 21 November 2019
Wednesday, 20 November 2019
EFSA released the 89-page Scientific Opinion “Evaluation of the health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in foods other than raw apricot kernels”. This opinion, and the ensuring media coverage, has left uncertainty in the minds of consumers, feed and supplement manufacturers and flaxseed producers of how much ground flaxseed can safely be consumed without crossing the threshold of cyanide toxicity. This editorial updates the science and tries to bring clarity to the question “how much flaxseed can I safely feed my dog, cat, horse on a daily basis?” and “how much can I safely eat?” The great majority of ground flaxseed products have a cyanogenic glycoside content of less than 200 mg / kg seed. For people, consuming 30 grams of such flaxseed the average peak blood cyanide concentration will be about 5 µmole / L, much less than the toxic threshold value of 20 to 40 µmole / L favoured by EFSA. Thus, as much as 120 grams of crushed / ground flaxseed can be consumed by a 70 kg adult person before a toxic threshold of 40 µmole / L is reached (up to 1.7 grams ground flaxseed / kg body weight). The toxic threshold of cyanide for dogs is 2 to 4-fold greater than for humans, and unknown for cats and horses. The daily serving amounts for dogs and cats are about 0.23 grams / kg body mass per day, which will result in blood cyanide well below the toxic threshold. The highest recommended daily serving amount for horses is 454 grams per day, or 0.8 to 2 grams per kg / body mass depending on mass of the horse. This amount for horses should not be exceeded.
Monday, 18 November 2019
Tuesday, 12 November 2019
Friday, 8 November 2019
Effect of Antigonon leptopus Leaf Extract on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Trigonella foenum graecum
Thursday, 7 November 2019
Sunday, 3 November 2019
Friday, 1 November 2019
Value Added Products, Chemical Constituents and Medicinal Uses of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) -A Review
Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is an annual or perennial plant that is widespread in distribution and belongs to the family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae. This plant has long been used for the treatment of various illnesses due to excellent therapeutic potentials and as flavoring agent in several food articles owing to high nutritional value. The genus Apium is known to contain about 20 well-known species of Apiaceae family and its several varieties are found native to Eurasia and are mainly grown in coastal regions. Celery requires relatively high level of humidity and comparatively low level of temperature. Therefore, maximum yield is obtained in cool weather of temperate regions. The aggregated world production of seed oil of celery is estimated to be 51 tons while only India produces 25 tons among all and rest of the contribution is made by United Kingdom, Egypt, France, United States of America and China. Different parts of celery contain fatty acids, volatile essential oils, vitamins and minerals such as potassium, magnesium and calcium along with chlorophyll, silica, β-carotene, fibers, sodium and folic acid. Various post-harvest methodologies and treatment processes for preservation of celery are discussed in detail in this review. Different parts of this plant are used for preparation of medicinal formulations in traditional systems of medicines due to their anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-virus, anti-cancer, anti-spasmodic, gastro-intestinal and anti-oxidant potentials.
Saturday, 26 October 2019
Wednesday, 23 October 2019
Thursday, 17 October 2019
Saturday, 5 October 2019
Monday, 30 September 2019
INVESTIGATIONS ON THE ANTIPYRETIC AND ANTIEMETIC ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF LUPINUS ARBOREUS LEAVES
Thursday, 26 September 2019
Wednesday, 25 September 2019
Saturday, 21 September 2019
Monday, 9 September 2019
Sunday, 8 September 2019
Ethnoveterinary knowledge of farmers in bilingual regions of Switzerland – is there potential to extend veterinary options to reduce antimicrobial use?
J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Aug 26;246:112184. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112184. [Epub ahead of print]
Pharmaceutical Biology, Pharmacenter, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
University of Zurich, Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Zürich, Switzerland.
Division of Organic Farming, Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria.
Farm Animal Behaviour and Husbandry Section, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany.
Unit of Phytopharmacy and Natural Product Research, Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil, Switzerland.
Department of Livestock Science, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse 113, Postfach, CH-5070, Frick, Switzerland.
Pharmaceutical Biology, Pharmacenter, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Department of Livestock Science, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse 113, Postfach, CH-5070, Frick, Switzerland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
In the pre-antibiotic era, a broad spectrum of medicinal plants was used to treat livestock. This knowledge was neglected in European veterinary medicine for decades but kept alive by farmers. Emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains requires a severely restricted use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. We conducted a survey on the ethnoveterinary knowledge of farmers in the bilingual (French and German speaking) Western region of Switzerland, namely the cantons of Fribourg, Neuchâtel and Jura, and in the French speaking part of the canton of Bern.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
To find out whether differences exist in plants used by farmers in French speaking and bilingual regions of Switzerland as compared to our earlier studies conducted in Switzerland. Additional focus was on plants that are used in diseases which commonly are treated with antimicrobials, on plants used in skin afflictions, and on plants used in animal species such as horses, for which the range of veterinary medicinal products is limited.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
We conducted in 2015 semistructured interviews with 62 dialog partners, mainly cattle keeping farmers but also 18 horse keeping farmers. Of these, 41 were native French (FNS) and 21 native German speakers (GNS). Detailed information about homemade herbal remedies (plant species, plant part, manufacturing process) and the corresponding use reports (target animal species, category of use, route of administration, dosage, source of knowledge, frequency of use, last time of use and farmers satisfaction) were collected.
A total of 345 homemade remedies were reported, of which 240 contained only one plant species (Homemade Single Species Herbal Remedy Reports; HSHR). A total of 289 use reports (UR) were mentioned for the 240 HSHR, and they comprised 77 plant species belonging to 41 botanical families. Of these, 35 plant species were solely reported from FNS, 20 from GNS, and 22 from both. Taking into account earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland only 10 (FNS) and 6 (GNS) plant species connected with 7% of FNS and GNS UR respectively were "unique" to the respective language group. The majority of the UR (219) was for treatment of cattle, while 38 UR were intended to treat horses. The most UR were for treatment of gastrointestinal and skin diseases. The most frequently mentioned plants were Linum usitatissimum L., Coffea L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, and Quercus robur L. for gastrointestinal diseases, and Calendula officinalis L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Sanicula europaea L. for skin afflictions.
No clear differences were found between the medicinal plants used by French native speakers and German native speakers. Several of the reported plants seem to be justified to widen the spectrum of veterinary therapeutic options in gastrointestinal and dermatological disorders in cattle and horses, and to reduce, at least to a certain degree, the need for antibiotic treatments. Our findings may help to strengthen the role of medicinal plants in veterinary research and practice, and to consider them as a further measure in official strategies for lowering the use of antibiotics.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Antimicrobial; Ethnoveterinary medicine; French speaking swiss regions (Fribourg; Jura; Jura bernois); Livestock diseases; Medicinal plants; Neuchâtel