Sunday, 30 July 2017
http://wbur.fm/2uMbGLc via @wburedify https://micromasters.mit.edu/dedp/ The MicroMasters credential in Data, Economics, and Development Policy equips learners with the practical skills and theoretical knowledge to tackle some of the most pressing challenges facing developing countries and the world’s poor. Through a series of five online courses and in-person exams learners will gain a strong foundation in microeconomics, development economics, probability and statistics, and engage with cutting-edge research in the field. The program is unique in its focus on the practicalities of running randomized evaluations to assess the effectiveness of social programs and its emphasis on hands-on skills in data analysis. The program is co-designed and run by MIT’s Department of Economics and the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), a global leader in conducting randomized evaluations to test and improve the effectiveness of programs aimed at reducing poverty. It is intended for learners who are interested in building a full set of tools and skills required for data analysis in the social sciences, understanding the problems facing world’s poor, and learning how to design and evaluate social policies that strive to solve them. Learners who successfully complete the five MicroMasters courses and their corresponding in-person exams will be eligible to apply to MIT’s new blended Master program in Data, Economics, and Development Policy. If accepted, students will earn MIT credit for the MicroMasters courses, and will be able to pursue an accelerated on-campus Master’s degree at MIT. How the DEDP MicroMasters works dedp-hiw1.png Take five online courses on edX. dedp-hiw2.png Pass a proctored exam for each course at testing facilities around the world. dedp-hiw3.png Earn a MicroMasters credential from MITx! dedp-hiw4.png On completion, you may apply to the Master’s program at MIT! Pricing The cost of courses in this program varies depending on your ability to pay. You can start by auditing classes for free and upgrade at a later point. Learn more about course pricing. Pricing_table Who should enroll? Policymakers and practitioners from governments, NGOs, international aid agencies, foundations, and other entities in the development sector Academics and evaluators looking to re-tool and apply data-driven perspectives to social and development programs Students interested in pursuing admissions to graduate programs in development economics, public policy, political science, or related fields Social entrepreneurs, managers and researchers in the development sector What you will learn To identify and analyze the root causes of underdevelopment using principles of economics To interpret the findings of empirical research that evaluates the effectiveness of anti-poverty strategies, policies, and interventions Practical knowledge on how to design and implement rigorous randomized evaluations and other econometric methods of evaluating policies and programs Tools of comparative cost-effectiveness analysis for informed policy-making Fundamentals of microeconomics, development economics, probability, and statistics Hands-on skills in data analysis using the R programming language
Mathew James Crawford, The Andean Wonder Drug. Cinchona Bark and Imperial Science in the Spanish Atlantic, 1630–1800
The Andean Wonder Drug Cinchona Bark and Imperial Science in the Spanish Atlantic, 1630–1800 Crawford, Matthew James In the eighteenth century, malaria was a prevalent and deadly disease, and the only effective treatment was found in the Andean forests of Spanish America: a medicinal bark harvested from cinchona trees that would later give rise to the antimalarial drug quinine. The Andean Wonder Drug uses the story of cinchona bark to demonstrate how the imperial politics of knowledge in the Spanish Atlantic ultimately undermined efforts to transform European science into a tool of empire. Kindle eBook Available Nook eBook Available Listen to Matthew Crawford's interview (podcast) about The Andean Wonder Drug on the New Books Network web site (scroll to bottom of the NBN page for the interview link) Matthew James Crawford is assistant professor of history at Kent State University. "Crawford's scholarly study adds to our knowledge of the history of cinchona and of the Enlightenment, but probably its greatest contribution is to document in detail the relationship between science and empire through showing how knowledge was actually acquired and disseminated on the ground within specific economic and political contexts. It is a model for future studies of this kind and a significant contribution to understanding the nature of early modern science."—Journal of the History of Medicine "Boldly challenges historiographical consensus. Crawford offers a sweeping counternarrative to any simplified account of the rise of scientific modernity as a tool of empire . . . Crawford's illuminating analysis shows that science and knowledge never worked as an outside, adjudicating arbiter." —History of Science “Excellently thought out and clearly written. An excellent book.”--Choice “Instead of taking at face value conventional claims that the natural sciences offered an objective method for evaluating natural resources, Matthew Crawford convincingly shows how scientific assessment actively produced political quarrels about who could determine the efficacy of new drugs and how. The Andean Wonder Drug is a model of colonial science studies that makes essential reading for historians of the Atlantic World and early modern science and medicine.”—James Delbourgo, Rutgers University “The Andean Wonder Drug is an illuminating study of the Spanish Empire’s efforts to secure monopoly control over the cinchona tree and its bark. The project ultimately failed, but Crawford’s deft analysis offers fresh perspectives into the intimate relationship between early modern sciences and empires, local and global knowledge, and the agents involved in the production of knowledge about quina within the early modern Spanish Atlantic World. At its core, this meticulous analysis is a studied reflection on the question of ‘who speaks for nature?’”—Susan Deans-Smith, University of Texas at Austin “Crawford’s expert account of the Spanish Empire’s struggles to control the cinchona tree and its bark reveals profound links between science, politics, and knowledge production in the Atlantic World. This book is an impressive contribution to existing scholarship on early modern science, early modern Spain, and Atlantic World history. Very interesting, well documented, and fun to read.”—Antonio Barrera, author of Experiencing Nature: The Spanish American Empire and the Early Scientific Revolution Complete Description Table of Contents History of Science Read a selection from this book
Cover For All of Humanity Mesoamerican and Colonial Medicine in Enlightenment Guatemala By Martha Few Smallpox, measles, and typhus. The scourges of lethal disease—as threatening in colonial Mesoamerica as in other parts of the world—called for widespread efforts and enlightened attitudes to Few's work adds to the public health historiography by revealing that medical pluralisms shaped health practices in Guatemala beginning in the late 1600s. She excels at breaking down complicated arguments into an approachable text that students will appreciate. —Choice Serves as an important contribution to the growing literature on medicine and science in the Spanish empire and an important corrective to this literature, which has tended to focus on imperial directives with less attention to local initiatives. —American Historical Review In this well-researched study, Martha Few presents a detailed account of the responses to smallpox, typhus, and other epidemic illnesses in colonial Guatemala. —Bulletin of the History of Medicine For All of Humanity serves as an important contribution to the growing literature on medicine and science in the Spanish empire and an important corrective to this literature, which has tended to focus on imperial directives with less attention to local initiatives. —American Historical Review Martha Few has opened a fresh window into the new knowledge of the Enlightenment as it filtered into the Americas and was impacted and nurtured by the findings of creole intellectuals and native healers as they faced the challenges of epidemic disease and public health. —Noble David Cook, author of Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650 A rich and complex picture of the ways various groups engaged in efforts to prevent and control epidemic disease, improve health, and save (and at times baptize) the lives of those facing near-certain death. —Adam Warren, author of Medicine and Politics in Colonial Peru: Population Growth and the Bourbon Reforms battle the centuries-old killers of children and adults. Even before edicts from Spain crossed the Atlantic, colonial elites oftentimes embraced medical experimentation and reform in the name of the public good, believing it was their moral responsibility to apply medical innovations to cure and prevent disease. Their efforts included the first inoculations and vaccinations against smallpox, new strategies to protect families and communities from typhus and measles, and medical interventions into pregnancy and childbirth. For All of Humanity examines the first public health campaigns in Guatemala, southern Mexico, and Central America in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Martha Few pays close attention to Indigenous Mesoamerican medical cultures, which not only influenced the shape and scope of those regional campaigns but also affected the broader New World medical cultures. The author reconstructs a rich and complex picture of the ways colonial doctors, surgeons, Indigenous healers, midwives, priests, government officials, and ordinary people engaged in efforts to prevent and control epidemic disease. Few's analysis weaves medical history and ethnohistory with social, cultural, and intellectual history. She uses prescriptive texts, medical correspondence, and legal documents to provide rich ethnographic descriptions of Mesoamerican medical cultures, their practitioners, and regional pharmacopeia that came into contact with colonial medicine, at times violently, during public health campaigns.
Fannie Kahan, Erika Dyck (ed), A Culture’s Catalyst: Historical Encounters with Peyote and the Native American Church in Canada
A Culture’s Catalyst Historical Encounters with Peyote and the Native American Church in Canada Fannie Kahan (Author), Erika Dyck (Editor) In 1956, pioneering psychedelic researchers Abram Hoffer and Humphry Osmond were invited to join members of the Red Pheasant First Nation near North Battleford, Saskatchewan, to participate in a peyote ceremony hosted by the Native American Church of Canada. Inspired by their experience, they wrote a series of essays explaining and defending the consumption of peyote and the practice of peyotism. They enlisted the help of Hoffer’s sister, journalist Fannie Kahan, and worked closely with her to document the religious ceremony and write a history of peyote, culminating in a defense of its use as a healing and spiritual agent. Although the text shows its mid-century origins, with dated language and at times uncritical analysis, it advocates for Indigenous legal, political and religious rights and offers important insights into how psychedelic researchers, who were themselves embattled in debates over the value of spirituality in medicine, interpreted the peyote ceremony. Ultimately, they championed peyotism as a spiritual practice that they believed held distinct cultural benefits. A Culture’s Catalyst revives a historical debate. Revisiting it now encourages us to reconsider how peyote has been understood and how its appearance in the 1950s tested Native-newcomer relations and the Canadian government’s attitudes toward Indigenous religious and cultural practices. REVIEWS “A fascinating glimpse of psychiatry’s encounter with peyote and First Nations cultures, Fannie Kahan’s A Culture’s Catalyst is by turns patronizing and sympathetic, supportive and paternalistic. On one level Kahan’s collection of essays by cutting-edge mental health experts is both a critique of colonialism and a defense of their own embrace of psychoactive treatments. On a deeper level it is an intriguing illustration of First Nations’ savvy appropriation of elite power and influence to protect cultural and religious rites. It will definitely find a place on my bookshelf and syllabus.” – Maureen Lux, Department of History, Brock University, author of award-winning Medicine that Walks: Disease, Medicine, and Canadian Plains Native People, 1880–1940 and the forthcoming Separate Beds: A History of Indian Hospitals in Canada, 1920s to 1980s. “An extraordinary and unreservedly recommended study.” – Helen Dumont, Midwest Book Review ABOUT THE AUTHORS Fannie Kahan (1922–1978) was born in southern Saskatchewan. She was a journalist and the author of a number of books, including Brains and Bricks: The History of the Yorkton Psychiatric Centre (1965) and A Different Drummer: The History of the Saskatchewan Psychiatric Nurses’ Association (1973). Erika Dyck is a historian of health, medicine, and Canadian society at the University of Saskatchewan and Canada Research Chair in the History of Medicine.She is the author of Psychedelic Psychiatry: LSD on the Canadian Prairies. Visit Erika’s website. BOOK DETAILS A Culture’s Catalyst: Historical Encounters with Peyote and the Native American Church in Canada Fannie Kahan (Author), Erika Dyck (Editor) Published May 2016, 176 pages Paper, ISBN: 978-0-88755-814-6, 6 × 9, $27.95 Topic(s): Indigenous Studies, Medical History, Religion
SEPARATE BEDS: A HISTORY OF INDIAN HOSPITALS IN CANADA, 1920S-1980S By Maureen K. Lux University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division © 2016 World Rights 288 Pages 12 Images Paper ISBN 9781442613867 Published Mar 2016 ISBN 9781442645578 Published Mar 2016 Author Contents Reviews Awards Separate Beds is the shocking story of Canada’s system of segregated health care. Operated by the same bureaucracy that was expanding health care opportunities for most Canadians, the “Indian Hospitals” were underfunded, understaffed, overcrowded, and rife with coercion and medical experimentation. Established to keep the Aboriginal tuberculosis population isolated, they became a means of ensuring that other Canadians need not share access to modern hospitals with Aboriginal patients. Tracing the history of the system from its fragmentary origins to its gradual collapse, Maureen K. Lux describes the arbitrary and contradictory policies that governed the “Indian Hospitals,” the experiences of patients and staff, and the vital grassroots activism that pressed the federal government to acknowledge its treaty obligations. A disturbing look at the dark side of the liberal welfare state, Separate Beds reveals a history of racism and negligence in health care for Canada’s First Nations that should never be forgotten.
Aref Abu-Rabia , Indigenous Medicine among the Bedouin in the Middle East , New York: Berghahn Books, 2015. Pp. 232. £60. 978 1 78238 689 6. Adam Guerin Soc Hist Med (2017) 30 (3): 708-709. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/shm/hkw138 Published: 12 January 2017 Cite Permissions Share Aref Abu-Rabia’s Indigenous Medicine among the Bedouin in the Middle East is a work of synthesis based on anthropological research on the ‘healing practices, health situation, and environmental and cultural origins of perceptions of disease among Bedouin tribes of the twentieth century’ (p. 1) in the Middle East and North Africa. The book also treats questions of access and the perceived value of state health services in countries with transhumant, pastoral and recently-settled Bedouin communities. Abu-Rabia’s expertise stems from years of research rendered through a transdisciplinary methodology that blends anthropological, historical and sociological perspectives. The result is a fascinating account of the culture of healing in diverse Bedouin societies of the region. The book is divided into four largely stand-alone chapters that blend descriptive and analytical approaches. The first chapter...
Anne Stobart, Household Medicine in Seventeenth-Century EnglandINDIGENOUS MEDICINE AMONG THE BEDOUIN IN THE MIDDLE EAST Aref Abu-Rabia 232 pages, 11 illus., bibliog., index ISBN 978-1-78238-689-6 $95.00/£67.00 Hb Published (October 2015) eISBN 978-1-78238-690-2 eBook Modern medicine has penetrated Bedouin tribes in the course of rapid urbanization and education, but when serious illnesses strike, particularly in the case of incurable diseases, even educated people turn to traditional medicine for a remedy. Over the course of 30 years, the author gathered data on traditional Bedouin medicine among pastoral-nomadic, semi-nomadic, and settled tribes. Based on interviews with healers, clients, and other active participants in treatments, this book will contribute to renewed thinking about a synthesis between traditional and modern medicine — to their reciprocal enrichment. Aref Abu-Rabia is an Anthropologist at the Department of Middle East Studies at Ben-Gurion University. His research and publications focus on the Middle East, North Africa and Islamic communities in the West. Subject: Medical Anthropology Area: Middle East & Israel LC: DS36.9.B4A38 2015 BISAC: SOC057000 SOCIAL SCIENCE/Disease & Health Issues; SOC002000 SOCIAL SCIENCE/Anthropology/General BIC: VXHT Traditional medicine & herbal remedies; PSXM Medical anthropology CONTENTS List of Illustrations Preface Acknowledgments Introduction Chapter 1. Health and Health Services among the Bedouin in the Middle East Chapter 2. The Treatment of Human Ailments — Part A Chapter 3. The Treatment of Human Ailments — Part B Chapter 4. “Don’t Touch My Body”: The Qarina and Bedouin Women’s Fertility Bibliography Index
Published: 08-09-2016 Format: PDF eBook (?) Edition: 1st Extent: 304 ISBN: 9781472580368 Imprint: Bloomsbury Academic Illustrations: 12 bw illus RRP: £21.99 Online price: £19.79 Save £2.20 (10%) Tell others about this book About Household Medicine in Seventeenth-Century England How did 17th-century families in England perceive their health care needs? What household resources were available for medical self-help? To what extent did households make up remedies based on medicinal recipes? Drawing on previously unpublished household papers ranging from recipes to accounts and letters, this original account shows how health and illness were managed on a day-to-day basis in a variety of 17th-century households. It reveals the extent of self-help used by families, explores their favourite remedies and analyses differences in approaches to medical matters. Anne Stobart illuminates cultures of health care amongst women and men, showing how 'kitchin physick' related to the business of medicine, which became increasingly commercial and professional in the 18th century. Table of contents Table of Contents Introduction: Household Health Care Matters Section 1: Information 1. 'The danger is over': News About the Sick 2. Medicines or Remedies: Recipes for Health and Illness Section 2: Resources 3. Early Modern Spending on Health Care 4. Animal, Vegetable and Mineral: Medicinal Ingredients 5. 'For to make the ointment': Kitchen Physick Section 3: Practice 6. Therapeutics in the Family 7. 'I troble noe body with my Complaints': Chronic Disorders Conclusion Appendix of Household Accounts Glossary of Ingredients Bibliography Index Reviews “Stobart, a leading scholar in the history of herbal medicine, has produced an excellent survey of how some early modern households managed their health on a day-to-day basis. Specifically, she seeks to question not only the prevailing assumption that self-help was the primary source of health care, but also what self-help actually meant in 17th-century England. To address this, the author divides household medicine into three themes that showcase the richness of her archival sources, namely, information (letters and recipe collections), resources (accounts, expense, equipment), and practice (treatment of children and chronic cases). This allows Stobart to convincingly argue that household health care was a complex mixture of therapeutic self-help and commercial and professional medicine. There was not necessarily a division or tension between women who made up recipes, apothecaries who supplied remedies, or physicians who prescribed them. As the century progressed, however, households purchased more and more ingredients rather than make up recipes. There was also a sharper delineation of medicine as not including foods. All of these conclusions raise the interesting issue of who held power in the 17th century when it came to domestic health care. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Most levels/libraries.” – CHOICE “A fascinating book and one that will appeal to anyone with an interest in the history of herbal medicine.” – Herbs “… [A] must-read book. This well-written account, which effectively combines much sophisticated primary research with up-to-date historiographical engagement, is involved and elaborate, and yet at the same time it is easy to follow. I would recommend this book to undergraduates and graduate students alike, and it should find a place on many medical history library shelves.” – Pharmacy in History “Anne Stobart offers us an engaging and penetrating analysis of how households in the sixteenth and seventeenth century dealt with sickness and ill health. Household Medicine in Seventeenth-Century England is an innovative and rich investigation of how domestic and commercial medical care were combined to treat diseases in this period. She reveals in unprecedented detail the rich currents of information that flowed between individuals and were transferred between generations. In an exemplary display of historical scholarship, Stobart brings together a broad array of sources that allow her to open the doors to the sick rooms and for the first time show us the range of ways families came together to compound medicines, share remedies and advice, and seek the help of doctors and apothecaries.” – Patrick Wallis, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK
Susan E. Cayleff , Nature’s Path: A History of Naturopathic Healing in America , Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2016. Pp. 408. $39.95. ISBN 978 1 4214 1903 9. Mike Saks Soc Hist Med (2017) 30 (3): 711-712. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/shm/hkx015 Published: 27 February 2017 Cite Permissions Share This well-written and researched book by Susan Cayleff, a professor in the Department of Women’s Studies at San Diego State University, traces the labyrinthine history of naturopathy in the USA from its nineteenth-century origins to the present day. As such, it sheds light on the developing philosophy of a populist alternative medical approach based on prevention and healthy living, which positively links mind, body and spirit—as well as encompassing therapies that are aimed at enhancing innate healing processes. The naturopathic belief system is depicted as relating to a wide range of practices from exercise and healthy eating to sunshine and fresh air, with interconnections to specific methods like chiropractic, dietetics, herbalism, homeopathy, hydropathy, hypnotism, iridology, osteopathy and spiritual healing, amongst other therapeutic strands. In this maelstrom of diversity, naturopaths seem... Nature's Path A History of Naturopathic Healing in America Susan E. Cayleff TABLE OF CONTENTS An alternative medical system emphasizing prevention through healthy living, positive mind-body-spirit strength, and therapeutics to enhance the body’s innate healing processes, naturopathy has gained legitimacy in recent years. In Nature’s Path—the first comprehensive book to examine the complex history and culture of American naturopathy—Susan E. Cayleff tells the fascinating story of the movement’s nineteenth-century roots. While early naturopaths were sometimes divided by infighting, they all believed in the healing properties of water, nutrition, exercise, the sun, and clean, fresh air. Their political activism was vital to their professional formation: they loathed the invasive, depletive practices of traditional medicine and protested against medical procedures that addressed symptoms rather than disease causes while resisting processed foods, pharmaceuticals, environmental toxins, and atomic energy. Cayleff describes the development of naturopathy’s philosophies and therapeutics and details the efforts of its proponents to institutionalize the field. She recognizes notable naturopathic leaders, explores why women doctors, organizers, teachers, and authors played such a strong role in the movement, and identifies countercultural views—such as antivivisection, antivaccination, and vegetarianism—held by idealistic naturopaths from 1896 to the present. Nature’s Path tracks a radical cultural critique, medical system, and way of life that links body, soul, mind, and daily purpose. It is a must-read for historians of medicine and scholars in women’s studies and political history, as well as for naturopaths and all readers interested in alternative medicine. Susan E. Cayleff is a professor in the Department of Women’s Studies at San Diego State University. She is the author of Wash and Be Healed: The Water-Cure Movement and Women’s Health. "An engaging history of naturopathy, this exhaustively researched and meticulously documented book is an invaluable contribution to nineteenth- and twentieth-century medical and social history." — Barbara Melosh, author of The Physician's Hand: Nurses and Nursing in the Twentieth Century
Saturday, 29 July 2017
Le programme de chaires universitaires Canada 150 est une catastrophe - Empreintes numériques http://fdlaramee.weebly.com/1/post/2017/07/le-programme-de-chaires-universitaires-canada-150-est-une-catastrophe.html
Pas pour tout le monde, bien sûr. Pour les départements universitaires, il s’agit (du moins à première vue) d’une manne tombée du ciel: des postes permanents, bien pourvus en fonds de recherche, qui viennent panser quelques-unes des plaies infligées par de longues années d’austérité. Difficile de les blâmer de vouloir en profiter.
Mais pour les chercheurs canadiens en début de carrière — doctorants, post-doctorants, chargés de cours et autres professionnels à statut précaire qui souhaitent accéder à des emplois universitaires stables — c’est une toute autre histoire. L’appel de candidatures pour une chaire en humanités numériques à l’Université du Québec à Trois-Rivièresexplique pourquoi :
« Conformément aux règles du Programme des chaires de recherche du Canada 150, l’UQTR n’acceptera que les candidatures de chercheurs qui travaillent et habitent à l’extérieur du Canada […] »
Il ne s’agit pas seulement d’un programme de discrimination positive envers un groupe (les chercheurs étrangers et les expatriés) qui n’a jamais subi de discrimination négative, ni même d’une étrange forme d’antipréférence nationale comme on n’en verrait jamais ailleurs. Les étudiants des universités canadiennes et les jeunes chercheurs qui n’ont pas eu la bonne idée de quitter le pays sont exclus d’emblée, totalement et irrévocablement. Peu importe la qualité de leur recherche. Peu importe qu’ils ou elles fassent partie de groupes historiquement sous-représentés dans l’enseignement supérieur. Peu importe que l'expatriation n'ait jamais constitué une option plausible pour bien des chercheurs canadiens, pour des raisons financières, familiales ou même professionnelles -- qui songerait à aller étudier les cultures des Premières nations ou des Inuit en Australie? Pour pousser le raisonnement jusqu’à la limite de l’absurde, si Chad Gaffield, récemment élevé au rang d’officier de l’Ordre du Canada pour sa contribution à l’avancement des humanités numériques, était intéressé par le poste à l’UQTR, il serait disqualifié parce qu’il occupe actuellement un poste de professeur à l’Université d’Ottawa. Trahi par son adresse civique.
Je m’en voudrais d’empiler les reproches sur l’UQTR sans mentionner qu’il y a pire. L’Université York, par exemple, propose une chaire Canada 150… en histoire canadienne. Une université canadienne cherche un professeur d’histoire du Canada dans le cadre d’un projet créé pour fêter l’anniversaire du Canada, et les chercheurs canadiens vivant au Canada ne sont pas admissibles au concours. Du pur délire.
Du pur délire, accompagné d’un constat : l’existence d’un tel programme signifie que la formation scientifique offerte dans les universités canadiennes n’est même pas valorisée par les institutions canadiennes — et sinon par elles, par qui?
Les postes universitaires sont d’une rareté désespérante. La compétition est féroce. C’est une réalité que nous, chercheurs en début de carrière, avons acceptée lorsque nous avons entrepris des études de doctorat. Mais dans le cas présent, il ne s’agit justement plus d’une compétition mais d’une exclusion, dont les conséquences pernicieuses pourraient se faire sentir longtemps. Les postes créés dans le cadre du programme de chaires Canada 150 ne tombent pas du ciel, comme s’il s’agissait de cadeaux de la Fée des Emplois. Ils correspondent aux besoins limités des universités et doivent s’inscrire dans des cadres financiers tout aussi limités. Ce qui signifie que, pour chaque chaire attribuée cette année, un poste n’aura pas à être comblé par un concours normal l’année prochaine, ni dans trois ans, ni probablement dans cinq ans.
Les célébrations du 150e anniversaire de la Confédération achèvent, mais les dommages collatéraux subis par les doctorants et par les chercheurs à statut précaire ne sont pas sur le point de disparaître.