Wednesday, 31 January 2018
Homeopathy. 2011 Oct;100(4):270-4. doi: 10.1016/j.homp.2011.05.004. Chapman SF1. Author information 1 The Animal Medical Center of Watkins Park, Cheltenham, MD 20623, USA. email@example.com Abstract Hyperthyroidism is a frequent veterinary problem, particularly in elderly cats. Homeopathic treatment and other integrative modalities were provided for four hyperthyroid cats whose owners did not want conventional treatment. Symptomatic homeopathic treatment with Thyroidinum was helpful in one cat. All cats were prescribed an appropriate individualized homeopathic remedy. All four cats showed resolution of clinical signs; three attained normal thyroid hormone levels. Three cats later received acupuncture and/or herbal medicines; two cats later received symptomatic homeopathic remedies. Two cats are thriving after over 3.5 and 4.25 years of treatment; two were euthanized for unrelated problems after 3 and 4 years of treatment. Homeopathic and complementary therapies avoid the potential side effects of methimazole and surgical thyroidectomy, they are less costly than radioactive iodine treatment, and they provide an option for clients who decline conventional therapies. PMID: 21962203 DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2011.05.004 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016 Aug;79:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.05.005. Epub 2016 May 6. Li F1, He X2, Niu W3, Feng Y3, Bian J3, Kuang H4, Xiao H5. Author information 1 Department of Basic Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China; Research Center for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. 2 Research Center for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. 3 Department of Basic Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China. 4 Department of Basic Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org. 5 Department of Basic Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China. Electronic address: email@example.com. Abstract Aralia elata Seem. (A. elata) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat some diseases. This investigation aims to evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of the ethanol extract of A. elata leaves, namely ethanol leaves extract (ELE), in Beagle dogs. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, dogs were treated with the ELE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 12 weeks and followed by 4 weeks recovery period. During experimental period, clinical signs, mortality, body temperature, food consumption and body weight were recorded. Analysis of electrocardiogram, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology were performed. The results showed that both food consumption and body weight significantly decreased in high-dose group. Treatment-related side effects and mortality were observed in high-dose female dogs. Some parameters showed significant alterations in electrocardiogram, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and relative organ weights. These alterations were not related to dose or consistent across gender, which were ascribed to incidental and biological variability. The findings in this study indicated that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the ELE was 100 mg/kg in dogs and provided a vital reference for selecting a safe application dosage for human consumption. KEYWORDS: Aralia elata Seem.; Beagle dogs; Sub-chronic toxicity PMID: 27156779 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.05.005
Anti-influenza virus activity of extracts from the stems of Jatropha multifida Linn. collected in Myanmar
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Feb 7;17(1):96. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1612-8. Shoji M1, Woo SY2, Masuda A3, Win NN2,4, Ngwe H4, Takahashi E5, Kido H5, Morita H2, Ito T6, Kuzuhara T7. Author information 1 Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 180 Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima, 770-8514, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org. 2 Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630, Sugitani, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan. 3 Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 180 Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima, 770-8514, Japan. 4 Department of Chemistry, University of Yangon, Yangon, 11041, Myanmar. 5 Division of Pathology and Metabolome Research for Infectious Disease and Host Defense, Institute for Enzyme Research, University of Tokushima, 3-18-15, Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima, 770-8503, Japan. 6 Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630, Sugitani, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan. email@example.com. 7 Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 180 Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima, 770-8514, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org. Abstract BACKGROUND: To contribute to the development of novel anti-influenza drugs, we investigated the anti-influenza activity of crude extracts from 118 medicinal plants collected in Myanmar. We discovered that extract from the stems of Jatropha multifida Linn. showed anti-influenza activity. J. multifida has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, and the stem has been reported to possess antimicrobial, antimalarial, and antitumor activities. However, the anti-influenza activity of this extract has not yet been investigated. METHODS: We prepared water (H2O), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-hexane (Hex), and chloroform (CHCl3) extracts from the stems of J. multifida collected in Myanmar, and examined the survival of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus, and the inhibitory effects of these crude extracts on influenza A viral infection and growth in MDCK cells. RESULTS: The H2O extracts from the stems of J. multifida promoted the survival of MDCK cells infected with the influenza A H1N1 virus. The EtOAc and CHCl3 extracts resulted in similar, but weaker, effects. The H2O, EtOAc, and CHCl3 extracts from the stems of J. multifida inhibited influenza A virus H1N1 infection; the H2O extract possessed the strongest inhibitory effect on influenza infection in MDCK cells. The EtOAc, Hex, and CHCl3 extracts all inhibited the growth of influenza A H1N1 virus, and the CHCl3 extract demonstrated the strongest activity in MDCK cells. CONCLUSION: The H2O or CHCl3 extracts from the stems of J. multifida collected in Myanmar demonstrated the strongest inhibition of influenza A H1N1 viral infection or growth in MDCK cells, respectively. These results indicated that the stems of J. multifida could be regarded as an anti-influenza herbal medicine as well as a potential crude drug source for the development of anti-influenza compounds. KEYWORDS: Anti-influenza; Anti-virus; Herbal medicine; Jatropha multifida; Stem PMID: 28173854 PMCID: PMC5297253 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1612-8 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Google+ Images from this publication.See all images (4)Free text Fig. 3Fig. 4 MeSH terms, Substances
Traditional uses of medicinal plants used by Indigenous communities for veterinary practices at Bajaur Agency, Pakistan
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2018 Jan 29;14(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s13002-018-0212-0. Aziz MA1, Khan AH2, Adnan M3, Ullah H4. Author information 1 Department of Botany, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, 26000, Pakistan. email@example.com. 2 Department of Botany, Shaheed Benazir Bhuto University Sheringal, District Dir (Upper), 18000, Pakistan. 3 Department of Botany, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, 26000, Pakistan. 4 Department of Zoology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, 23200, Pakistan. Abstract BACKGROUND: The pastoral lifestyle of Indigenous communities of Bajaur Agency is bringing them close to natural remedies for treating their domestic animals. Several studies have been conducted across the globe describing the importance of traditional knowledge in veterinary care. Therefore, this study was planned with the aim to record knowledge on ethnoveterinary practices from the remote areas and share sit with other communities through published literature. METHODS: Data was gathered from community members through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through informant consensus factor (Fic) to evaluate the consent of current ethnoveterinary practices among the local people. RESULTS: In total, 73 medicinal plants were recorded under the ethnoveterinary practices. Most widely used medicinal plants with maximum use reports (URs) were Visnaga daucoides Gaertn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Solanum virginianum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Curcuma longa L. New medicinal values were found with confidential level of citations for species including Heracleum candicans and Glycerhiza glabra. Family Apiaceae was the utmost family with high number (7 species) of medicinal plants. Maximum number of medicinal plants (32) was used for gastric problems. High Fic was recorded for dermatological (0.97) followed by reproductive (0.93) and gastrointestinal disorders (0.92). The main route of remedies administration was oral. CONCLUSIONS: Current study revealed that the study area has sufficient knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants. This knowledge is in the custody of nomadic grazers, herders, and aged community members. Plants with new medicinal uses need to be validated phytochemically and pharmacologically for the development of new alternative drugs for veterinary purposes. KEYWORDS: Fic; Folk knowledge; Indigenous communities; Livestock diseases; Phytopharmacological studies PMID: 29378636 DOI: 10.1186/s13002-018-0212-0
Tuesday, 30 January 2018
Issue: 116 Page: 78 by Hannah Bauman HerbalGram. 2017; American Botanical Council Lucia Bettler, founder and owner of Lucia’s Garden in Houston, Texas, died on September 22, 2017, five days after her 69th birthday. A former English teacher, Bettler opened Lucia’s Garden in Houston in 1984 as a holistic herbal wellness shop, with products focused on physical and spiritual wellbeing. Due to her declining health, the shop closed earlier in 2017. Born and raised in Houston, Bettler attended the University of St. Thomas and earned a bachelor’s degree in English literature. At St. Thomas, she met her husband Michael Bettler, and the two married in 1972. As a master gardener with a self-described “lifelong connection to the earth,” Bettler opened Lucia’s Garden to teach the therapeutic properties of plants to her customers and foster a deeper appreciation for spiritual fulfillment through meditation, herbs, and music. Lucia’s Garden offered herbs, cannabidiol products, books, and New Age items, and hosted classes. Bettler’s greatest dream for the shop was to foster a sense of community and peace. Bettler had been a member of the South Texas unit of the Herb Society of America since 1984. Fellow member Susan Wood recalled Bettler’s active presence in the group in a tribute article for the organization’s October 2017 newsletter.1 “[Lucia] participated in all our events,” Wood wrote, “usually bringing her books and other items from Lucia’s Garden to sell, and generously donated wonderful baskets of her products as door prizes, too. Her calming and welcoming presence was always appreciated by members and guests alike.” Henry Flowers, garden director at the Round Top Festival Institute, an acclaimed music institute and research center in Round Top, Texas, wrote in the newsletter about Bettler’s involvement in the institute’s annual spring Herbal Forum.2 “Lucia Bettler was a wonderful fixture … for many years,” Flowers wrote. “This past March was the 22nd annual event and Lucia performed the blessing of the gardens for 21 of those 22 years.” Bettler frequently presented at the Herbal Forum and other events on varied topics such as aromatherapy, potpourri, folklore, and culinary and medicinal herbs. In addition to her work with Lucia’s Garden, the Herb Society of America, and the spring Herbal Forum, Bettler was a member of the Houston Culinary Guild, the St. Anne Catholic Community church choir, the River Oaks Business Women’s Exchange Club, and a past president of the International Herb Association. Wood commented: “[H]er strength was always in words. Whether written or spoken, she shared her knowledge and love of life with everyone…. We will always remember Lucia as a kind and gentle spirit who guided us to be so much better in our daily lives and to each other.”1 Likewise, Flowers also remembered Bettler’s spiritual way with words in her annual blessings. “What she wrote every year was a contemplative work that had many insights into nature, gardening, and spiritualism. It didn’t focus on a religion; rather, on the way that we as gardeners commune with nature on various levels and how gardening and gardens are a boon to our souls. Lucia’s passing is a very sad event and her participation in the Herbal Forum will be greatly missed.”2 Gayle Engels, special projects director for the American Botanical Council, said: “I feel blessed to have known Lucia and called her my friend. I will miss her gentle, understated sense of humor and the immense wisdom she shared so freely. She inspired me to be the best person I could be and was a true herbal sister.” Lucia Bettler is survived by her husband Michael, brother Richard Ferrara, sister Mary Jo Piwetz, and many nieces, nephews, great-nieces, and great-nephews. A memorial service celebrating her life and work was held on October 20, 2017, in Houston. —Hannah Bauman References Wood SG. In memory of Lucia Ferrara Bettler. Herbs Make Scents. October 2017;XL(9). Flowers H. Lucia Bettler and the gardens at Festival Hill. Herbs Make Scents. October 2017;XL(9).
HerbalEGram: Volume 13, Issue 7, July 2016 (Solanum lycopersicum, Solanaceae) Editor’s Note: Each month, HerbalEGram highlights a conventional food and briefly explores its history, traditional uses, nutritional profile, and modern medicinal research. We also feature a nutritious recipe for an easy-to-prepare dish with each article to encourage readers to experience the extensive benefits of these whole foods. With this series, we hope our readers will gain a new appreciation for the foods they see at the supermarket and frequently include in their diets. The basic materials for this series were compiled by dietetic interns from Texas State University (TSU) in San Marcos and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) through the American Botanical Council’s (ABC’s) Dietetic Internship Program, led by ABC Education Coordinator Jenny Perez. We would like to acknowledge Jenny Perez, ABC Special Projects Director Gayle Engels, and ABC Chief Science Officer Stefan Gafner, PhD, for their contributions to this project. By Hannah Baumana, Genesis Valdesb, and Candace Charlesb a HerbalGram Assistant Editor b ABC Dietetics Intern (UT, 2015) History and Traditional Use Range and Habitat Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Solanaceae) is, botanically, a fruit. Nevertheless, in the 1893 Nix v. Hedden decision, the United States Supreme Court classified tomatoes as a vegetable, which created an economic advantage for US producers, because taxes were levied on vegetables, but not fruits, imported into the US.1 The Supreme Court decided that “in the common language of the people, whether sellers or consumers of provisions, all these are vegetables … are usually served at dinner … and not, like fruits generally, as dessert.”2 The tomato is a common ingredient in cuisines around the world, and is cultivated as an annual food crop, although technically it is classified as a short-lived perennial.3 A member of the nightshade family, the tomato is related to the potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (S. melongena), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), and chili pepper (C. frutescens). Tomatoes are colorful, with various tomato cultivars producing fruit that is generally red, orange, and yellow in different sizes and shapes. Tomato plants grow 3-10 feet in height and have a sprawling growth habit, with hairy stems, bright green compound leaves, and small yellow flowers.4,5 The tomato plant produces a fleshy fruit with seeds embedded in a watery matrix that requires delicate care during transport.6 Tomatoes grew wild as a weed in South and Central America, and the size of the original tomato was more comparable to the cherry tomato than the larger varieties.6,7 Aztecs and Incas were among the first to cultivate the tomato due to its resemblance to the green tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica and P. ixocarpa, Solanaceae), one of their cuisine staples.4,6 After arriving in Mexico, Spanish conquistadors were intrigued by the tomato and took seeds to Europe. The tomato spread throughout Europe and made its way into Mediterranean cuisine during the 16th century. Today, the tomato and potato dominate the US vegetable market in dietary intake and economic value.1 Phytochemicals and Constituents Tomatoes are a good source of vitamin C, vitamin A, folate, potassium, carotenoids, and flavonoids.5 The tomato skin contains 98% of the tomato’s total flavonol content, which includes quercetin and kaempferol. Studies have shown that potassium and vitamin C in the diet lowers blood pressure, which is good because high blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).8 Tomatoes also contain minerals including phosphorus, magnesium, molybdenum, and calcium.5 Tomato-based products, including tomato paste, contain these same nutrients in varying concentrations depending on how the tomatoes were processed.9 The fruit is dense in lycopene and several other carotenoids, including phytoene, phytofluene, zeta-carotene, beta-carotene, gamma-carotene, and neurosporene.5 Carotenoids give tomatoes their varying colors.10 Tomatoes and tomato products are the richest sources of lycopene in the American diet, representing more than 85% of all dietary sources of lycopene. Because of its chemical structure, lycopene is one of the most potent antioxidants.11 Lycopene provides many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cellular oxidative damage, inflammation, and modulation of cellular signaling pathways. There is a strong correlation between lycopene/tomato product intake and the reduction of CVD and cancer incidence.5,8 In vitro studies demonstrate that lycopene reduces cellular proliferation induced by insulin-like growth factors in various cancer cell lines, and protects important cellular biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, and DNA.11 Additionally, lycopene can suppress carcinogen-induced phosphorylation of regulatory proteins and stop cell division in cancer cell lines, providing a mechanism to explain putative cancer preventive effects. Historical and Commercial Uses The tomato was not a popular food when introduced to Europe and was originally grown as an ornamental plant. The Solanaceae family famously contains some plants that are poisonous, such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), which made many people suspicious of the bright red fruit.4,6 Europeans overcame their fear of the tomato by the late 18th century, but conflicting information persists in modern times regarding tomato leaves.6,12 The leaves were believed to be as poisonous as the fruit — once thought to be toxic as well — but scientific literature remains undecided on the leaves’ actual toxicity to humans and animals.12 Some chefs and home cooks have reported no adverse effects while cooking with and consuming tomato leaves, but evidence remains largely anecdotal on both sides. Though little research exists on tomato’s efficacy for skin conditions, such as acne or sunburn, folk remedies recommend preparations of tomato mixed with other ingredients, such as avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae), honey, yogurt, or lime (Citrus x latifolia, Rutaceae) juice, applied to the face or other afflicted areas.13 As tomato consumption spread throughout Europe, it gained more acceptance as a versatile food, which inspired Italians to begin mass-producing and canning tomatoes (known as pomodoro, or “golden apple” in Italian) by the early 19th century. The US soon followed, and by the 1830s, ketchup (catsup) became the “national condiment.”4 Currently, the tomato has a wide variety of uses and is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide. In the US, the tomato is the most commonly consumed vegetable.1 The average American consumes nearly 18 pounds of fresh tomatoes and almost 69 pounds of processed tomato products every year.10 The Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture estimates that of total raw tomato processing, 35% is processed into sauces, 18% into tomato paste, 17% into canned tomatoes, 15% into juices, and 15% into ketchup. The tomato was the first genetically-engineered food, modified to maintain the firmness of the fruit for longer periods of time during transport.7 Modern Research The tomato and tomato products have gained greater attention because of the increasing research surrounding their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.9 Tomatoes have a variety of nutrients and compounds that may contribute to the prevention of CVD and certain cancers by decreasing inflammation. Recent studies have identified lycopene as a beneficial compound that reduces inflammation and oxidation. Oxidative stress at the cellular level leads to the damage of cell membranes and eventually causes inflammation. The chemical transfer of electrons of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) prevents damage to fat cells, therefore indirectly preventing inflammation. Lycopene and Inflammation Vitamin C and vitamin E may work in combination with lycopene to increase beneficial effects. Researchers observed a greater production of anti-inflammatory cytokines with the combination of the three compounds (lycopene, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol) compared to the individual compounds or a combination of two.14 (Cytokines are chemical messengers produced by immune cells to communicate with damaged cells and initiate immune response.) This indicates that consuming tomato provides greater health benefits versus isolated single compounds. Tomato products may also benefit overweight or obese individuals.15 After 20 days of consuming 330 mL of tomato juice daily while otherwise maintaining their normal diet, overweight and obese women had a decrease in the concentration of certain inflammatory factors compared to baseline and compared to the control group, possibly decreasing the risk of inflammatory conditions such as CVD, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Cancer Chronic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases like cancer. In healthy human subjects, dietary supplementation with lycopene for just one week increased serum lycopene levels and reduced oxidation of lipids, proteins, lipoproteins, and DNA, whereas subjects with diets free of lycopene supplementation or tomato products showed low blood levels of lycopene and increased lipid oxidation.11 Blood and tissue levels of lycopene were inversely associated with risks of breast cancer and prostate cancer. Several epidemiological studies have found that high intake of tomatoes/tomato products was linked to lower incidences of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and a 50% reduction in cancer death rates in an elderly US population.16 In a review of 72 epidemiological studies, 57 (79%) confirmed an inverse association between tomato intake and risk of several different types of cancer, measured by serum lycopene levels and predisposition to cancer. Increased lycopene intake from various tomato products has been shown to correlate with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer.11 Lycopene’s prostate cancer-prevention benefits are thought to stem from mechanisms of inhibiting proliferation, anti-androgen and antigrowth factor effects, and decreasing levels of oxidative damage to DNA and T-cells.9 In fact, consumption of 10 or more servings per week showed a 35% reduction in risk of even the most aggressive types of prostate cancer. Epidemiological evidence confirms the relationship between tomato/lycopene consumption and prostate cancer risks. A survey of 51,529 male health professionals between 40 and 75 years old found that consuming more than two servings a week of tomato products resulted in a dose-dependent risk reduction in incidence of prostate cancer. Greater risk reduction is associated with tomato sauce consumption than with lycopene supplementation alone.9 Cardiovascular Health More than 70 million Americans have some form of CVD, which accounts for 38% of all deaths in the US.9 Higher concentrations of lycopene in fat tissue were noted to be protective against CVD. When tomatoes/tomato products are removed from the diet, the antioxidant capacity of plasma decreases, and then increases when they are added back. Consuming tomato products daily for two-four weeks increases antioxidant enzyme defenses and has been shown to reduce plasma lipid peroxides and the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation.17 In 2004, researchers reported an inverse association for women consuming more than seven servings per week of tomato-based products and CVD. This association was not observed with lycopene supplementation alone. Different tomato products contain various concentrations of lycopene and other nutrients. Tomato paste is one of the most lycopene-rich tomato products. A 2012 study examined the effect of tomato paste in the endothelial function of 19 young, healthy individuals.9 After consuming 70 g of tomato paste daily for 15 days, researchers reported that subjects experienced a significant increase in flow-mediated dilation and a significant decrease in total oxidative stress (TOS) compared to baseline. This may indicate that the decrease of TOS increases endothelial function, therefore decreasing the risk of future CVD. Bioavailability The bioavailability of a compound refers to the amount that is absorbed and used by the body. Thus, increased bioavailability means increased activity and possible benefits from that compound. Tomatoes are one of the few fruits or vegetables whose nutrients are absorbed more readily when cooked. When tomatoes are processed, lycopene becomes more bioavailable, especially when heat is used, which softens cell walls in tomato tissues, and other dietary lipids are present during processing.11,17 The popular combination of tomatoes with olive oil may be as healthy as it is delicious. Researchers observed subjects who consumed tomatoes in conjunction with olive oil and those who consumed tomatoes alone.18 The results found significantly increased plasma concentrations of lycopene in the olive oil group. The dietary sources that deliver the most concentrated sources of lycopene are processed tomato products including tomato juice, ketchup, paste, sauce, and soup.19 Consuming lycopene from whole food products, including tomatoes, instead of in supplement form, confers the benefits from the interaction with and enhancement from different constituents.17 Nutrient Profile20 Macronutrient Profile: (Per 1 large tomato [approx. 182 g]) 33 calories 1.6 g protein 7.08 g carbohydrate 0.36 g fat Secondary Metabolites: (Per 1 large tomato [approx. 182 g]) Excellent source of: Vitamin C: 24.9 mg (41.5% DV) Vitamin A: 1,516 IU (30.3% DV) Very good source of: Vitamin K: 14.4 mcg (18.0% DV) Potassium: 431 mg (12.3% DV) Molybdenum: 9 mcg (12.0% DV) Manganese: 0.21 mg (10.5% DV) Good source of: Dietary Fiber: 2.2 g (8.8% DV) Vitamin B6: 0.15 mg (7.5% DV) Folate: 27 mcg (6.8% DV) Niacin: 1.08 mg (5.4% DV) Also provides: Magnesium: 20 mg (5.0% DV) Vitamin E: 0.98 mg (4.9% DV) Thiamin: 0.07 mg (4.7% DV) Phosphorus: 44 mg (4.4% DV) Iron: 0.5 mg (2.8% DV) Riboflavin: 0.04 mg (2.4% DV) Zinc: 0.31 mg (2.1% DV) Calcium: 18 mg (1.8% DV) DV = Daily Value as established by the US Food and Drug Administration, based on a 2,000-calorie diet. Recipe: Gazpacho Salad Adapted from The New Spanish Table21 Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups day-old dense country bread diced into 1-inch cubes 2 garlic cloves, peeled and chopped 1/4 teaspoon kosher salt 1/4 teaspoon cumin seeds 3 tablespoons sherry vinegar or red wine vinegar 1/3 cup extra-virgin olive oil 1 2/3 pounds fresh tomatoes, cored and diced into 3/4-inch cubes 1/2 cup cucumber, seeded and diced 1/2 cup white onion, finely diced 1/2 cup seedless green grapes, cut in half 1/2 cup slivered fresh mint or basil (or combination) Directions: Heat the oven to 350°F. Arrange the bread cubes in a single layer on a large rimmed baking sheet and bake until they are lightly browned, 8 to 10 minutes, stirring once. Let the bread cubes cool to room temperature. Using a mortar and pestle, mash the garlic, salt, and cumin seeds into a paste. Add vinegar and olive oil and whisk to combine. Add toasted bread, tomatoes, cucumber, onion, grapes, and herbs in a large bowl and toss to combine. Add the dressing and toss to coat. Let the salad stand for 5 to 10 minutes before serving to allow the bread to soak up the dressing and vegetable juices. References Food Consumption and Demand: Tomatoes. USDA Economic Research Service website. February 3, 2016. Available at: www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops/vegetables-pulses/tomatoes.aspx. Accessed June 23, 2016. Nix v. Hedden. No. 137 (United States Supreme Court 1893). Van Wyk B-E. Food Plants of the World. Portland, OR: Timber Press; 2006. The National Geographic Society. Edible: An Illustrated Guide to the World’s Food Plants. Lane Cove, Australia: Global Book Publishing; 2008. Perveen R, Suleria HA, Anjum FM, Butt MS, Pasha I, Ahmad S. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoids and lycopenes chemistry; metabolism, absorption, nutrition, and allied health claims: A comprehensive review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015;55(7):919-929. Murray M, Pizzorno J, Pizzorno L. The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods. New York, NY: Atria Books; 2005. Green A. Field Guide to Produce. Philadelphia, PA: Quirk Books; 2004. Willcox JK, Catignani GL, Sheryl. L. Tomatoes and cardiovascular health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010;1(43):1-18. Xaplanteris P, Vlachopoulos C, Pietri P, et al. Tomato paste supplementation improves endothelial dynamics and reduces plasma total oxidative status in healthy subjects. Nutr Res. 2012;32(5):390-394. Canene-Adams K, Campbell JK, Zaripheh S, Jeffery EH, Erdman JW. The tomato as a functional food. J Nutr. 2005;135(5):1226-1230. Agarwal S, Rao AV. Tomato lycopene and its role in human health and chronic diseases. CMAJ. 2000;163(6):739-744. McGee H. Accused, Yes, but Probably Not a Killer. The New York Times. July 28, 2009. Available at: www.nytimes.com/2009/07/29/dining/29curi.html?_r=2&ref=dining. Accessed June 20, 2016. Khan B. Tomato for Clear Skin. The Times of India. April 21, 2013. Available at: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/beauty/Tomato-for-clear-skin/articleshow/7686230.cms. Accessed June 20, 2016. Hazewindus M, Haenen GR, Weseler A, Aalt. B. The anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene complements the antioxidant action of ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol. Food Chem. 2012;132(2):954-958. Ghavipour M, Saedisomeolia A, Djalali M, et al. Tomato juice consumption reduces systemic inflammation in overweight and obese females. Br J Nutr. 2013;109(11):2031-2035. Giovannucci E. Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:317-31. Burton-Freeman B, Reimers K. Tomato consumption and health: emerging benefits. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2010;5(2):182-191. Fielding JM, Rowley KG, Cooper P, O'Dea K. Increases in plasma lycopene concentration after consumption of tomatoes cooked with olive oil. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(2):131-136. Burton-Freeman B, Sesso HD. Whole food versus supplement: comparing the clinical evidence of tomato intake and lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors. Adv Nutr. 2014;5(5):457-485. Basic Report: 11529, Tomatoes, red, ripe, raw, year round average. USDA Agricultural Research Service website. Available at: https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/3223?manu=&fgcd. Accessed June 22, 2016. Von Bremzen A. The New Spanish Table. New York, NY: Workman Publishing Company; 2005.
Helichrysum (Immortelle; Helichrysum italicum, Asteraceae) Lab Analysis Date: 01-15-2018 HC# 061762-584 D'Abrosca B, Buommino E, Caputo P, et al. Phytochemical study of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don: spectroscopic elucidation of unusual amino-phlorogucinols [sic] and antimicrobial assessment of secondary metabolites from medium-polar extract. Phytochemistry. December 2016;132:86-94. Several species of infectious bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, can form adherent layers on surfaces known as a biofilm. A biofilm formation may render antibiotics unable to attenuate infection. Helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum, Asteraceae) is used traditionally in combating inflammation and infection, and compounds such as phloroglucinols and their derivatives have been shown to have antibacterial activity. This basic research study isolated three novel amino-phloroglucinol-derivative compounds, and along with 17 other known compounds, tested their antimicrobial activity in assays measuring bacterial growth and biofilm inhibition. Plant material was collected in the Nature Reserve of Caserta, Italy, with a voucher stored in the herbarium at the Second University of Naples; Caserta, Italy. Leaves and stems were separated, dried, and extracted with solvent partitioning. Ultraviolet (UV) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, as well as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), were used to identify the compounds. Antimicrobial assays were done using S. epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with positive controls, tobramycin and vancomycin, to gauge the activity. Bacteria viability was measured as percent reduction in growth and growth inhibition after zero, four, eight, 16, and 24 hours of incubation with helichrysum extract dilutions. Biofilm impact was determined by incubating plant extracts with bacteria and measuring biofilm formation. Three novel amino-phloroglucinol derivatives and 17 previously reported compounds were isolated. In addition to phloroglucinols, compounds included acetophenone derivatives, with known compounds occurring in sandy everlasting (H. arenarium), imphepho (H. odoratissimum), many stem cudweed (Gnaphalium polycaulon, Asteraceae), shan you gan (Acronychia pedunculata, Rutaceae), Billy Webb (Acosmium panamense, Fabaceae), sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, Rosaceae), Cenostigma macrophyllum (Fabaceae), and lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum, Zingiberaceae), among others. Four of the compounds, at 128 µg/ml, inhibited the growth of S. epidermidis at percentages ranging from 30.3 ± 0.03% to 77.0 ± 0.13%. In comparison, vancomycin was 100 ± 0.5% effective at the same concentration. These same compounds were tested for their time-kill efficacy against S. epidermidis. Compound 2, helichrytalicine B, demonstrated a better than 50% decrease in percentage of colony-forming units (CFU) after eight hours. Other compounds tested did not appreciably impact CFU despite inhibiting cell growth in the previous assay. In the biofilm assay, several compounds inhibited S. epidermidis biofilm formation, with compound 2 being the most efficacious (greater than 75% inhibition). Compound 9, an acetophenone derivative, and compound 20, ursolic acid, also were effective, approaching 50% inhibition. [Note: Exact percentages are not reported.] None of the compounds tested attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa viability. In conclusion, several novel, as well as known, compounds were successfully isolated from helichrysum. The authors mention that variations between compounds in antimicrobial mechanisms may reflect compound structural differences, as well as efficacy for either Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. The data reported here suggest compound 2 as the most efficacious in all three antimicrobial assays. It is posited that compounds effective at both growth and biofilm inhibition may be worthy of further investigation as antibacterial therapies. One of the authors (Scognamiglio) acknowledged support from the L'Oréal UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) program "For Women in Science" through the 2012 National Fellowship "L'Oréal Italia per le Donne e la Scienza." —Amy C. Keller, PhD
PDF (Download) Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, Elaeagnaceae) Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Rosaceae) Insulin Glycemic Profile Date: 01-15-2018 HC# 121751-584 Mortensen MW, Spagner C, Cuparencu C, Astrup A, Raben A, Dragsted LO. Sea buckthorn decreases and delays insulin response and improves glycaemic profile following a sucrose-containing berry meal: a randomised, controlled, crossover study of Danish sea buckthorn and strawberries in overweight and obese male subjects. Eur J Nutr. October 11, 2017; [epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1550-8. Hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction are caused in part by frequent and repeated postprandial (after meal) hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). These conditions contribute to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and overweight/obesity. Foods with a low glycemic index, such as a variety of berries, may reduce postprandial glycemia, improve acute insulin secretion, and improve appetite control (due to fiber content). The new Nordic Diet (NND), recently developed, emphasizes more calories from plants, fewer calories from meat, and a greater intake of foods from the sea, lakes, and wild countryside. In particular, locally grown or wild berries native to the Nordic countries, especially strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Rosaceae) fruit and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, Elaeagnaceae) fruit, are an important flavor constituent of the NND. The energy density of sea buckthorn is approximately twice that of strawberry, primarily due to a high content of unsaturated fatty acids; the amount of fiber in sea buckthorn is 3 times higher than in strawberry. The NND is associated with weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Other studies have reported inconclusive results regarding the effect of berries, strawberry, and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycemia and insulin levels. However, according to the authors, Nordic berries have not been evaluated. Hence, the purpose of this randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, 3-way crossover study was to evaluate the effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn grown in Denmark on postprandial glycemia and insulin levels in otherwise healthy overweight or obese men. Healthy men (n = 20; mean age, 28.2 ± 7.3 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-35 kg/m2 were recruited via social media in Copenhagen, Denmark. Excluded subjects had "clinical conditions" or obesity surgery, had chronic/frequent medication use, recently (< 3 months) donated blood, participated in other human intervention studies, participated in strenuous physical activity > 10 h/week, habitually consumed > 14 alcoholic drinks/week, acknowledged a history of present or past drug abuse, or were smokers. Subjects received the following 3 treatments: 120 mL of water and (1) 150 g sea buckthorn (picked from wild habitats in Northern Jutland, Denmark) plus 35 g sucrose made into a smoothie, (2) 150 g strawberries (delivered by Rokkedyssegård; Værløse, Denmark) plus 35 g sucrose made into a smoothie, and (3) a non-berry control smoothie containing 35 g sucrose and 8.8 g fructose. The nutritional content was adjusted so that all 3 treatments had similar total energy, protein, and fat. There was a 2-day washout between each treatment where subjects ate an ad libitum meal of pre-prepared toast with cheese and ham and 300 mL water. For the ad libitum meal, subjects were instructed to eat until they were pleasantly satiated and to ingest all the water; the ad libitum meal was prepared exactly the same each time, and the food was weighed before and after consumption to assess energy intake. At baseline, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after consuming the test meal, blood was drawn for glucose and insulin analysis; a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire also was administered at each of these time points to measure subjective appetite. A VAS questionnaire was also given 140 min after the ad libitum meal. A VAS questionnaire concerning meal perception (i.e., taste, appearance, etc.) was given after all meals. Subjects were instructed to avoid berries throughout the study period and to avoid alcohol, coffee (Coffea spp., Rubiaceae), medications, and strenuous physical activity 2 days prior to the test days. Two subjects dropped out of the study citing lack of time. Overall, the subjects had a BMI of 25.7 to 34.4 kg/m2 (mean, 29.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2) and healthy blood pressure (mean systolic, 124.1 ± 5.9 mmHg; mean diastolic, 75.7 ± 5.5 mmHg). Fasting glucose, insulin, and body weight did not differ between visits. The glycemic profile (GP) (time in minutes where blood glucose concentration is > baseline concentration divided by the incremental peak value of blood glucose) was significantly different among treatments (P = 0.016). Sea buckthorn significantly improved GP compared with control (P = 0.0094). In contrast, GP was not significantly different between strawberry and control (P = 0.82). Sea buckthorn significantly lowered plasma insulin concentration by 39.6% at 30 min (P < 0.01) and by 16.5% at 45 min (P < 0.05), compared with control. In contrast, insulin concentration was not significantly different between strawberry and control (P > 0.05). The maximum increase in plasma insulin was significantly different among treatments (P = 0.002). The maximum increase in plasma insulin was significantly 23.6% lower for sea buckthorn compared to control (P < 0.01). In contrast, strawberry did not significantly affect the maximum increase in plasma insulin compared to control (P > 0.05). Meal sequence had no effect on any of the results. There were no significant differences among groups in the appetite parameters, except sea buckthorn increased the desire for something sweet (possibly because it was tart). Subjects preferred strawberry significantly more than the other treatments (P < 0.001), and sea buckthorn was preferred significantly more than the control treatment (P = 0.001 for scent and P < 0.05 for appearance). However, meal perception had no effect on subjective appetite. The authors conclude that sea buckthorn decreased and delayed the insulin response; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. Also, there was no effect of strawberry or sea buckthorn on postprandial plasma glucose concentrations in this population. The authors hypothesize that the results of this study may differ from other studies due to the preparation of the berries. In this study, the berries were frozen, defrosted, and pureed. Other studies used dried berries and crushed berries, which may have higher levels of secondary metabolites released from the seeds. Overall, the authors conclude that sea buckthorn may be useful for lowering meal insulin response. However, this was an acute study, so chronic effects must be evaluated to verify this effect. A limitation of the study is that there was no standardized meal the evening before each test, which could have affected glucose and insulin responses, as well as the appetite responses. Other limitations include the small sample size, lack of double-blinding, and that only men were included. The authors report no conflict of interest. The study was supported by the Nordea Foundation; Copenhagen, Denmark. —Heather S. Oliff, PhD
The Effect of Short-term Treatment with Fennel on Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
J Menopausal Med. 2017 Aug;23(2):124-130. doi: 10.6118/jmm.2017.23.2.124. Epub 2017 Aug 31. Ghazanfarpour M1, Amini E2, Khadivzadeh T2, Babakhanian M3, Nouri B4, Rakhshandeh H5, Afiat M6. Author information 1 Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, Nursing and Midwifery School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. 2 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. 3 Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. 4 Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. 5 Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. 6 Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Health Research Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Abstract OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to assess the effect of fennel on bone density. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which studied sixty eligible postmenopausal women, who were randomly assigned to fennel and placebo groups. Then, the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was utilized to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the spine, femoral neck, intertrochanter, and trochanter at the baseline and after three-month follow-up. RESULTS: The mean BMD and BMC at lumbar spine (P = 0.14, P = 0.504), total hip femoral (P = 0.427, P = 0.471), trochanter (P = 0.075, P = 0.07), intertrochanter, (P = 0.864, P = 0.932) and femoral neck (P = 0.439, P = 0.641) was not significantly different between the fennel and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study did not approve the effect of fennel on bone density in post-menopausal women. However, to gain deeper insights, further studies with longer durations and larger sample sizes are recommended. KEYWORDS: Bone density; Foeniculum; Postmenopause PMID: 28951861 PMCID: PMC5606910 DOI: 10.6118/jmm.2017.23.2.124 Free PMC Article
Medicinal Plants Used for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment in the Hauts Bassins Region of Burkina Faso
Medicines (Basel). 2017 May 19;4(2). pii: E32. doi: 10.3390/medicines4020032. Medicinal Plants Used for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment in the Hauts Bassins Region of Burkina Faso. Kinda PT1, Zerbo P2, Guenné S3, Compaoré M4, Ciobica A5, Kiendrebeogo M6. Author information 1 Laboratoire de Biochimie et Chimie Appliquées, Université Ouaga I-Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 PB 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso. firstname.lastname@example.org. 2 Laboratoire de Biologie et écologie végétale, Université Ouaga I-Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso. email@example.com. 3 Laboratoire de Biochimie et Chimie Appliquées, Université Ouaga I-Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 PB 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso. firstname.lastname@example.org. 4 Laboratoire de Biochimie et Chimie Appliquées, Université Ouaga I-Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 PB 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso. email@example.com. 5 "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi, Faculty of Biology, Department of Research, Carol I Avenue, No. 20A, Iasi 700505, Romania. firstname.lastname@example.org. 6 Laboratoire de Biochimie et Chimie Appliquées, Université Ouaga I-Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 PB 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso. email@example.com. Abstract Background: In Burkina Faso, phytotherapy is the main medical alternative used by populations to manage various diseases that affect the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to report medicinal plants with psychoactive properties used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in the Hauts Bassins region, in the western zone of Burkina Faso. Methods: Through an ethnobotanical survey using structured questionnaire, 53 traditional healers (TH) were interviewed about neuropsychiatric disorders, medicinal plants and medical practices used to treat them. The survey was carried out over a period of three months. Results: The results report 66 plant species used to treat neuropsychiatric pathologies. Roots (36.2%) and leaves (29%) were the main plant parts used. Alone or associated, these parts were used to prepare drugs using mainly the decoction and the trituration methods. Remedies were administered via drink, fumigation and external applications. Conclusions: It appears from this study a real knowledge of neuropsychiatric disorders in the traditional medicine of Hauts Bassins area. The therapeutic remedies suggested in this work are a real interest in the fight against psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the future, identified plants could be used for searching antipsychotic or neuroprotective compounds. KEYWORDS: Burkina Faso; Neuropsychiatry; phytotherapy; traditional healers PMID: 28930246 PMCID: PMC5590068 DOI: 10.3390/medicines4020032 Free PMC Article
Nat Prod Res. 2018 Jan 28:1-4. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1428601. [Epub ahead of print] Kirollos FN1, Elhawary SS1, Salama OM2, Elkhawas YA2. Author information 1 a Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants , Cairo , Egypt. 2 b Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Pharmaceutical Industries, Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants , Future University in Egypt , Cairo , Egypt. Abstract LC-ESI-MS/MS was used for a comprehensive characterisation of ethanol extract from the leaves of three Pistacia species. After optimisation of the method and the use of the negative ionisation mode, a total of 42 different compounds were identified, of which 22 were tentatively characterised in P. chinensis Bunge, 33 in P. khinjuk stocks and 25 in P. lentiscus L. leaves. Flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives were the most abundant identified compounds. LC-ESI-MS/MS revealed identification of 15, 18 and 6 not previously detected compounds in P. chinensis Bunge, P. khinjuk Stocks and P. lentiscus L., respectively. The three extracts were also tested for their cytotoxic activities against human PC3 prostate cancer, A549 lung cancer, MCF7 breast cancer and HepG2 liver cancer. Generally, all the extracts have a moderate cytotoxic activity against lung, breast and prostate cancer, with different IC50. However, only P. lentiscus L. showed moderate activity against liver cancer. KEYWORDS: Anacardiaceae; LC-ESI-MS/MS; Pistacia; cytotoxic activity PMID: 29376415 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1428601
Monday, 29 January 2018
Europa / Participant Portal notification Dear Coordinator, We regret to inform you that your above proposal has been rejected. The Rejection Letter is available on the proposal page at the Participant Portal. Log on to the Participant Portal > My Area > My Proposal(s -------------------- Not wasting any more time on this. In fact I stopped following MSCA on twitter last week. Hopefully my close to home option will work out. Evaluation Summary Report Evaluation Result Total score: 53.80% (Threshold: 70/100.00) Form information SCORING Scores must be in the range 0-5. Interpretation of the score: 0– The proposal fails to address the criterion or cannot be assessed due to missing or incomplete information. 1– Poor. The criterion is inadequately addressed, or there are serious inherent weaknesses. 2– Fair. The proposal broadly addresses the criterion, but there are significant weaknesses. 3– Good. The proposal addresses the criterion well, but a number of shortcomings are present. 4– Very good. The proposal addresses the criterion very well, but a small number of shortcomings are present. 5– Excellent. The proposal successfully addresses all relevant aspects of the criterion.Any shortcomings are minor. * - mandatory fields Criterion 1 - Excellence Score: 3.00 (Threshold: 0/5.00 , Weight: 50.00%) • Quality and credibility of the research/innovation action (level of novelty, appropriate consideration of inter/multidisciplinary and gender aspects) • Quality and appropriateness of the training and of the two way transfer of knowledge between the researcher and the host • Quality of the supervision and of the integration in the team/institution • Capacity of the researcher to reach or re-enforce a position of professional maturity/independence Strengths: - The proposal offers a highly innovative approach based on bridging biomedicine, pharmacology and cultural anthropology to explore traditional treatments of infertility from an interdisciplinary approach. - The approach is comprehensive, based on a method-mix combining historical sources with a survey of modern self-treatments and a participatory workshop with midwives. The proposal benefits from a multidimensional approach in collecting primary sources for analysis. 785421/CAM-ART-09/01/2018-16:45:35 1 / 3 Associated with document Ref. Ares(2018)137038 - 09/01/2018 - The complementary expertise of the applicant and the supervisor and host institution team is a strong advantage. - The supervisor and the host team are of high standing in the field, very experienced and very well positioned to host the proposed project. The hosts of the two secondments are excellently qualified in the respective fields to add significant value to the research to be undertaken. - There is good potential for international networking. - The researcher has excellent qualifications, rich experience and an impressive publication record with a high impact (inferred from the number of citations), which is an indicator of professional maturity. Weaknesses: - The research questions are not sufficiently elaborated upon. The state of art is one-sidedly presented and does not provide adequate justification of the project’s ambitions. - While gender is an important parameter of the action, its significance is explored only in terms of female fertility. - Some of the research tools (literature review, participatory workshop) are of obvious relevance, while others (survey, interviews) are not defended in the proposal and their value remains dubious. For instance, interviews are repeatedly mentioned but the project does not provide appropriate details on who would be interviewed and how the interviews would contribute to the research. - The proposal does not provide sufficient information about knowledge transfer from the researcher to the host institution. - The list of medical training courses is too long and unfocused, seriously undermining the credibility of the training component. The inclusion of transferable skills courses is also not realistically justified. - While the supervisor's experience and achievements are described in abundant detail, the proposal offers only limited information on specific arrangements and measures to integrate the applicant into the host team. - There is no clear reference to measurable skills or experience that will contribute to the professional development of the researcher. Criterion 2 - Impact Score: 2.90 (Threshold: 0/5.00 , Weight: 30.00%) • Enhancing the potential and future career prospects of the researcher • Quality of the proposed measures to exploit and disseminate the action results • Quality of the proposed measures to communicate the action activities to different target audiences Strengths: - The dissemination plan is included in the Gantt chart. The choice of high-profile scientific forums and journals as dissemination outlets is positive. - The proposal presents a diverse communication plan for outreach beyond the academia. The researcher provides a viable strategy of public engagement to introduce the research results to non-experts. Weaknesses: - The proposal lacks a precise reference to planned academic and non-academic activities which are expected to enhance the researcher’s skills. It is not clear which new techniques and methodologies the researcher will acquire during this project. - The potential and future career prospects of the researcher are described generally, without a detailed analysis of the expected impact. - With a view to the broad interdisciplinary approach of the project, it is a shortcoming that the proposal does not sufficiently specify how the dissemination outputs would be tailored to different types of specialised audiences. Criterion 3 - implementation Score: 1.60 (Threshold: 0/5.00 , Weight: 20.00%) • Coherence and effectiveness of the work plan • Appropriateness of the allocation of tasks and resources • Appropriateness of the management structure and procedures, including risk management • Appropriateness of the institutional environment (infrastructure) Strengths: - The secondments are well planned from the point of view of the objectives and the implementation. - The amount of time in person-months needed for some of the planned activities is carefully estimated and seems appropriate. Weaknesses: - The proposal does not provide a clear list of deliverables and a smooth plan of implementation in research, training and outcomes. The logic of the work plan is unclear, with most of the research activities grouped together into an untitled work package. - The Gantt chart is incongruous with the work plan and incomplete. A number of activities and deliverables mentioned in the text are missing from the Gantt chart. - The timing of the activities is unbalanced, with considerable overlapping within certain months. - Management structures and procedures, including risk management, are inadequately addressed within the page limit. - Institutional environment/infrastructure is not addressed within the page limit of the proposal. Scope of the proposal Status: Yes Comments (in case the proposal is out of scope) Not provided Operational Capacity Status: Operational Capacity: Yes If No, please list the concerned partner(s), the reasons for the rejection, and the requested amount. Not provided Use of human embryonic stem cells (hESC)
Sunday, 28 January 2018
The use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients in routine care and the risk of interactions
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology pp 1–7 | Cite as Authors Authors and affiliations Rachel FirkinsHannah EisfeldChristina KeinkiJens BuentzelAndreas HochhausThorsten SchmidtJutta HuebnerEmail author Klinik für Innere Medizin II, Hämatologie und Internistische OnkologieUniversitätsklinikum JenaJenaGermany 2.Südharz Klinikum Nordhausen, Klinik für HNO-Erkrankungen, Kopf-Hals-Chirurgie, Interdisziplinäre PalliativstationNordhausenGermany 3.Krebszentrum Nord, CCCUniversitätsklinikum Schleswig-HolsteinKielGermany Original Article – Cancer Research First Online: 22 January 2018 Abstract Background Patients suffering from cancer often make use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Only few data exist on the prevalence and clinical significance of interactions of a biological CAM method and conventional drugs. Methods From February 2014 to March 2016, consecutive patients from five oncological practices in Germany were asked to fulfill a standardized questionnaire regarding use of CAM. Data on diagnosis, date of first diagnosis, ECOG and the past and current treatment were derived from the patients’ files. Interactions were evaluated by systematically using a database on potential interactions. Results From 1000 patients asked to participate, we received a total of 720 questionnaires of which 711 were completed and eligible for evaluation. 29% of the patients reported any CAM usage. Women showed a significantly higher use of CAM with 35.6 versus 23.6% of men. For 54.9% of CAM users (15.9% of all patients), we found a combination of conventional drugs and biological based CAM methods with a risk for interactions. Vitamins A, C and E were the most frequently used CAM substances in these cases (39.3%), followed by herbs with 17.5%. Conclusion There was a risk of interactions between a biological CAM method and conventional drugs in 54.9% of the patients using CAM. To raise knowledge on interactions a better training for doctors with respect to CAM is strongly needed. Furthermore, patients’ awareness should also be raised and communication between physician and patient on the topic improved. Keywords Complementary and alternative medicine Interactions Cancer drugs Patient–physician communication Notes Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest The author declares that they have no conflict of interest. Ethical approval All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. 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Integr Cancer Ther 7(3):122–129 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar Wortmann JK, Bremer A, Eich H, Wortmann HK, Schuster A, Fühner J et al (2016) Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with cancer: a cross-sectional study at different points of cancer care. Med Oncol 33(7):78 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar Zeller T, Muenstedt K, Stoll C, Schweder J, Senf B, Ruckhaeberle E et al (2013) Potential interactions of complementary and alternative medicine with cancer therapy in outpatients with gynecological cancer in a comprehensive cancer center. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 139(3):357–365 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar Copyright information © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
Issue Cover Volume 31 Issue 1 February 2018 Thuy Linh Nguyen , Childbirth, Maternity and Medical Pluralism in French Colonial Vietnam, 1880–1945 , Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2016. Pp. 254. £80. ISBN 978 1 5804 6568 7. Claire Edington Social History of Medicine, Volume 31, Issue 1, 1 February 2018, Pages 191–192, https://doi.org/10.1093/shm/hkx084 Published: 21 November 2017 The history of childbirth provides unique insights into the interaction between medical practices, cultural meanings and religious beliefs. It brings both state and non-state actors into the intimate space of the family home. It also addresses a domain of knowledge traditionally controlled by women. In Childbirth, Maternity and Medical Pluralism in French Colonial Vietnam, 1880–1945, Thuy Linh Nguyen brings together these different strands to examine the transformation of birthing and childcare practices in French colonial Vietnam and the pluralist system that emerged at the intersection of French and Vietnamese medical traditions. Building on the insights of Nancy Rose Hunt in her pioneering work on the Belgian Congo, Nguyen understands the gradual medicalisation of childbirth in Vietnam not through the prism of Western priorities and policy.
J. C. McKeown, A Cabinet of Ancient Medical Curiosities: Strange Tales and Surprising Facts from the Healing Arts of Greece and Rome
J. C. McKeown , A Cabinet of Ancient Medical Curiosities: Strange Tales and Surprising Facts from the Healing Arts of Greece and Rome , New York: Oxford University Press, 2017. Pp. 288. £12.99. ISBN 978 0 1906 1043 2. Patricia Baker Social History of Medicine, Volume 31, Issue 1, 1 February 2018, Pages 177–178, https://doi.org/10.1093/shm/hkx087 Published: 27 October 2017 Cite Permissions Share Privacy Badger has replaced this AddThis button. A comment found in the Bibliotheca, a work by the ninth-century Patriarch of Constantinople, Photius, about Galen’s volume on Medical Schools, is printed on the back slipcover of McKeown’s reference collection on Greco-Roman medicine. It states that Galen’s work ‘should certainly be read before all other medical texts … even though the author tends to overload his writings with irrelevancies and digressions’. My assessment of McKeown’s work corresponds with Photius’ former statement because the volume makes an excellent introduction to ancient medicine. It familiarises students and scholars to the subject through a selection of literary excerpts that demonstrate the seemingly strange and unusual beliefs about the body, health and medical treatments that were held at the time. Although the majority of selections presented in the volume are taken... Issue Section: Book Reviews © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for the Social History of Medicine.
Roy Porter Student Prize Essay, Professional Entrepreneurs: Women Veterinary Surgeons as Small Business Owners in Interwar Britain
Julie Hipperson Social History of Medicine, Volume 31, Issue 1, 1 February 2018, Pages 122–139, https://doi.org/10.1093/shm/hkx058 Published: 23 August 2017 Cite Permissions Share Privacy Badger has replaced this AddThis button. Summary Although a recent resurgence in interest in female entrepreneurship has focused attention on working ‘on their own account’, the artificial distinction made between professional women and women in business has had the effect of segregating rather than integrating research findings. This article focuses on the first cohort of women to qualify as veterinary surgeons in interwar Britain to challenge the assumption that moving beyond the experience of professional women is the only way to bring new insights into women in business. It examines the construction and contestation of the image and role of the female veterinary surgeon in the two decades after they were first able to qualify in 1919, and the experience of women running their own veterinary businesses. It concludes that in a profession with high levels of self-employment, women’s identities were defined to a greater degree by their business activities than their professional status. Issue Section: Original Articles © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for the Social History of Medicine.
23/01/2018 AMANDA HERBERT Brian Cummings http://recipes.hypotheses.org/ “The fower quarters of the yeare: Autumne,” (London, 1643) ART 232- 608.3, Folger Shakespeare Library. Ars longa, vita brevis, as you hear every day in the tearoom at the Folger Shakespeare Library. This Christmas at the Folger I made a discovery which made me feel young: Erasmus’s favourite wine! The thought had been with me since I heard a disputation at the British Academy, years ago, between Eamon Duffy and Diarmaid MacCulloch. All of a sudden, for once they agreed on something: that the Reformation was essentially a quarrel between beer-drinkers and wine-drinkers. You will be glad to know that the new Encyclopaedia of Martin Luther and the Reformation (New York, 2017) has a learned entry on Beer. And as Duffy and MacCulloch wound down into post-symposium revelries, already an Erasmian colloquium was forming in my mind, on whether Erasmus was a beer-drinker or a wine-drinker. After all, he was born in Holland, one of the great beer-drinking countries of the world, which even invented the world’s best drinking snack, bitterballen, precisely to go with monastic ales. Frans Huys, Magnus ille Erasmus Roterodamus... (n.d.) ART Vol. a11 no.105, Folger Shakespeare Library. Frans Huys, Magnus ille Erasmus Roterodamus… (n.d.) ART Vol. a11 no.105, Folger Shakespeare Library. [Guide gastronomique : De Jopenkerk, a converted church, Haarlem, NL – try “Malle Babbe”] On the other hand, I felt sure that Erasmus preferred wine, just as, despite espousing reform, and flirting with the young Luther, he remained a life-long Catholic. Familiaria colloquia (1522) – where else – provides a definitive answer. It comes in the Convivium profanum, a dialogue between a variety of characters (chiefly Augustinus, Christianus, and Erasmius), who vie with each other in gluttony, and in describing foods and wines beloved of gourmets (or else people who just eat a lot). There are jokes at the expense of Stoics and other moralists, and worst of all, Diogenes the Cynic, who lived off raw vegetables and clear water. Kale, quinoa, and mesclun, are definitely off the menu at this particular feast. Desiderius Erasmus, Familiarium colloquiorum... (Basil, 1533) 189- 464q, Folger Shakespeare Library. Desiderius Erasmus, Familiarium colloquiorum… (Basil, 1533) 189- 464q, Folger Shakespeare Library. Image courtesy of the author. [Guide gastronomique : sweetgreen, 221, Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC, all-day kale] At this point, Christianus asks what his friend likes to drink with a meal: does he prefer red or white (rubrum an candidum)? Augustinus replies: “The colour’s no hindrance provided the taste’s agreeable” (a classic wino’s quip). But something else is going on: how do we use words to describe sensory things? Verbal discrimination is deliberately elided by Erasmus into distinctions of taste, since food – and especially wine – is famously hard to put into apt words, at least without resorting to absurd metaphor. Christianus comments: “Yet there are famous gourmets who deny that wine deserves approval unless it pleases the four senses: the eyes by its colour, the nostrils by its fragrance, the palate by its taste, the ears by its name and fame.” Now he drops his foodie bombshell: Tantum, ut multi non stupidi palati vehementer probarint villum Louanio vernaculum quum crederent, esse Belnense. Many people with “not stupid palates” can’t tell a wine from Louvain from one of Beaune in Burgundy. Desiderius Erasmus, Familiarium colloquiorum... (Basil, 1533) 189- 464q, Folger Shakespeare Library. Desiderius Erasmus, Familiarium colloquiorum… (Basil, 1533) 189- 464q, Folger Shakespeare Library. Image courtesy of the author. This is the joke that got me salivating. At first I thought it was a beer gag: because in Louvain these days you will not find Belgian wine (the very idea is an oxymoron) but plenty of Belgian beer, including Bourgogne de Flandres (which sounds like an Erasmian trope). But in the fifteenth century, the Dukes of Burgundy planted vines in their territories at Brussels, Namur, Mons, and Louvain. Still, the thought brings a sneer to the nose of Erasmus: who could make such a terrible mistake? And there is a theological joke, too: Louvain is home to the nastiest scholastics. [Guide gastronomique : Le troubadour, Louvain (nr. KU) – mussels with Bourgogne de Flandres] So, is Beaune Erasmus’s favourite wine? Here I digress into a visite du vignoble via P.S. Allen’s great edition of Erasmus’s letters. Epistola 1342 to Marcus Laurinus is one of the most extraordinary in the 3000 letters that survive. Half of it is a defence of his position on the Luther affair, which was convulsing Europe; the other half is an itinerary of his odyssey around Europe in 1521, especially an uncomfortable stay in Constance and a long convalescence in Basel. In Constance he was very ill with fever and the gallstone, and nearly died (before we feel too sorry, remember that Erasmus is always nearly dying of something). But on return to Basel he is sent a half-cask of red Burgundy by Nikolaus von Diesbach, dean and bishop-designate. Erasmus makes a miraculous recovery: he felt reborn, renatus in alium hominem. Is this a sly dig at Luther, in a letter which is all about Luther’s evangelical doctrines, and how they are worse than any disease? Especially when he now claims that red Burgundy has had a direct medicinal benefit observed by the doctors, who say that his stone has disappeared. Happy is the name of Burgundy, he raptures: O felicem vel hoc nomine Burgundiam! In another letter he calls the wine a deus ex machina. He might move to France tomorrow, except that with fresh supplies he will not need to, as he reports in Ep. 1510, a year later: “I have done a deal with the vintner for three half-casks, one of old wine and two of new”. [Guide gastronomique : Domaine Albert Morot, négociant at Ave. Jaffelin, Beaune: several 1ercrus] Can we locate what particular wine might have brought such magical results? Here we encounter a great aporia in epicurean history, which is that the technological revolutions of the eighteenth century – in bottling and especially in corks – mean that we judge wine by completely different standards. Beaune, with its beautiful coloured rooftops, is now the commercial centre of a multi-million-Euro industry. Wine is a science (oenology, a word Erasmus surely must have invented) which went from France to California and back again, transforming an everyday drink into the wine-tasting superlatives of today. Red Burgundy, some connoisseurs say, has typical aromas of horseshit [sic] and blackberry jam. What would Erasmus have made of that? I think he would have loved it, and cited it in De copia, his great book which makes a philosophical marriage between all the possible words, and all possible things in the world. But what did he taste? There are three references in the letters to a wine from Beaune, which seems to be the one he liked best; it “was of a most agreeable colour – you might call it ruby-red”; the taste was “neither sweet nor dry”, “neither cold nor fiery”, and so kind to the digestion that “it did very little harm” – even when taken in quantity. Thomas Trevilian, Detail of grapes from the Trevelyon Miscellany (1608), V.b.232, Folger Shakespeare Library. Thomas Trevilian, Detail of grapes from the Trevelyon Miscellany (1608), V.b.232, Folger Shakespeare Library. [Guide gastronomique : Chez Jeannette, Fixin, boeuf bourgignon; Beaune 1ercru «Les Cent Vignes»] The mythology of French wine is based on a holy trinity of values: the grape; the vintage; and most mystical of all, le terroir. This untranslateable word means something like “all the best wine comes from France”. White wine in Burgundy is now dominated by the Chardonnay grape, which in unoaked form is still perhaps the most opulently elegant white in the world; but in Erasmus’s time almost certainly the whites of Burgundy were made from the Fromenteau grape, perhaps equivalent to Pinot Gris. As for reds, on the other hand, we have documentation: on 6 August 1395, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, made the political decision of his life in banning the “vile and disloyal Gamay”, and giving precedence to the Noirien, a less high-yielding grape. This is the ancestor of the modern Pinot Noir, that most quixotic and awkward of grapes. For those who love it, it is the cutest grape in history, but it is very hard to grow in abundance, and likes poor soil, cool climates, and fairly steep hills. Since these are also the conditions that wipe out harvests in bad years, the Pinot Noir is a cruel mistress, although it has found renewed success in chillier areas such as Oregon, New Zealand, and Alpine Italy, as well as its native Burgundy. However, good red Burgundy also needs a bit of age in the bottle to develop its flavours, and nothing about wine storage in Erasmus’s time was much suited to ageing. He describes liking wine with a bit of age (perhaps two years), but after four he says most of the flavour has disappeared. We are left with terroir. The intensity of the modern wine trade is such that individual parcels of land perhaps 30 metres wide are prized as having such a particularity of flavour that they are considered quite distinct from others only a hundred metres away. It is possible that for Erasmus “Beaune” meant nothing like that. Belnense might be a generic name for wine of the whole region, somewhat like “Bordeaux” or “Sonoma”. But it is also possible that Erasmus does mean the name of this particular village. So could we find his wine on a map? It got me thinking, and indeed googling, looking at wine maps, which have always given me a special kind of pleasure. There is something cartographically exciting about a wine map: all of those tiny parcels of land, and weird names, coloured in crimson for red wine, or yellow-green for white; in the case of Burgundy, with darker shading, the better the wine. So I googled this. Screen capture courtesy of https://burgmap.com/regions/beaune/. Screen capture courtesy of https://burgmap.com/regions/beaune/. And it got me thinking: if any of these vineyards are really old, they will be close to the town but not part of it; for instance, those near the cemetery. The cemetery will always have been in the same place. And here I was excited, because there on the map, at just that point, were some vineyards I knew the names of: “Toussaints”, “les Bressandes”, “les Cent Vignes”. Not really expensive wines – but of a price which a father, shall we say my own father, might buy his son for his 40th birthday. The last bottle from my father's gift. Image courtesy of the author. The last bottle from my father’s gift. Image courtesy of the author. For here the strands of my story had become personal. My father, who was a complicated man, was always happiest when opening a bottle of red Burgundy with his own family. He discovered Burgundy, place and wine, when I was in my teens. We used to stay at an unpretentious hotel in one of the smaller villages, Fixin – Beaune even then was hopelessly expensive and chic. The hôtel was called (as almost all nice Logis de France are, at least in the memory) Chez Jeannette, and we would stay for a week, and each night my father would buy a slightly better wine. He wasn’t buying the most expensive stuff, and Burgundy was then still quite a backwater for most travellers, nothing like the Côte d’Azur. In memory of these trips, when I was 40, he did indeed buy me 12 bottles of Beaune, “Les Cent Vignes”, made by Albert Morot, an extremely traditional negociant. How did these vineyards get such beautiful names? Originally, the story goes, it was “Sans Vignes”, because no wine was made there; then they planted vines and changed the name. “Les Bressandes” is either named after the 13th century canon, Johannis Bressand – or else after the women of Bresse. “Les Marconnets” perhaps refers to an ancient gallic tribe conquered by the Romans. [Guide gastronomique : Le Diplomate, 14th St, NW, DC, Beaune 2006 Domaine Maillard.] Such etymologies are very Erasmian. It would be nice to believe in an Erasmian vineyard. It is not impossible – for it was the Benedictines from Cluny who first began cultivating wines on a large scale, and the Cistercians who first walled off individual vineyards and prized the difference between small parcels of terroir. They were doing this in the 14th century. But the oldest map of Burgundian wine, to my knowledge, is 18th century. It offers nothing at this level of detail, consisting of a range of small mountains and the names of the main villages. Claude Arnoux, "Dissertation sur la situation de la Bourgogne..." (London, 1728). Image courtesy of the Bibliothèque municipale de Dijon. Claude Arnoux, “Dissertation sur la situation de la Bourgogne…” (London, 1728). Image courtesy of the Bibliothèque municipale de Dijon. It is appended to the first ever book on Burgundy, by Claude Arnoux: Dissertation sur la situation de la Bourgogne, et sur les vins qu’elle produit (1728). He mentions four vineyards in Beaune, St Desiré, la Montée, les Grèves, and la Fontaine de Marconney. Traces of all these can still be found – the last is now Les Marconnets, above. Arnoux favours even more the wines of Volnet (now Volnay) and Pommard. Wines from Beaune, he says, much as Erasmus does, do not do well after two years of age. Volnay, he says, has the colour of l’oeil de perdrix – the eye of a partridge – and goes on: “il est plein de feu, de montant, & de legereté; il est presque tout esprit” (“it is full of fire, of flavour, and of lightness; it is almost all spirit”). Just like in Erasmus, Arnoux presents us with the problem of copia: how to represent things in words. Word is added to word, to express through variety of language the abundance of matter. Wine, like language, is a cornucopia. And so, as we continue to try, and fail, to give expression to sense perception through metaphor, there is nothing for it but to open another bottle, and wonder if it might be, as for Erasmus, a cure for life’s ills or even a deus ex machina. [According to the “Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020,” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture, moderate drinking is up to 1 drink per day for women and up to 2 drinks per day for men.] Brian Cummings FBA is Anniversary Professor at the University of York in the Department of English and Related Literature. His books include Mortal Thoughts: Religion, Secularity & Identity in Shakespeare and Early Modern Culture (OUP, 2013), and an edition of The Book of Common Prayer: the Texts of 1549, 1559, and 1662, which appeared in Oxford Worlds Classics in 2013. In 2012 he gave the Clarendon Lectures at Oxford University on ‘Bibliophobia’, and in 2014 the Shakespeare Birthday Lecture at the Folger Library, coinciding with a NEH-sponsored conference on Shakespeare’s Biography. With Alexandra Walsham (Cambridge) he is leading the project “Remembering the Reformation”, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council from 2016 to 2019. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.
Saturday, 27 January 2018
Medicinal Plant Materials in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Neurobiological Aspects. Gołyszny MJ, Obuchowicz E.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2018 Jan 15. pii: AT5645. [Epub ahead of print] Medicinal Plant Materials in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Neurobiological Aspects. Gołyszny MJ, Obuchowicz E. Abstract Context • Pathological anxiety, which affects approximately one-third of the world population, is an inadequate, irrational reaction of an organism to the environment and to a potential threat. Despite advancements in pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders, further studies are still necessary to search for new substances possessing the desired anxiolytic effects, with as few unwanted effects as possible. Objective • This study intended to examine the characteristics of medicinal plant materials that exhibit anxiolytic properties, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms of action of their active ingredients on the systems involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety. Design • The research team performed a review of the literature, searching well-known online scientific databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink. The team searched for the newest research from various regions of the world. Setting • The study was done in the Medical University of Silesia (Katowice, Poland). Results • The medicinal plant materials presented in the current article undoubtedly influence the central nervous system. Our analysis showed that their mechanism of action is very complicated and appropriately still enigmatic. Among them, V officinalis represents the most thoroughly investigated medicinal plant material that produces anxiolytic, sedative effects. However, extracts of other medicinal plants may also emerge as helpful in the treatment of fear and anxiety and in the prophylaxis of those disorders. Conclusions • The current review discusses the most recent data on medicinal plant materials that are effective as anxiolytic treatments, with special emphasis on the neurobiological mechanisms of action of their active ingredients. The research team hopes that the information may open up new directions in the search for drugs capable of enhancing the existing therapy.
Neoboutonia melleri var velutina Prain: in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous stem bark extract on acute hepatitis models
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Jan 22;18(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2091-2. Neoboutonia melleri var velutina Prain: in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous stem bark extract on acute hepatitis models. Endougou Effa AM1,2,3,4, Gantier E5,6, Hennebelle T7, Roumy V7, Rivière C7, Dimo T8, Kamtchouing P8, Desreumaux P5,6,9, Dubuquoy L5,6. Author information 1 Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000, Lille, France. firstname.lastname@example.org. 2 Inserm U995, 4e étage Est, Faculté de Médecine - Pôle Recherche, Place Verdun, F-59045, Lille, France. email@example.com. 3 Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Yaoundé I, BP, 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. firstname.lastname@example.org. 4 Département de Biologie des Organismes Animaux, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Douala, BP, 24157, Douala, Cameroon. email@example.com. 5 Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000, Lille, France. 6 Inserm U995, 4e étage Est, Faculté de Médecine - Pôle Recherche, Place Verdun, F-59045, Lille, France. 7 Laboratoire de pharmacognosie, EA 4481(GRIIOT), Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Pharmacie, F-59006, Lille, France. 8 Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Yaoundé I, BP, 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. 9 CHU Lille, Service des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif et de la Nutrition, Hôpital Claude Huriez, F-59037, Lille, France. Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatitis is a liver inflammation caused by different agents and remains a public health problem worldwide. Medicinal plants are an important source of new molecules being considered for treatment of this disease. Our work aims at evaluating the hepatoprotective properties of Neoboutonia velutina, a Cameroonian medicinal plant. METHODS: The aqueous extract has been prepared using phytochemical methods. HepG2 cells were used to assess anti-inflammatory properties of the extract at different concentrations. Acute hepatitis models (Carbon tetrachloride and Concanavalin A) were performed in mice receiving or not receiving, different extract doses by gavage. Liver injury was assessed using histology, transaminases and pro-inflammatory markers. Extract antioxidant and radical scavenging capacities were evaluated. RESULTS: The extract led to a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in vitro and to a remarkable protection of mice from carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, as shown by a significant decrease in dose-dependent transaminases level. Upon extract treatment, inflammatory markers were significantly decreased and liver injuries were limited as well. In the Concanavalin A model, the extract displayed weak effects. CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account underlying mechanisms in both hepatitis models, we demonstrate the extract's radical scavenging capacity. Neoboutonia velutina displays a potent hepatoprotective effect mediated through radical scavenging properties. KEYWORDS: Acute hepatitis; Antioxidant; Neoboutonia melleri var. velutina Prain; Preventive treatment PMID: 29357846 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2091-2 Free full text https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-018-2091-2
Friday, 26 January 2018
Your article: Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada Lans, C., Turner, N., Khan, T., Brauer, G., Boepple, W. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine volume 3, issue , year 2007, pp. - has been cited in: On The Cover Weber, R.W. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology volume 104, issue 1, year 2010, pp. A4 -
Deadline approaching! Submit your organized session/workshop proposals to "Belém +30", XVI Congress of the International Society of Ethnobiology by January 31. Individual paper/poster submissions open February 20. The conference will take place August 7-10 in Belém do Pará, Brazil, 30 years after the 1st International Congress of Ethnobiology in Belém in 1988. The overall conference theme is “Belém +30”: The rights of indigenous and traditional peoples and the sustainable uses of biodiversity three decades after the Declaration of Belém Online submissions and more information https://www.ise2018belem.com Attached you’ll find a poster that you can share in your social networks and print out and pin up on your department bulletin boards. Help get the word out! I look forward to seeing many of you in Belem in August, Glenn Shepard
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Jul 1;187:293-301. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.055. Epub 2016 Apr 29. Drobnik J1. Author information 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, ul. Ostrogórska 30, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org. Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Historical medical sources can be still queried for forgotten cures and remedies. Traditional Chinese medicine has dealt with lues venerea (syphilis) since the Five Dynasties period (10th century). Chinese indigenous materia medica and remedies recorded, studied or imported by the Europeans can reveal known or quite unknown medicinal plants. The studied Jean Astruc's work is a published ethnopharmacological survey carried out in Beijing in the 1730s and it deserves a modern interpretation. AIM OF THE STUDY: This is the first proposal to identify historical Chinese medicinal plants listed in a scarcely known medical treatise De Morbis venereis… ('On venereal diseases…') by Jean Astruc from 1740. I searched for the current uses and position of the taxonomically identified herbal stock in both traditional Chinese and official medical knowledge, with special attention to syphilis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Chinese names of drugs and their botanical identities (originally expressed by means of pre-Linnaean polynomials, and now interpreted as accepted binomials) were independently cross-checked with younger till most recent taxonomical and ethnopharmacological sources. Plants and drugs identified this way were queried for their modern applications in traditional Chinese and official medicine with special attention to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other uses which are similar to the 18th-century understanding of venereology. RESULTS: For 24 items of medicinal stock, 34 medicinal plants have been identified or suspected: Acacia catechu, Achyranthes bidentata, Akebia quinata, Angelica dahurica, A. sinensis, Aquilaria sinensis, Aralia cordata, Aristolochia fangchi, Chaenomeles sinensis, Ch. speciosa, Clematis vitalba, Coix lacryma-jobi, Commiphora myrrha, Cydonia oblonga, Daemonorops draco, D. jenkinsiana, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Dryobalanops sumatrensis, Forsythia suspensa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lonicera confusa, L. hypoglauca, L. japonica, Ligusticum striatum (=L. chuanxiong), Piper kadsura, Pterocarpus officinalis, Saposhnikovia divaricata, Sassafras tzumu, Smilax china, S. glabra, Stephania tetrandra, Styphnolobium japonicum, Trichosanthes japonica, T. kirilowii; China wax is also mentioned. Out of them, only Lonicera japonica is being used in China in late syphilis, Achyranthes bidentata in gonorrhoea, and Dictamnus dasycarpus in gynaecological problems. In the Astruc's study, 3 medicinal plant species and 5 further plant genera are correctly determined; other plant parts were misidentified. CONCLUSIONS: Antisyphilitic actions ascribed to the Chinese medical formulas and their constituents studied by Astruc, seem to have come from Hg or As compounds rather than from vegetative materia medica. The formulas contained only one species still known in TCM as a remedy for syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: 18th Century; Antisyphilitic action; China; De Jussieu; Plants; Syphilis PMID: 27132716 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.055 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Thursday, 25 January 2018
Helichrysum (Immortelle; Helichrysum italicum, Asteraceae) Lab Analysis Date: 01-15-2018 HC# 061762-584 Re: Phytochemical and Antibacterial Study of Helichrysum Extract D'Abrosca B, Buommino E, Caputo P, et al. Phytochemical study of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don: spectroscopic elucidation of unusual amino-phlorogucinols [sic] and antimicrobial assessment of secondary metabolites from medium-polar extract. Phytochemistry. December 2016;132:86-94. Several species of infectious bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, can form adherent layers on surfaces known as a biofilm. A biofilm formation may render antibiotics unable to attenuate infection. Helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum, Asteraceae) is used traditionally in combating inflammation and infection, and compounds such as phloroglucinols and their derivatives have been shown to have antibacterial activity. This basic research study isolated three novel amino-phloroglucinol-derivative compounds, and along with 17 other known compounds, tested their antimicrobial activity in assays measuring bacterial growth and biofilm inhibition. Plant material was collected in the Nature Reserve of Caserta, Italy, with a voucher stored in the herbarium at the Second University of Naples; Caserta, Italy. Leaves and stems were separated, dried, and extracted with solvent partitioning. Ultraviolet (UV) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, as well as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), were used to identify the compounds. Antimicrobial assays were done using S. epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with positive controls, tobramycin and vancomycin, to gauge the activity. Bacteria viability was measured as percent reduction in growth and growth inhibition after zero, four, eight, 16, and 24 hours of incubation with helichrysum extract dilutions. Biofilm impact was determined by incubating plant extracts with bacteria and measuring biofilm formation. Three novel amino-phloroglucinol derivatives and 17 previously reported compounds were isolated. In addition to phloroglucinols, compounds included acetophenone derivatives, with known compounds occurring in sandy everlasting (H. arenarium), imphepho (H. odoratissimum), many stem cudweed (Gnaphalium polycaulon, Asteraceae), shan you gan (Acronychia pedunculata, Rutaceae), Billy Webb (Acosmium panamense, Fabaceae), sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, Rosaceae), Cenostigma macrophyllum (Fabaceae), and lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum, Zingiberaceae), among others. Four of the compounds, at 128 µg/ml, inhibited the growth of S. epidermidis at percentages ranging from 30.3 ± 0.03% to 77.0 ± 0.13%. In comparison, vancomycin was 100 ± 0.5% effective at the same concentration. These same compounds were tested for their time-kill efficacy against S. epidermidis. Compound 2, helichrytalicine B, demonstrated a better than 50% decrease in percentage of colony-forming units (CFU) after eight hours. Other compounds tested did not appreciably impact CFU despite inhibiting cell growth in the previous assay. In the biofilm assay, several compounds inhibited S. epidermidis biofilm formation, with compound 2 being the most efficacious (greater than 75% inhibition). Compound 9, an acetophenone derivative, and compound 20, ursolic acid, also were effective, approaching 50% inhibition. [Note: Exact percentages are not reported.] None of the compounds tested attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa viability. In conclusion, several novel, as well as known, compounds were successfully isolated from helichrysum. The authors mention that variations between compounds in antimicrobial mechanisms may reflect compound structural differences, as well as efficacy for either Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. The data reported here suggest compound 2 as the most efficacious in all three antimicrobial assays. It is posited that compounds effective at both growth and biofilm inhibition may be worthy of further investigation as antibacterial therapies. One of the authors (Scognamiglio) acknowledged support from the L'Oréal UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) program "For Women in Science" through the 2012 National Fellowship "L'Oréal Italia per le Donne e la Scienza." —Amy C. Keller, PhD
Re: Fluid Containing Hyaluronic Acid, Gotu Kola Extract, and Glycerin Improves Skin Hydration and Skin Barrier Function in Healthy Women
Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica, Apiaceae) Hyaluronic Acid Glycerine Skin Hydration Date: 01-15-2018 HC# 121731-584 Milani M, Sparavigna A. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2017;10:311-315. Skin hydration is essential for maintaining healthy skin. Some skin moisturizers, used both cosmetically and for skin disease, can negatively affect skin barrier function because they contain ingredients that are harmful for the skin. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan found in connective, epithelial, and neural tissue. The hydrating effects of HA and glycerin have been well documented, and HA is a naturally occurring component found in skin and connective tissue of the body. HA plays an important role in tissue repair in the skin and has an occlusive-forming mechanism of action. Abundant in flavonoids, amino acids, terpenoids, essential oils, and alkaloids, gotu kola (Centella asiatica, Apiaceae) extract (CAE) reportedly exhibits anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, and re-epithelialization properties. These authors conducted a single-center, randomized, controlled, intra-subject, assessor-blinded study to evaluate and compare the effects of Jaluronius CS (JCS) fluid (Difa Cooper SpA; Caronno Pertusella, Italy), a fluid containing the moisturizing agents HA (1%) and glycerin (5%), gotu kola meristem cell culture, and caprylic glycerides, on skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), a measure of skin barrier function and rate of water lost through the skin. Twenty female subjects, aged 40 ± 10 years, with healthy skin were enrolled in this 24-hour, intra-subject (right side versus left side), randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled study conducted at the Dermatologic Institute Dermig Milan in Milan, Italy. Subjects had normal skin absent from acute skin disease. Exclusion factors included dry skin (noted by skin hydration < 30 arbitrary units [AU]), significant skin disease, use of topical agents that altered skin integrity of upper arms, currently smoking, pregnancy or breastfeeding, reported use of systemic corticosteroids or cytostatic therapy within the last 30 days, and participating in any other ongoing studies. The primary outcomes were skin hydration and TEWL after a single application of JCS. Under standardized conditions in a temperature- and humidity-controlled room, the subjects underwent measures of skin hydration and TEWL on the volar surface of the forearms, with the use of a corneometer and vapometer, at baseline and at 1, 8, and 24 hours after JCS was applied. On 1 forearm of each subject, 0.4 mL JCS was applied to an area measuring 5 cm by 15 cm (about 2 inches by 6 inches). The other forearm served as the control. The tested area was stripped 40 times with 15 mm clear tape to assess TEWL and skin barrier function after skin damage. The assessors were blinded to the treatment. The authors report that skin hydration after 24 hours was 21% higher (P=0.001) in the JCS-treated area compared with the control area. A significant increase (P=0.0001) in skin hydration was observed in the JCS-treated areas at each time point compared with baseline as follows: 59% at 1 hour, 48% at 8 hours, and 29% at 24 hours. In the control areas, no significant changes in skin hydration occurred at any time point compared with baseline. The authors note that, because CAE inhibits HA's enzymatic activity as elucidated in previous studies, it could potentially prolong HA's hydrating duration of action when used concomitantly. After 24 hours, TEWL was lower in JCS-treated areas compared with the control areas (P=0.049). Compared with baseline, JCS significantly reduced post-stripping TEWL (P=0.001) as follows: by 52% at 1 hour, by 32% at 8 hours, and by 48% at 24 hours. TEWL was not reduced in the control areas at any time point compared with baseline. Present in both dermis and epidermis, HA plays a role in epidermal barrier function and hydration, hastens the re-epithelialization process, and exhibits free radical scavenging activity. "[T]he hydrating action of HA in this formulation [JCS] could be prolonged over the time, thanks to the inhibition activity of hyaluronidase present in the CAE explaining the long-lasting moisturizing effect we observed in this study," write the authors. The authors conclude that a "single daily application of JCS fluid containing HA, glycerin and CAE induced a long-lasting (up to 24 hours) hydrating and moisturizing effect, improving at the same time the skin barrier function in healthy women." The main limitation of this study was the fact that it was not a double-blinded study. The study was supported by Difa Cooper SpA, an Industrial Farmaceutica Cantabria company that provided the test product. Author M. Milani is Difa Cooper's medical director, and author A. Sparavigna received an unrestricted grant from Difa Cooper to conduct this trial. ―Shari Henson