Sunday, 11 August 2019
Eclipta alba ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced structural and functional changes in liver of mice
Saturday, 10 August 2019
Vet Sci. 2018 Jan 20;5(1). pii: E11. doi: 10.3390/vetsci5010011.
Backyard poultry farms in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) play a vital role in providing food and income for rural communities. There is currently no information on the presence and circulation of pathogens in backyard poultry farms in T&T, and little is known in relation to the potential risks of spread of these pathogens to the commercial poultry sector. In order to address this, serum samples were collected from 41 chickens on five backyard farms taken from selected locations in Trinidad. Samples were tested for antibodies to seven prioritypathogens of poultry by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 65% (CI 95%: 50-78%) of the sampled birds for Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), 67.5% (CI 95%: 52-80%) for Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), 10% (CI 95%: 4-23%) for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for Avian influenza virus (AIV), 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for West Nile virus (WNV), 31.7% (CI 95%: 20-47%) for Mycoplasm gallisepticum/synoviae and 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. These results reveal the presence and circulation of important pathogens of poultry in selected backyard farms in Trinidad. The results provide important information which should be taken into consideration when assessing the risks of pathogen transmission between commercial and backyardpoultry farms, as well as between poultry and wild birds.
Avian influenza; Mycoplasma gallisepticum; Mycoplasma synoviae; Newcastle disease virus; Salmonella enteritidis; Trinidad and Tobago; West Nile virus; chickens; infectious bronchitis virus; infectious bursal disease virus
On-line version ISSN 1678-9199
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis vol.25 Botucatu 2019 Epub Aug 05, 2019
Plant Dis. 2013 Aug;97(8):1118. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-13-0065-PDN.
Hibiscus mutabilis L., known as cotton rose, is a deciduous shrub native to China. Horticultural varieties of the species are widely planted throughout the world (4). In September 2012, typical powdery mildew symptoms on the cotton rose were observed in a public garden of Jeju City, Korea. Powdery mildew colonies were circular to irregular white patches on both sides of the leaves and also on young stems and sepals. As the disease progressed, white mycelial growth covered the entire shoot portion, causing leaf distortion. In the middle of November, numerous chasmothecia were formed on the lesions. Voucher specimens (n = 4) were deposited in the Korea University Herbarium (KUS). Hyphal appressoria were only swollen part of hyphae or occasionally nipple-shaped. Conidiophores were 140 to 275 × 10 to 11.5 μm and produced 2 to 8 immature conidia in chains with a crenate outline. Foot-cells of conidiophores were straight, 30 to 65 μm long, and cylindric. Conidia were hyaline, ellipsoid-ovoid, and measured 27 to 42 × 17.5 to 21 μm with a length/width ratio of 1.5 to 2.4, and had distinct fibrosin bodies. Chasmothecia were amphigenous, cauligenous, 85 to 110 μm in diameter, and contained one ascus each. Peridium cells of chasmothecia were irregularly polygonal, large, and 15 to 38 μm wide. Appendages were mycelioid, 1- to 6-septate, brown at the base, and becoming paler. Asci were sessile, oval to broadly fusiform, with terminal oculus of 15 to 20 μm wide. Ascospores numbered eight per ascus were ellipsoidal, 19 to 25 × 14 to 16 μm. The morphological characteristics were consistent with previous records of P. xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun & Shishkoff (1). To confirm the identification, the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA from isolate KUS-F27134 was amplified with the primers ITS5 and P3 and sequenced (3). The resulting sequence of 477 bp was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KC460208). The Korean isolate showed >99% similarity with dozens of sequences of P. xanthii ex cucurbitaceous hosts (e.g., JQ912061, JQ409565, HM070403, etc.) as well as Podosphaera sp. ex H. mutabilis from Japan (AB040308). Pathogenicity was confirmed through inoculation tests by gently pressing diseased leaves onto young leaves of three asymptomatic, potted 2-year-old seedlings. Three non-inoculated seedlings were used as controls. Plants were maintained in a greenhouse at 24 to 30°C. Inoculated leaves developed symptoms after 7 days, whereas the control plants remained symptomless. The fungus present on the inoculated leaves was morphologically identical to that observed on the original diseased leaves, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Powdery mildew infections of H. mutabilis associated with P. xanthii (including P. fuliginea in broad sense) have been known in China, Japan, and Taiwan (1,2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of powdery mildew caused by P. xanthii on H. mutabilis in Korea. Since Jeju, the southmost island of Korea, is the only habitat of cotton rose in Korea and is the northmost natural habitat in Asia, powdery mildew is a new threat to the health of wild populations of cotton rose. References: (1) U. Braun and R. T. A. Cook. Taxonomic Manual of the Erysiphales (Powdery Mildews), CBS Biodiversity Series No.11. CBS, Utrecht, 2012. (2) D. F. Farr and A. Y. Rossman. Fungal Databases. Syst. Mycol. Microbiol. Lab., Online publication, ARS, USDA, retrieved January 18, 2013. (3) S. Takamatsu et al. Mycol. Res. 113:117, 2009. (4) D. A. Wise. J. Hered. 64:285, 1973.
Saturday, 3 August 2019
Monday, 29 July 2019
Thursday, 18 July 2019
Sunday, 14 July 2019
Friday, 12 July 2019
Thursday, 11 July 2019
Saturday, 6 July 2019
Cynodon dactylon extract ameliorates cognitive functions and cerebellar oxidative stress in whole body irradiated mice
- Roopesh Poojary
- NayanataraArun Kumar
- Reshma Kumarchandra
- Ganesh Sanjeev
Friday, 5 July 2019
Evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds against gastrointestinal helminths of chickens
The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of pumpkin seeds as an alternative natural anthelmintic for chickens. Ninety Philippine Jolo native chickens of mixed sexes, aged 4-5 months and weighing 1-2 kg, were randomly distributed into three treatment groups with 30 chickens per group. Control group A was fed basic mash feed, group B received feed mixed with ground pumpkin seeds (2 g/bird per day), and group C received mebendazole-medicated feed (30 mg/kg body weight). Fifteen randomly selected chickens from each group were euthanized and necropsied before treatment, and the remaining fifteen in each group were euthanized and necropsied at 3 days after the end of the treatment. Gastrointestinal worm and fecal egg counts were determined. Three genera of helminths were identified from necropsy: Ascaridia spp., Heterakis spp., and Raillietina spp. Results indicate that compared to mebendazole, pumpkin seed was moderately effective in reducing worm counts of Ascaridia spp. and Raillietina spp., marginally active in reducing worm counts of Heterakis spp., and moderately effective in reducing egg output of the worms. The results suggest that pumpkin seed has the potential to be used as an alternative anthelmintic for chickens.