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Saturday, 10 August 2019

Detection of Antibodies to Seven Priority Pathogens in Backyard Poultry in Trinidad, West Indies

 2018 Jan 20;5(1). pii: E11. doi: 10.3390/vetsci5010011.


Author information

1
Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of the West Indies (St. Augustine), Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Mount Hope, Trinidad and Tobago. arianne.brown@my.uwi.edu.
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis. pbolfa@rossvet.edu.kn.
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis. smarchi@rossvet.edu.kn.
4
School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of the West Indies (St. Augustine), Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Mount Hope, Trinidad and Tobago. shakera.hemmings@my.uwi.edu.
5
School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of the West Indies (St. Augustine), Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Mount Hope, Trinidad and Tobago. tashard.major@my.uwi.edu.
6
Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of the West Indies (St. Augustine), Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Mount Hope, Trinidad and Tobago. Rod.Suepaul@sta.uwi.edu.
7
Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of the West Indies (St. Augustine), Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Mount Hope, Trinidad and Tobago. Lemar.Blake@sta.uwi.edu.
8
Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of the West Indies (St. Augustine), Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Mount Hope, Trinidad and Tobago. chris.oura@sta.uwi.edu.

Abstract

Backyard poultry farms in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) play a vital role in providing food and income for rural communities. There is currently no information on the presence and circulation of pathogens in backyard poultry farms in T&T, and little is known in relation to the potential risks of spread of these pathogens to the commercial poultry sector. In order to address this, serum samples were collected from 41 chickens on five backyard farms taken from selected locations in Trinidad. Samples were tested for antibodies to seven prioritypathogens of poultry by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 65% (CI 95%: 50-78%) of the sampled birds for Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), 67.5% (CI 95%: 52-80%) for Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), 10% (CI 95%: 4-23%) for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for Avian influenza virus (AIV), 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for West Nile virus (WNV), 31.7% (CI 95%: 20-47%) for Mycoplasm gallisepticum/synoviae and 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. These results reveal the presence and circulation of important pathogens of poultry in selected backyard farms in Trinidad. The results provide important information which should be taken into consideration when assessing the risks of pathogen transmission between commercial and backyardpoultry farms, as well as between poultry and wild birds.

KEYWORDS:

Avian influenza; Mycoplasma gallisepticum; Mycoplasma synoviae; Newcastle disease virus; Salmonella enteritidis; Trinidad and Tobago; West Nile virus; chickens; infectious bronchitis virus; infectious bursal disease virus
PMID:
 
29361703
 
PMCID:
 
PMC5876565
 
DOI:
 
10.3390/vetsci5010011

Ethnomedicinal plants used for snakebite treatments in Ethiopia: a comprehensive overview

Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases

On-line version ISSN 1678-9199

J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis vol.25  Botucatu  2019  Epub Aug 05, 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-9199-jvatitd-2019-0017 

REVIEW

Jean-Philippe Chippaux2  3  
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1976-8568
1Central Ethiopia Environment and Forest Research Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
2MERIT, IRD, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
3Centre de Recherche Translationnelle, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of people living in rural parts of Ethiopia. Despite the fact that Ethiopia has a long history of using traditional medicinal plants as an alternative medicine source, there is no checklist compiling these plants used for snakebite treatment. This review collected and compiled available knowledge on and practical usage of such plants in the country. A literature review on medicinal plants used to treat snakebites was conducted from 67 journal articles, PhD dissertation and MSc theses available online. Data that summarize scientific and folk names, administration methods, plant portion used for treatment and method of preparation of recipes were organized and analyzed based on citation frequency. The summarized results revealed the presence of 184 plant species distributed among 67 families that were cited for treating snakebite in Ethiopia. In this literature search, no single study was entirely dedicated to the study of traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of snakebite in Ethiopia. Most of the species listed as a snakebite remedy were shrubs and climbers (44%) followed by herbs (33%) and trees (23%). Fabaceae was the most predominant family with the greatest number of species, followed by Solanaceae and Vitaceae. Remedies are mainly prepared from roots and leaves, through decoctions, infusions, powders and juices. Most remedies were administered orally (69%). The six most frequently mentioned therapeutically important plants were Nicotiana tabacumSolanum incanumCarissa spinanrumCalpurnia aureaCroton macrostachyus and Cynodon dactylon. Authors reviewed the vegetal substances involved in snakebite management and their action mode. In addition to screening the biologically active ingredients and pharmacological activities of these plant materials, future studies are needed to emphasize the conservation and cultivation of important medicinal plants of the country.
Keywords Ethnobotany; Medicinal plant; Traditional treatment; Snakebite; Envenomation; Sub-Saharan Africa; Ethiopia

First Report of Powdery Mildew Caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Hibiscus mutabilis in Korea

 2013 Aug;97(8):1118. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-13-0065-PDN.

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Author information

1
Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701.
2
Division of Forest Diseases and Insect Pests, Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712.
3
Research Institute for Hallasan, Jeju 690-816, Korea.

Abstract

Hibiscus mutabilis L., known as cotton rose, is a deciduous shrub native to China. Horticultural varieties of the species are widely planted throughout the world (4). In September 2012, typical powdery mildew symptoms on the cotton rose were observed in a public garden of Jeju City, Korea. Powdery mildew colonies were circular to irregular white patches on both sides of the leaves and also on young stems and sepals. As the disease progressed, white mycelial growth covered the entire shoot portion, causing leaf distortion. In the middle of November, numerous chasmothecia were formed on the lesions. Voucher specimens (n = 4) were deposited in the Korea University Herbarium (KUS). Hyphal appressoria were only swollen part of hyphae or occasionally nipple-shaped. Conidiophores were 140 to 275 × 10 to 11.5 μm and produced 2 to 8 immature conidia in chains with a crenate outline. Foot-cells of conidiophores were straight, 30 to 65 μm long, and cylindric. Conidia were hyaline, ellipsoid-ovoid, and measured 27 to 42 × 17.5 to 21 μm with a length/width ratio of 1.5 to 2.4, and had distinct fibrosin bodies. Chasmothecia were amphigenous, cauligenous, 85 to 110 μm in diameter, and contained one ascus each. Peridium cells of chasmothecia were irregularly polygonal, large, and 15 to 38 μm wide. Appendages were mycelioid, 1- to 6-septate, brown at the base, and becoming paler. Asci were sessile, oval to broadly fusiform, with terminal oculus of 15 to 20 μm wide. Ascospores numbered eight per ascus were ellipsoidal, 19 to 25 × 14 to 16 μm. The morphological characteristics were consistent with previous records of P. xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun & Shishkoff (1). To confirm the identification, the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA from isolate KUS-F27134 was amplified with the primers ITS5 and P3 and sequenced (3). The resulting sequence of 477 bp was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KC460208). The Korean isolate showed >99% similarity with dozens of sequences of P. xanthii ex cucurbitaceous hosts (e.g., JQ912061, JQ409565, HM070403, etc.) as well as Podosphaera sp. ex H. mutabilis from Japan (AB040308). Pathogenicity was confirmed through inoculation tests by gently pressing diseased leaves onto young leaves of three asymptomatic, potted 2-year-old seedlings. Three non-inoculated seedlings were used as controls. Plants were maintained in a greenhouse at 24 to 30°C. Inoculated leaves developed symptoms after 7 days, whereas the control plants remained symptomless. The fungus present on the inoculated leaves was morphologically identical to that observed on the original diseased leaves, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Powdery mildew infections of H. mutabilis associated with P. xanthii (including P. fuliginea in broad sense) have been known in China, Japan, and Taiwan (1,2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of powdery mildew caused by P. xanthii on H. mutabilis in Korea. Since Jeju, the southmost island of Korea, is the only habitat of cotton rose in Korea and is the northmost natural habitat in Asia, powdery mildew is a new threat to the health of wild populations of cotton rose. References: (1) U. Braun and R. T. A. Cook. Taxonomic Manual of the Erysiphales (Powdery Mildews), CBS Biodiversity Series No.11. CBS, Utrecht, 2012. (2) D. F. Farr and A. Y. Rossman. Fungal Databases. Syst. Mycol. Microbiol. Lab., Online publication, ARS, USDA, retrieved January 18, 2013. (3) S. Takamatsu et al. Mycol. Res. 113:117, 2009. (4) D. A. Wise. J. Hered. 64:285, 1973.

Saturday, 3 August 2019

Proteomic Evaluation and Cytotoxicity of Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Leaves July 2019 Saud Alshammari

Abstract
Red maple (Acer rubrum), also known as swamp, water or soft maple, is endemic to eastern and central North America and was widely used as traditional medicine by the first peoples. Commercially, its well-known products include maple syrup and high-quality lumber. The potential medicinal benefits of phenolic compounds extracted from the red maple plant, such as glucitol-core containing gallotannins, include antioxidant, and antiglycation effects as well as their importance in cosmetic applications. Plant-derived proteins and peptides are important biomolecules; however to date, there is no published data on the identification of proteins/peptides from red maple leaves. Therefore, the present study focuses on the activity guided purification of proteins from red maple leaves collected in spring and fall seasons. In addition, the focus of this project was in the evaluation of maple leaves employing bottom-up proteomics and De Novo protein profiling by PEAKS Studio-X and Gene Ontology Bioinformatics. The red maple leaves were grounded, defatted in hexane and proteins extracted in 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.5. The extracted crude proteins were recovered by precipitation in 80% ammonium sulfate. The first-dimensional chromatography of crude extracted proteins was performed on a gel filtration column (HiLoad 16/600 Superdex200). The separation of crude extract and the partially purified gel filtration fraction was conducted by reversed-phase HPLC. The crude and eluted fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The extract was screened for cytotoxicity activity on Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 breast cancer (MCF-7), M.D. Anderson Metastasis Breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines and anti-inflammatory activity on murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cell line from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The drug Doxorubicin was used as a positive control whereas untreated cells as a negative control in these experiments Preliminary data revealed that active protein fractions were eluted at two different regions of gel filtration chromatography both in spring and fall leaves. Bottom-up proteomics of crude and active fractions by PEAKS Studio-X and MASCOT bioinformatics database identified over 54 proteins. The Gene Ontology Annotation classified these proteins involved in the biological processing, cellular compartment, and molecular functions.

Monday, 29 July 2019

CFP: ISEE Sessions at the 2020 Central Meeting of the American Philosophical Association


Call for Papers
THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
ETHICS
2020 Central Meeting of the American Philosophical Association
Submissions are invited for the International Society for Environmental Ethics Group Sessions at the 2020 Central Division Meeting of the American Philosophical Association at the Palmer House Hilton in Chicago, IL (February 26-29, 2020).
Research in any area of philosophy related to or concerning environmental issues is welcomed, but special consideration will be given to work in the areas of climate change & climate justice, energy & energy justice, and mass extinction.
ISEE is committed to diversity, equity, and inclusion, and we welcome submissions from all, including scholars of color, LGTBQ scholars, indigenous scholars, and other scholars from communities underrepresented in the profession.
We invite submissions for individual papers (presentations of approximately 20 minutes) as well as themed sessions (topical discussions, panels, author-meets-critics, etc…)
Submission Procedure:
  • Please submit materials by the end of the day on August 30th, 2019.
  • For individual papers: please provide a 300-word abstract.
  • For themed sessions: please submit 1) the proposed session title, 2) a brief description (approximately 500 words) of the session including the names of all participants, and 3) titles for all papers. Individual paper abstracts are strongly encouraged, and all participants should be confirmed as willing to attend if the session goes forward.
  • Materials should be submitted in Microsoft Word or PDF format to: Megs Gendreau (ISEE Treasurer) at gendreau@centre.edu
  • Please include “ISEE/APA” in the subject line of your email and feel free to contact Megs if you have further questions or concerns.

Thursday, 18 July 2019

Orchids as Aphrodisiac, Medicine or Food Authors: Teoh, Eng Soon

https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030182540



Did you know that Vanilla was formerly served as aphrodisiac by Cassanova and Madam Pompadour, and Elizabeth I loved its flavor?
This is the first book that provides a complete worldwide coverage of orchids being employed as aphrodisiacs, medicine or charms and food. Opening with an in-depth historical account of orchids (orchis Greek testicle), the author describes how the Theory of Signatures influenced ancient herbalists to regard terrestrial orchid tubers as aphrodisiacs. Doctors and apothecaries promoted it during the Renaissance. Usage of orchids in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Indian Ayurvedic Medicine; by Tibetan yogins and Amchi healers for longevity pills, tonics and aphrodisiacs; by Africans to prepare 'health promoting' chikanda  or as survival food when lost in the Australian bush are some highlights of the book. Early settlers in America  and the East Indies often relied on native remedies and employment of orchids for such needs is described.  Also covered are the search for medicinal compounds by scientists, attempts to prove the orchid's efficacy by experiment and the worry of conservationists. 

Sunday, 14 July 2019

Ethnomedicinal studies on villages of Thenpuranadu, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract and figures
Aim: Herbal medicine is widely practiced throughout the world from time im-memorable. The aim of the present study is to document available medicinal plants, methods of preparation and major uses in the villages of Thenpuranadu and Pachamalai; a part of Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: Ethno medicinal survey was conducted among the villages of Thenpuranadu at Pachamalai a part of Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. Results: Several medicinal plants were recognized as medicinal source to cure many diseases. Study has revealed 50 medicinal plant species belonging to 29 families that are frequently used for treatment of more than 20 diseases by local traditional healers. In that 90% of the medicinal plants are dicotyledons and the remaining 10% are monocotyledons. These 50 plants comprise trees (40%), shrubs (36%), and herbs (24%). Most predominantly used plant part is leaves (36%) followed by bark (26%) and other parts of plants. The families Leguminosae (14%), Verbenaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (10%) occupied dominantly from that 29 families. The local traditional practitioners commonly used medicinal preparative method was decoction (40%) followed by infusion (20%) and etc show on. The local traditional practitioners handling common diseases to dreadful diseases like malaria, asthma and etc. But most successful cases of diseases cured by traditional practitioners are common cold, fever, cough (30%) followed by stomach problems (16%). Conclusion: Tribal communities of Thenpuranadu, Pachamalai a part of Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India used and also followed natural medicinal system from long time. However, there is a need to conserve and document a scientific data concerning the use of the medicinal plants for future generation.

Friday, 12 July 2019

Phytochemical constituents and ethnopharmacological properties of Ageratum conyzoides L

Abstract
 2019 Jul 10. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6405. [Epub ahead of print]


Author information

1
Centre for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India.
2
Department of Botany, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India.
3
Department of Biotechnology, Central University of Haryana, Mahendergarh, India.

Abstract

Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) is an invasive aromatic herb with immense therapeutic importance. The herb is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. A. conyzoides has imparted numerous ethnomedicinal uses because it has been used to cure various ailments that include leprosy, skin disorders, sleeping sickness, rheumatism, headaches, dyspnea, toothache, pneumonia and many more. A number of phytoconstituents have been scrutinized such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, chromenes, and sterols from almost every part of this plant. These phytoconstituents have shown diverse pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer, antiprotozoal, antidiabetic, spasmolytic, allelopathy, and many more. The plant A. conyzoides has provided a platform for doing pharmaceutical and toxicological research in order to isolate some promising active compounds and authenticate their safety in clinical uses. A. conyzoides provides principal information for advanced studies in the field of pharmaceutical industries and agriculture. Present review article describes the cytogenetics, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicological aspects of A. conyzoides.

KEYWORDS:

Ageratum conyzoides; ageratochromene; pharmacology; phytochemistry; traditional uses
PMID:
 
31290201
 
DOI:
 
10.1002/ptr.6405

Thursday, 11 July 2019

Arctium Species Secondary Metabolites Chemodiversity and Bioactivities

Arctium species are known for a variety of pharmacological effects due to their diverse volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites. Representatives of Arctium species contain non-volatile compounds including lignans, fatty acids, acetylenic compounds, phytosterols, polysaccharides, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, flavonoids, terpenes/terpenoids and volatile compounds such as hydrocarbons, aldehydes, methoxypyrazines, carboxylic and fatty acids, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Arctium species also possess bioactive properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, antibacterial, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This review aims to provide a complete overview of the chemistry and biological activities of the secondary metabolites found in therapeutically used Arctium species. Summary of pharmacopeias and monographs contents indicating the relevant phytochemicals and therapeutic effects are also discussed, along with possible safety considerations.
… 

Friday, 5 July 2019

Evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds against gastrointestinal helminths of chickens

The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of pumpkin seeds as an alternative natural anthelmintic for chickens. Ninety Philippine Jolo native chickens of mixed sexes, aged 4-5 months and weighing 1-2 kg, were randomly distributed into three treatment groups with 30 chickens per group. Control group A was fed basic mash feed, group B received feed mixed with ground pumpkin seeds (2 g/bird per day), and group C received mebendazole-medicated feed (30 mg/kg body weight). Fifteen randomly selected chickens from each group were euthanized and necropsied before treatment, and the remaining fifteen in each group were euthanized and necropsied at 3 days after the end of the treatment. Gastrointestinal worm and fecal egg counts were determined. Three genera of helminths were identified from necropsy: Ascaridia spp., Heterakis spp., and Raillietina spp. Results indicate that compared to mebendazole, pumpkin seed was moderately effective in reducing worm counts of Ascaridia spp. and Raillietina spp., marginally active in reducing worm counts of Heterakis spp., and moderately effective in reducing egg output of the worms. The results suggest that pumpkin seed has the potential to be used as an alternative anthelmintic for chickens.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332568083_Evaluation_of_the_in_vivo_efficacy_of_pumpkin_Cucurbita_pepo_seeds_against_gastrointestinal_helminths_of_chickens

Tuesday, 2 July 2019

Antimicrobial, radical scavenging, and insecticidal activity of leaf and flower extracts of Couroupita guianensis Aubl.

Objectives: The objective of the present study was carried out to investigate antimicrobial, radical scavenging, and insecticidal activity of leaf and flower of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Lecythidaceae). Methods: Extraction of leaf and flower was carried out by maceration process using methanol. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts was carried out by agar well-diffusion method and poisoned food technique, respectively. Radical scavenging activity of extracts was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. Insecticidal activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of larvicidal and pupicidal effects against Aedes aegypti. Results: Leaf extract displayed marked antibacterial activity when compared to flower extract. Highest and least inhibitory activity of extracts was observed against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, respectively. Both extracts displayed antifungal activity with highest activity exhibited by leaf extract. Highest and least susceptibility were shown by Curvularia sp. and Fusarium sp., respectively. Both extracts scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals dose dependently. Leaf extract (IC50 = 19.61 μg/ml) caused marked DPPH radical scavenging potential than flower extract ((IC50= 257.13 μg/ml). IC50 value of ABTS radical inhibition of leaf and flower extract was found to be 7.63 and 53.34 μg/ml, respectively. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity by extracts was concentration dependent. The susceptibility of larvae and pupae to extract was in the order: 2nd instar larvae > 4th instar larvae > pupae. Leaf extract displayed marked insecticidal activity when compared to flower extract as revealed by lower LC50 values. Conclusion: Overall, leaf extract exhibited marked bioactivities than flower extract. The plant can be used to treat microbial infections and oxidative damage and to manage fungal diseases. The plant can be used against mosquito vectors which transmit arboviral diseases.
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