Saturday, 31 October 2015

The seafood market in Portugal: Driving forces and consequences

Volume 61, November 2015, Pages 87–94


Salt and dried cod became a Portuguese cultural symbol.
Seafood consumption is related to geography, resources and fishery heritage.
Religion, social and political forces shaped seafood consumption patterns in Portugal.
Overconsumption of seafood has environmental and economic consequences plus health concerns.


Portugal has the third highest seafood consumption per capita in the world and current patterns of seafood consumption are linked to how seafood products were embodied in the Portuguese society. The objective of this research is to understand Portuguese seafood consumption's main drivers and its consequences. For that official statistics were analyzed and a literature review on seafood consumption was undertaken. Portuguese seafood consumption is characterized by a wide diversity of species and preparing modes, when compared to other countries in Europe. Cod (salted and dried), does not exist in Portuguese waters but due to several factors, such as politics, religion and tradition, became the main species in Portuguese seafood consumption, representing around 38% of the national seafood demand. Five drivers are suggested to explain why Portuguese eat so much seafood: geography, marine resources, fisheries, social forces and politics; and consequences for the environment, economy and health are discussed. Hence while most dietary recommendations advise an increase in fish consumption is not applicable to Portugal and a more sustainable seafood consumption for the future is advocated.


  • Seafood consumption;
  • Fish;
  • Cod;
  • Habits;
  • Drivers;
  • Portugal

Corresponding author at.

Can putative indicator species predict habitat quality for American ginseng?

Volume 57, 1 September 2015, Article number 2386, Pages 110-117

Department of Biology, Life Science Building, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6057, Morgantown, WV, United States


Abstract American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L., is a long-lived medicinal understory herb, which has been heavily harvested since the 1700s. Because of the economic value of the root, and the increasing rarity of this plant, P. quinquefolius is often reintroduced across its range. Land managers and hobby growers recommend using 'associate species' as a way to determine ideal site conditions for reintroduction. However, the accuracy of these putative indicator species in identifying sites that will maximize growth of this rare herb has not been tested. Using a long-term ecological dataset of 26 populations, we evaluated if 20 putative indicators (herbs, shrubs, and trees) could predict P. quinquefolius performance, as measured by the relative growth rate of the leaf area, at the population and microsite level. Of the indicators, only one tree species was able to predict positive performance. If a P. quinquefolius was within 10 m of a Liriodendron tulipifera L., the plant would have increased growth, in terms of leaf area, as compared to plants that were not within 10 m of this tree. Surprisingly, the presence of most putative indicator species was found to be unreliable as a site quality measure. At the population level, four putative indicators, Aralia nudicaulis L., Acer rubrum L., Betula lenta L., and Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume, were actually contra-indicators, as their presence at a site implied lower P. quinquefolius performance. If Podophyllum peltatum L. was absent from a site, but B. lenta present, P. quinquefolius had reduced growth as compared to plants present in other combinations of P. peltatum and B. lenta. The results from this study have important implications for in situ conservation strategies of this rare medicinal plant. Planting P. quinquefolius in sites that increase performance can help ensure that reintroduction projects likely have a greater chance of success, effectively reducing the waste of time, money, and resources spent on projects that have lower levels of success. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author keywords

Agroforestry; American ginseng; Medicinal plants; Panax quinquefolius; Rare plant conservation; Reintroduction

Indexed keywords

Engineering controlled terms: Forecasting; Forestry; Population statistics
Agroforestry; American ginseng; Medicinal plants; Panax quinquefolius; Plant conservation; Reintroduction
Engineering main heading: Plants (botany)
GEOBASE Subject Index: agroforestry; bioindicator; biological invasion; data set; economic analysis; environmental indicator; growth; herb; medicinal plant; perennial plant; plant community; prediction; rare species; species conservation
PaperChem Variable: Conservation; Plants
Species Index: Acer rubrum; Aralia nudicaulis; Betula lenta; Lindera benzoin; Liriodendron tulipifera; Panax quinquefolius; Podophyllum peltatum

Friday, 30 October 2015

Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers

Volume 194, 1 March 2016, Pages 619–625
Analytical Methods

  • groups

  • Highlights

    Intake of estragole from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) was moderate.
    Intake of trans-anethole from fennel-containing PFS was lower than ADI value.
    Intakes of beneficial compounds from PFS were low compared with dietary intake.
    First intake estimates of p-coumaric and rosmarinic acids are presented.


    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20 mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15 mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09 mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068 mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034 mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525 μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246 mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066 μg/d and of lignans 0.0412 μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations.


    • Dietary supplements;
    • Plants;
    • Botanicals;
    • Fennel;
    • Bioactive compounds;
    • Survey

    1. Introduction

    Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect, the purpose of which is to supplement the normal diet. They are marketed in dose form, for instance as pills, tablets, capsules and liquids in measured doses. Plant food supplements (PFS) contain one or more botanical ingredients. They have a long tradition of use, and are widely consumed in many European countries. However, comparable data on the consumption of PFS on the European level are scarce, and little is known about the risks and benefits associated with their consumption. The PlantLIBRA project aims to develop, validate and disseminate data and methodologies for the risk and benefit assessment of PFS, and to implement sustainable international cooperation related to PFS (PlantLIBRA, 2010).
    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a perennial aromatic herb. In pharmacopoeias and well established documents fennel has been described as being used in the symptomatic treatment of dyspepsia ( Weiss, 1991), as an expectorant for mild inflammation of the upper respiratory tract ( Weiss, 1991) and in the treatment of dysmenorrhea and pain in scrotal hernia ( Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, 2000). In traditional medicine, fennel is used in the treatment of many types of symptoms ( Hare, Caspari, & Rusby, 1916).
    According to the results of the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey conducted in Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the UK, fennel ranked sixth in the pooled list of most consumed botanicals (Garcia-Alvarez et al., 2014). Among the Finnish subsample, fennel ranked 31th. The essential oil of fennel, extracted from fennel seeds, contains trans-anethole and estragole, among other compounds. Both have exhibited antimicrobial activity (Friedman, Henika, & Mandrell, 2002), but trans-anethole has also displayed tumorigenic properties in laboratory animals (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, 2000), and estragole is carcinogenic and mutagenic at high doses (Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products, 2005).
    The objectives of the present article are as follows: to describe the consumption of PFS containing fennel among a subsample of Finnish PFS consumers from the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey; to present the consumer reasons for PFS usage, perception of the usefulness of the products and the adverse effects experienced after usage; to describe the socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics of the consumers; and to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds, including estragole and trans-anethole, from the fennel-containing PFS consumed by these Finnish consumers. To our knowledge, this article presents the first intake estimates of some of the bioactive compounds – namely trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid – in human populations.

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. PlantLIBRA PFS consumer survey

    A cross-sectional 12-month retrospective PFS consumption survey was conducted in Finland and five other European countries. Before initiating the fieldwork, an ethical statement was obtained from the Coordinating Ethics Committee, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Finland. The details of the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey and its data collection procedures have been described elsewhere (Garcia-Alvarez et al., 2014). In this survey, the sample size in Finland was 401 PFS consumers. They came from four cities located in different parts of the country; Helsinki, Turku, Kuopio and Oulu. The gender and age group quotas were set as follows: 75% adults (18–59 years) and 25% elderly adults (60 years and over) with 50% males and 50% females.
    The survey participants were regular PFS consumers, who were identified using a short screening questionnaire. The respondents were considered eligible for inclusion if they met either of the following specified criteria (Garcia-Alvarez et al., 2014):
    They had taken at least 1 PFS in the previous 12 months, in an appropriate dose form at a minimum frequency of:
    1 daily dose for at least 2 consecutive or non-consecutive weeks, or
    1 or more doses per week for at least 3 consecutive weeks, or
    1 or more doses per week for at least 4 consecutive or non-consecutive weeks;
    They had taken 2 or more different PFS, in an appropriate dose form, at a minimum frequency of 1 or more doses per week, with the sum of the usage period for the 2 or more products being equal to at least 4 weeks.
    Eligible consumers subsequently completed a more detailed questionnaire on their PFS usage habits in the preceding 12 months, providing details of plant and product names, dose forms, the frequency of use, reasons for use, adverse effects, places and patterns of purchase and information sources on products. These questions were asked for each of up to a maximum of five different PFS used. In addition, respondents were asked to provide socio-demographic data, including age, gender, the level of education and employment status, self-reported height and weight, and health-related lifestyle information.
    Fieldwork and data collection for the PlantLIBRA cross-sectional survey were conducted by an international market research company, European Fieldwork Group, from May 2011 to September 2012. The duration of the fieldwork ensured that any seasonal variability in the usage of products was captured.
    All data from the completed surveys were entered into the statistical package SPSS for Windows version 18 (IBM Corporation, Somers, NY, USA), which was also used for data analysis.

    Plants used in the traditional medicine of Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America) and the Caribbean for the treatment of obesity

    Volume 175, 4 December 2015, Pages 335–345


    Ethnopharmacological relevance

    Obesity is a worldwide medical concern. New ethnobotanical information regarding the antiobesity effect of medicinal plants has been obtained in the last 30 years in response to socio-demographic changes and high-fat diets became common.

    Aim of the study

    This review provides a summary of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean for the empirical treatment of obesity in terms of ethnobotany, toxicity, pharmacology, conservation status, trade and chemistry.

    Materials and methods

    Bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing recognized books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses and peer-reviewed scientific articles, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last four decades. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of obesity were classified in two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological evidence and (2) plants without pharmacological evidence.


    A total of 139 plant species, belonging to 61 families, native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean that are used for the empirical treatment of obesity were recorded. From these plants, 33 were investigated in scientific studies, and 106 plants lacked scientific investigation. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (21 plants) and in vivo (16 plants). A total of 4 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used for the empirical treatment of obesity have been tested in vitro (2 compounds) and in vivo (4 compounds) studies. No clinical trials on obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m2) have been performed using the medicinal plants cited in this review. There are no herbal-based products approved in Mexico for the treatment of obesity.


    There are a limited number of scientific studies published on medicinal plants from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean used for the treatment of obesity. This review highlights the need to perform pharmacological, phytochemical, toxicological and ethnobotanical studies with medicinal flora to obtain new antiobesity agents.

    Graphical Abstract


    Chemical compounds studied in this article

    • Capsaicin (CID: 1548943);
    • Chlorogenic acid (CID: 1794427);
    • Simmondsin (CID: 6437384)


    • Antiobesity;
    • Lipase;
    • Lipid accumulation;
    • Weight loss;
    • Medicinal plants;
    • Mesoamerica

    Corresponding author.

    Habitat of a Prikamsky Honeybee Population

    Open Access

    Open Access funded by Far Eastern Federal University
    Under a Creative Commons license


    This article discusses the features of Apis mellifera mellifera associated with the expansion of their habitat to the north. The A. m. mellifera isolated in Kama Urals is considered the Prikamsky honeybee population and has retained the features of a pure gene pool. Here, we analysed the biological and physiological features of bees native to Kama Urals and the crossbreeding that occurs among these bee species.


    • Honey bees;
    • Areal;
    • Prikamsky population;
    • Crossbreeding


    Before the anthropogenic period, a Euro-Siberian sub-species of the honeybee, the Central Russian dark hylile bee (Apis mellifera mellifera L.), spread naturally over a large area from southern France to Siberia, reaching as far north as 60°N latitude ( Ruttner et al, 1990). This area expanded as the species moved north due to complex ethological and physiological adaptations to the cold climate zone ( Eskov, 1995).
    The Cis-Ural region is the territory located on the western slope of the Ural Mountains on the outskirts of the East European Plain. The territory lies in the basins of the Kama and Pechora Rivers and includes the Pechora lowlands to the north and the Verkhnekamskaya Bugulma-Belebey upland to the south. In the Cis-Ural region in Kama basin, the Kama Cis-Ural territory predominates. The northern region of the Kama Cis-Ural territory is a typical middle taiga consisting of spruce-fir forests, pine forests and peat bogs. The central region of the territory is southern taiga that includes spruce-fir forests with an admixture of linden. In the southern region of the territory, there is a subzone of mixed forests. The southeast is occupied with Kungursky forest steppe with typical degraded chernozems. Northeast of the Kama Cis-Ural territory is a dark coniferous mountain taiga with bald peaks standing high above the taiga (Grigoriev, 1962).
    Central Russian bees (A. m. mellifera) have been historically developed in natural biological communities on the Kama Cis-Ural territory. This finding was recorded by Mikhailov (1927) and Alpatov (1948). According to studies conducted by researchers in the Zoology Department of Perm Pedagogical University, Central Russian bees overwhelmingly dominated the Perm Territory previously. However, from the 1950s onwards, agricultural workers have been importing the queens and bee packages of southern races that were not adapted to the harsh conditions of the north area. The importation of these southern bees with the purpose of increasing productivity resulted if the emergence of hybrids of unknown origin. By the 1980s, cross-breeding of bees had reached 40% in some apiaries causing increased morbidity and the withdrawal of bee colonies in the winter. This process was aggravated by the mite Varroa destructor affect. To a lesser extent, the cross-breeding of bees influenced the Uinsky and Krasnovishersky areas, which had been declared as pure breeding areas of the Central Russian bees. The recruitment of honeybee populations in natural conditions (wild hive, hollows of trees, rocks, and other shelters) is performed because the bees disperse during swarming. In the late 20th century, a negative impact on the gene pool of the Central Russian bees caused by the introduced bees was observed. The conservation of the gene pool of Central Russian bees and the preservation of the indigenous forms of local Central Russian bee populations have been discussed in many publications ( Grankin, 1998 and Kryvtsov, 2008).

    Materials and Methods

    Studies performed by Perm researchers on bee colonies (1990–2000 Gg.) in the Kama Cis-Ural territory distinguished a population of honey bees of the Central Russian race that had the features of a pure gene pool based on physiological, morphological (Petukhov, 1996 and Shurakov et al., 1999) and genetic (Ilyasov et al, 2006) indicators. These bees are named “Prikamsky” after the territory where they were detected. The Prikamskaya population formed naturally in the northern area and has a particular value today, as it is the natural reserve of the pure gene pool of Central Russian bees. Currently, in the Kama Cis-Ural territory, two groups of native bees of the Central Russian Prikamskaya population have been identified. They are separated from each other by a distance of 300 km. The Uinskaya group exists in the southeast of the Perm region, and the Visherskaya group exists in the north of the Perm region, which is the northern boundary of the honeybee, (Petukhov, 1996 and Ilyasov et al., 2006) (Fig. 1).

    deer in the garden - what do deer see?

    I see the deer in the garden more often now. A few days ago the group of deer paused so I could get a look at them and there was a large one which is probably the one I saw several days ago which was assumed to be a cougar.  They can apparently see me inside at dawn even though I only have a lamp and the computer light.

    The Study
    In August 1992, a group of leading deer researchers and vision scientists gathered at The University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens to conduct this landmark study. The group of researchers included Drs. R. Larry Marchinton and Karl V. Miller, and myself from UGA, Dr. Gerald H. Jacobs and Jess Degan from the University of California, and Dr. Jay Neitz from the Medical College of Wisconsin. This study was made possible due to a highly sophisticated computer system developed by Dr. Jacobs. This system is based on the principle that an electrical response is produced when light enters the eye. The computer interprets these responses and translates them into a “scientific best guess” of what deer can actually see.
    Findings of the Study
    The results of our study confirmed that deer possess two (rather than three as in humans) types of cones allowing limited color vision (Figure 1). The cone that deer lack is the “red” cone, or the one sensitive to long wavelength colors such as red and orange. This suggests that wearing bright colors while hunting does not affect hunting success. This does not mean that these colors are invisible to deer, but rather that they are perceived differently.
    Deer are essentially red-green color blind like some humans. Their color vision is limited to the short (blue) and middle (green) wavelength colors. As a result, deer likely can distinguish blue from red, but not green from red, or orange from red. Therefore, it appears that hunters would be equally suited wearing green, red, or orange clothing but perhaps slightly disadvantaged wearing blue.
    The results regarding the UV capabilities of deer were equally fascinating. Our results confirmed that deer lack a UV filter in their eye and that their vision in the shorter wavelengths was much better than ours. Deer also were found to have a relatively high sensitivity (good vision) in the short wavelengths where UV brighteners and dyes are active.
    While not entirely conclusive, this finding suggests that deer are capable of seeing some UV light and that fabrics containing UV dyes and brighteners may be more visible to deer than to humans.

    Cider (Cyder; Hard Cider): The Product and Its Manufacture

    2016, Pages 119–128


    Cider, although the term ‘ciders’ is more suitable to represent the diversity of this product, is a fermented beverage produced and consumed worldwide. In this article, its historical and geographical origins, as well as definition from a regulatory point of view, are presented. Cidermaking is then discussed by describing two main processes (in France and the UK) that are radically different, although both lead to products named ciders. The importance of microorganisms and their metabolism during production in terms of quality or spoilage is reviewed. Finally, product composition and potential impacts on health are presented.


    • Alcoholic fermentation;
    • Apple juice;
    • Bacteria;
    • Cider;
    • Cidermaking;
    • Fermentation;
    • Fermented beverage;
    • Hard cider;
    • Health impact;
    • Malolactic fermentation;
    • Organoleptic qualities;
    • Spoilage;
    • Yeast

    Definition and Origin

    Cider is generally defined as an alcoholic beverage obtained by apple juice (apple must) fermentation. Noteworthy, in North America, the term ‘cider’ is rather associated with a cloudy unfermented and unpasteurized apple juice, whereas the fermented product is called ‘hard cider.’ In Europe, the fermented product is mainly named ‘cider’ in the UK, ‘cidre’ in France, ‘sidra’ in Spain, and ‘apfelwein’ in Germany. Another common fruit fermentation is obtained from pears and leads to a product named ‘perry’ in English or ‘poiré’ in French. It is worth mentioning that cider can either be a final product ready for consumption or an intermediate product used for apple brandy (e.g., ‘Calvados’ in Normandy and ‘Lambig’ in Brittany) production by distillation or cider vinegar via an acetic fermentation. Moreover, Calvados blended with apple must leads to an aperitif-type beverage (i.e., predinner drink) named ‘Pommeau’ in France.
    Like the other major fermented beverages (i.e., wine and beer), cider is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages in the world; Hebrews called it ‘sichar,’ whereas Romans and Greeks called it ‘sicera’ and ‘sikera,’ respectively. From an etymological point of view, the name cider would come from ‘sicera’ (meaning any fermented beverage that is not wine; Cambridge Psalter); this can especially be observed in Normandy, as ‘cidre’ was originally spelled ‘sidre.’ Although the name cider was not used at the time, during antiquity, a certain number of writings by Pliny the Elder or Palladius refer to alcoholic beverages obtained from apples or pears. During the ninth century, the term ‘sicetores,’ referring to brewers producing ale but also ‘pomacium’ from apples, was used by Charlemagne. In France, the first use of the word ‘cidre’ was found in the Conception de Nostre-Dame (Wace, twelfth century). From this time, and thanks to the invention of the press (thirteenth century), cider production extended to various apple-producing European regions. From the fourteenth to twentieth centuries, technological practices and processes were optimized and led to higher volumes and better-quality products. Nowadays, cider production, although far more limited than wine and beer, can be found on every continent in apple-growing regions worldwide. In Europe, the UK (mainly West Country, West Midlands but also Wales), France (mainly Normandy and Brittany), Spain (mainly Asturias and Basque country), and Germany are the main cider-producing countries, although many others have local productions (e.g., Ireland, Austria, Poland, Sweden, Norway). In North America, hard cider production is done in the United States, Canada, and even Mexico. Interestingly, in Quebec, a new cider type named ‘ice cider’ (equivalent to icewine in enology and thus using apples with high sugar contents due to natural frost) has recently appeared. In South America, cider is produced in Argentina and Chile. Cider production is also found in Asia (China and Japan), Africa (South Africa), Australia (Tasmania), and New-Zealand.

    The Hatching Cat - 1874: The Cider Press Dogs at the Corner of Broadway and Houston via @HatchingCatNYC

    1795 John Keats, poet.

    Romantic Medicine and John Keats

    Hermione de Almeida

    Using original research in scientific treatises, philosophical manuscripts, and political documents, this pioneering study describes the neglected era of revolutionary medicine in Europe through the writings of the English poet and physician, John Keats. De Almeida explores the four primary concerns of Romantic medicine--the physician's task, the meaning of life, the prescription of disease and health, and the evolution of matter and mind--and reveals their expression in Keats's poetry and thought. By delineating a distinct but unknown era in the history of medicine, charting the poet's milieu within this age, and providing close reading of his poems in these contexts, Romantic Medicine and John Keats illustrates the interdisciplinary bonds between the two healing arts of the Romantic period: medicine and poetry.

    1931 Dan Rather, journalist; anchor of CBS Evening News (1981–2005).

    1915 Fred W. Friendly, president of CBS News and co-creator of the documentary series See It Now, the program largely credited for bringing down Sen. Joe McCarthy.

    Edward R. Murrow
    Response to Senator Joe McCarthy on CBS' See It Now
    Originally Broadcast 13 April 1954

    [AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio]
    Last week, Senator McCarthy appeared on this program to correct any errors he might have thought we made in our report of March 9th. Since he made no reference to any statements of fact that we made, we must conclude that he found no errors of fact. He proved again that anyone who exposes him, anyone who does not share his hysterical disregard for decency and human dignity and the rights guaranteed by the Constitution, must be either a Communist or a fellow traveler.
    I fully expected this treatment. The Senator added this reporter's name to a long list of individuals and institutions he has accused of serving the Communist cause. His proposition is very simple: Anyone who criticizes or opposes McCarthy's methods must be a Communist. And if that be true, there are an awful lot of Communists in this country.

    For the record, let's consider briefly some of the Senator's charges. He claimed, but offered no proof, that I had been a member of the Industrial Workers of the World. That is false. I was never a member of the IWW, never applied for membership. Men that I worked with in the Pacific Northwest in western Washington in logging camps will attest that I never had any affiliation or affinity with that organization.
    The Senator charged that Professor Harold Laski, a British scholar and politician, dedicated the book to me. That's true. He is dead. He was a socialist -- I am not. He was one of those civilized individuals who did not insist upon agreement with his political principles as a pre-condition for conversation or friendship. I do not agree with his political ideas. Laski, as he makes clear in the introduction, dedicated the book to me not because of political agreement but because he held my wartime broadcast from London in high regard -- and the dedication so reads.
    Senator McCarthy's principal attack on me was an attack on the Institute of International Education, of which I was Assistant Director and am now a trustee, together with such people as John Foster Dulles, Milton Eisenhower, Ralph J. Dunce [phonetic], Virginia Gildersleeve, Philip Reed, to name just a few. That Institute sponsored, acted as the registering agent for summer schools in foreign countries, including England, France, and Germany, and one in the Soviet Union in 1934. It has arranged in all some 30,000 exchanges of students and professors between the United States and over 50 foreign countries.
    The man primarily responsible for starting this Institute was Nicholas Murray Butler in 1919. Its work has been praised as recently as 1948 by President Eisenhower. It has been denounced by the Soviet Press and radio as a center of international propaganda for American reaction, and I have been labeled by them as a "reactionary radio commentator."
    The Senator alleged that we were doing the work of the Russian Secret Police, training spies. We were in fact conducting normal cultural and educational relations with foreign nations. The Moscow summer session was cancelled in 1935 by the Russian authorities.
    I believed 20 years ago and I believe today that mature Americans can engage in conversation and controversy, the clash of ideas, with Communists anywhere in the world without becoming contaminated or converted. I believe that our faith, our conviction, our determination are stronger than theirs, and that we can compete and successfully, not only in the area of bombs but in the area of ideas.
    Senator McCarthy couldn't even get my relationship with CBS straight. He repeatedly referred to me as the Educational Director, a position I have not held for 17 years.
      The Senator waved a copy of the Daily Worker, saying an article in it has praised me. Here is an example for what Senator McCarthy calls "praise" by William Z. Foster in the March 17 issue of The Daily Worker. Quote: "During the past 10 days, Senator McCarthy has received a number of resounding belts in the jaw. These came from Adlai Stevenson, E.R. Murrow, Senator Flanders, the Army leadership, broadcasting companies; even Eisenhower himself had to give McCarthy a slap on the wrist." That was the sole reference to me in Mr. Foster's article.
    Another charge by Senator McCarthy was that Owen Lattimore mentioned me in a book. What Lattimore said in substance was that he had never met me, but that I had done a fair job of reporting his testimony; in short, that I had not presumed his guilt. Everything I said on that case is a matter of record and can be examined by anyone who is interested.
    I hope to continue to present evidence developed before Congressional committees as impartially as I am able. And that specifically includes the hearings before which Senator McCarthy is shortly scheduled to appear.
    I have worked for CBS for more than 19 years. The company has subscribed fully to my integrity and responsibility as a broadcaster and as a loyal American. I require no lectures from the junior Senator from Wisconsin as to the dangers or terrors of Communism. Having watched the aggressive forces at work in Western Europe, having had friends in Eastern Europe butchered and driven into exile, having broadcast from London in 1943 that the Russians were responsible for the Katyn massacre, having told the story of the Russian refusal to let allied aircraft to land on Russian fields after dropping supplies to those who rose in Warsaw and then were betrayed by the Russians, and having been denounced by the Russian radio for these reports, I cannot feel that I require instruction from the Senator on the evils of Communism.
    Having searched my conscience and my files, I cannot contend that I have always been right or wise. But I have attempted to pursue the truth with some diligence and to report it, even though, as in this case, I had been warned in advance that I would be subjected to the attentions of Senator McCarthy.
    We shall hope to deal with matters of more -- more vital interest for the country next week.
    Good night, and good luck.

    La phytovigilance : impératif médical et obligation légale

    Ann Pharm Fr. 2015 Jul 22. pii: S0003-4509(15)00058-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pharma.2015.06.004. [Epub ahead of print]


    La phytovigilance consiste en la surveillance des effets indésirables et des interactions médicamenteuses consécutifs à l’emploi de médicaments à base de plantes (MABP), de compléments alimentaires à base de plantes (CABP), de phytocosmétiques et/ou de plantes médicinales. Elle comprend donc la pharmacovigilance appliquée à la phytothérapie, la nutrivigilance et la cosmétovigilance mais également l’addictovigilance dans le cas des plantes toxicomanogènes et la toxicovigilance dans le cas des plantes toxiques. Rendue nécessaire par l’existence de risques de toxicité (aiguë ou chronique), ou d’interactions médicamenteuses (de nature pharmacocinétique ou pharmacodynamique) entre plusieurs plantes associées, ou entre une plante et un médicament allopathique – chimique ou biotechnologique –, la phytovigilance constitue en outre une obligation légale. En effet, le titre IX de la directive 2001/83/CE impose la pharmacovigilance pour tous les médicaments, y compris ceux à base de plantes, tandis que la nutrivigilance est rendue obligatoire par l’Agence européenne de sécurité sanitaire des aliments.



    [Phytovigilance: A medical requirement and a legal obligation].

    [Article in French]


    Phytovigilance consists in supervision of side effects and drug interactions consequential to use of herbal medicinal products, herbal food supplements, herbal cosmetics and/or medicinal plants. It includes thus pharmacovigilance applied to phytotherapy, nutrivigilance and cosmetovigilance but also addictovigilance in case of plants, which lead to drug addiction, and toxicovigilance in case of toxic plants. Becoming necessary owing to (acute or chronic) toxicity risks or to drug interactions risks (of pharmacocinetical or pharmacodynamical kind) - as far as it concerns interactions between several associated plants or between a plant and a chemical or biotechnological allopathic medicine -, phytovigilance represents moreover a legal obligation. Pharmacovigilance - in case of herbal medicinal products - is indeed becoming mandatory according to title IX of the European directive 2001/83/EC, whereas nutrivigilance is imposed by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA).
    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


    Addictovigilance; CABP; Cosmetovigilance; Cosmétovigilance; Directive 2001/83/CE; Directive 2001/83/EC; Herbal food supplements; Herbal medicinal products; MABP; Materiovigilance; Matériovigilance; Nutrivigilance; Pharmacovigilance; Phytovigilance; Toxicovigilance

    'How I paid $300 for a $60,000 round-the-world first-class flight'


    Emerg Med J. 2015 Aug 27. pii: emermed-2015-204689. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2015-204689. [Epub ahead of print]

    Characteristics associated with sexual assaults at mass gatherings.



    Sexual assault is disturbingly common, yet little is known about those occurring at mass gatherings, defined as a group of people congregated for a common purpose. Our objectives were to examine patterns of variation in sexual assault associated with mass gatherings and to determine factors associated with assaults occurring at mass gatherings.


    We performed a case series analysis from January to December, 2013. We included all patients >16 years presenting within 30 days of their sexual assault to the Ottawa Hospital Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP). Cases were stratified by whether or not they occurred at mass gatherings. We abstracted from the SAPACP records: patient and sexual assault characteristics, alcohol or drug consumption and medical and forensic care accepted. We performed descriptive analyses and multiple logistical regression to identify factors associated with mass gathering assaults.


    We found 204 cases of sexual assault, of which 53 (26%) occurred at mass gatherings. Relative frequencies of mass gathering sexual assaults peaked during New Year's Eve, Canada Day, university frosh week and Halloween. We found the following factors were statistically significantly associated with sexual assault at mass gatherings: younger age (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99); voluntary consumption of drugs and alcohol (3.88, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.23); assault occurring on a holiday (2.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.64) and the assailant unknown to the victim (2.43, 95% CI 1.15 to 5).


    This study is the first to describe patterns of variation in sexual assault incidents associated with occurrence of mass gatherings as well as factors associated with such assaults. We will disseminate these results to key stakeholders in order to develop prevention-minded policies for future mass gatherings.
    Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to


    forensic/legal medicine; mass gathering medicine; violence, interpersonal
    [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    Free full text

    Lionel Robineau Saturday October 31st

    J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 May 26;166:279-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.015. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

    Antiplasmodial and anti-inflammatory effects of an antimalarial remedy from the Wayana Amerindians, French Guiana: takamalaimë (Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC., Myrtaceae).



    Field investigations highlighted the use of Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC (syn. P. persoonii McVaugh), a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians in Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata, French Guiana, for the treatment of malaria, and administered either orally in the form of a decoction or applied externally over the whole body. This use appears limited to the Wayana cultural group in French Guiana and has never been reported anywhere else. Our goal was to evaluate the antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities of a P. acutangulum decoction to explain the good reputation of this remedy.


    Interviews with the Wayana inhabitants of Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata were conducted within the TRAMAZ project according to the TRAMIL methodology, which is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of medicinal plant uses. A decoction of dried aerial parts of P. acutangulum was prepared in consistency with the Wayana recipe. In vitro antiplasmodial assays were performed on chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains and on chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) was evaluated on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the decoction was measured on L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. A preliminary evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of the decoction, administered orally twice daily, was assessed by the classical four-day suppressive test against P. berghei NK65 in mice.


    The decoction displayed a good antiplasmodial activity in vitro against the three tested strains, regardless to the bioassay used, with IC50 values of 3.3µg/mL and 10.3µg/mL against P. falciparum FcB1 and NF54, respectively and 19.0µg/mL against P. falciparum 7G8. It also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in a dose dependent manner. At a concentration of 50µg/mL, the decoction inhibited the secretion of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: TNFα (-18%), IL-1β (-58%), IL-6 (-32%), IL-8 (-21%). It also exhibited a mild NO secretion inhibition (-13%) at the same concentration. The decoction was non-cytotoxic against L6 cells (IC50>100µg/mL), RAW cells and PBMC. In vivo, 150µL of the decoction given orally twice a day (equivalent to 350mg/kg/day of dried extract) inhibited 39.7% average parasite growth, with more than 50% of inhibition in three mice over five. The absence of response for the two remaining mice, however, induced a strong standard deviation.


    This study highlighted the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the decoction of P. acutangulum aerial parts, used by Wayana Amerindians from the Upper-Maroni in French Guiana in case of malaria. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, which may help to explain its use against this disease, was demonstrated using models of artificially stimulated cells.
    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Antimalarial; Cytokines; French Guiana; Plasmodium; Psidium acutangulum; Traditional medicine

    The IHS Conference & Research Grant provides up to $750 to cover travel costs and fees for career-related expenses.

    The Grant is awarded on a rolling basis to current graduate students advancing the principles of freedom through their career. Eligible activities include, but are not limited to:
    •   Presentations at academic or professional conferences
    •   Travel to academic job interviews on a campus or at professional/academic conferences
    •   Travel to archives or libraries for research
    •   Participation in career-development or enhancing seminars
    •   Submission of unpublished manuscripts to journals or book publishers
    Please note, Conference & Research Grants cannot be used solely for conference attendance. Funding will only be considered for individuals presenting a paper or interviewing for a job at a conference.
    If you have previously participated in an IHS academic program or discussed your academic career with a member of IHS staff, please apply through the Hayek Fund for Scholars

    Previous Conference & Research Grant Winners

    IHS Conference & Research Grants have supported scholars across a range of disciplines and activities:

    Conor Williams
    Georgetown University, Government, PhD 2011

    Awarded for: Presenting his paper, Adam Bernard Mandeville’s Defense of Imperfection & Human Flourishing, at the 2010 Midwest Political Science Association meeting.

    Claudia Williamson
    West Virginia University, Economics, PhD 2008

    Awarded for: Presenting her paper, Will it Go Round in Circles: Hayek on Foreign Aid Practices, at the 2010 Association of Private Enterprise Education meeting.

    Brian Smith
    Georgetown University, Political Theory, PhD 2008

    Awarded for: Presenting his paper, Adam Smith, the Concept of Leisure, and the Division of Labor, at the 2006 Midwest Political Science Association meeting.

    Isik Ozel
    University of Washington, Political Science, PhD 2006

    Awarded for: Presenting his paper, State-Business Alliances in Market Openings: Mexico and Turkey, 1980-2000 at the Seventh Mediterranean Social and Political Research Meeting in 2006.

    Irina A. Telyukova
    University of Pennsylvania, Economics, PhD 2006

    Awarded for: Presenting dissertation research on the Household Need for Liquidity and the Credit Card Debt Puzzle at the 2005 Canadian Economic Association meeting.

    Tony Fang
    University of Toronto, Labour Economics/Social Policy, PhD 2004

    Awarded for: Job interviews at the American Economics Association 2003 meeting.

    Joyce Ehrlinger
    Cornell University, Social Psychology, PhD 2004

    Awarded for: Poster Presentation on Explaining the failure to anticipate unanticipated consequences: Do we anchor too much upon intentions? at the 2004 Society for Personality and Social Psychology meeting.

    Jules Gehrke
    University of Minnesota, History, PhD 2006

    Awarded for: Dissertation research at New York City’s Public Library and Columbia’s Butler Library archives.

    The Application Process

    Applications for the IHS Conference & Research Grant are accepted on a rolling basis, and must be submitted online at least 4 weeks before your activity. Applications should be submitted through your existing IHS account. You may save your application and return later to submit it. (If you have previously participated in an IHS academic program or discussed your academic career with a member of IHS staff, please apply through the Hayek Fund for Scholars.)
    Your completed Conference & Research Grant application must include the following items:
    • A completed online application form
    • Your CV or resume
    • An itemized list of expenses
    For those seeking the scholarship for career development you will also need:
    • A summary of your presentation, such as an abstract or copy of the paper you intend to present at a conference, a description of arranged interviews, or a description of your planned research (e.g., a dissertation proposal)
    • A brief essay, no more than 500 words, describing how your proposed activity will advance your career
    • A brief essay, no more than 500 words, describing how your proposed activity advances our understanding of the principles, practices, and institutions necessary for a free society or our understanding of the classical liberal or libertarian tradition
    Applications for the IHS Conference & Research Grant are accepted year-round on a rolling basis.
    Applicants will be notified of the committee’s decision within four weeks of submission. You must submit your application at least four weeks before your fundable activity, or it may not be reviewed in time for the fundable activity. Awards are only granted for future activities, and are not awarded retroactively. Awards are disbursed after the awardee presents original receipts.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Are international students eligible for funding from the IHS Conference & Research Grant?
    PhD students currently enrolled in graduate school are eligible for awards from the IHS Conference & Research Grant regardless of their nationality.
    Are students of any university eligible for the IHS Conference & Research Grant?
    Yes. Students of any university may apply for this fund.
    How long does it take the committee to make a decision?
    Applicants will be notified of the committee’s decision within four weeks of submitting an application. Note: you must submit your application at least four weeks in advance of your fundable activity. Awards are only granted for anticipated future activities, and cannot be awarded retroactively.
    Can I apply even if I have participated in other IHS academic programs?
    If you have already participated in one of our academic programs or discussed your academic career with staff, you should apply through the Hayek Fund for Scholars. If you do not see the correct application, please contact us. 
    I am attending an IHS summer seminar. Does this qualify for an IHS Conference & Research Grant?
    Typically, no. The IHS Conference & Research Grant is not for attendance at a conference alone, so our summer seminars typically do not qualify.
    I presented a paper several weeks ago. May I apply for the Grant ex-post?
    We do not give awards after an event. Remember, applications must be submitted at least four weeks in advance of your fundable activity, otherwise it may not be reviewed in time. Awards are only granted for anticipated future activities.
    Is there a deadline to apply for the Grant?
    No. Applications are accepted year-round on a rolling basis. There is no deadline to apply, but applications must be submitted at least four weeks before the event. The majority of awards are made in the fall and spring.
    What kind of project is typically awarded a grant from the IHS Conference & Research Grant?
    Successful projects vary greatly, from a paper presentation at the American Political Science Association’s annual meeting to a job interview in New Zealand. To be certain, however, all projects funded are seen to further an understanding of the classical liberal tradition.
    Who may apply for the IHS Conference & Research Grant?
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    Are applications still accepted by mail, or email?
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    Unusual Uses for Pumpkins via @usnews

    Volume 43, November 2015, Pages 169–174
    Original Research Article

    Protein, mineral and amino acid content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes prepared from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.)


    Study of composition of traditional Cameroonian dishes prepared from pumpkin.
    Protein, mineral, amino acid composition determined in 5 dishes.
    Protein content ranged from 2.2 (Waïgoré dollugo) to 5.1 g/100 g ww (Waïgoré niébé).
    Dishes good phosphorous sources; moderate content of other minerals.
    Essential amino acids (except tryptophan) found in all dishes.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the protein, mineral and amino acid content of some traditional dishes of the Far-North region of Cameroon prepared from pumpkin. Samples were collected after a survey of the cooking methods of the various dishes in 60 households that accepted to take part in the study in Maroua city. Proximate contents (moisture, ash and protein) were determined by standard Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods. Mineral contents: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, phosphorous (P) by colorimetry. Amino acids were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. Results revealed that proximate composition expressed in g/100 g wet weight basis ranged between 70.4–84.8 (moisture), 0.3–1.3 (ash) and 2.2–5.1 (protein); mineral contents expressed in mg/100 g dry weight ranged between 60.3–150.5 (Ca), 80.4–131.9 (Mg), 231.3–361.0 (P), 3.0–16.9 (Na), 1290.0–2753.0 (K), 4.3–8.5 (Fe), 0.7–2.0 (Zn), 0.2–0.3 (Cu), and 0.7–1.6 (Mn). Total amino acid contents ranged between 138.2–278.8 mg/g protein for essential amino acids, and 455.8–500.6 mg/g protein for non-essential amino acids. In general, when peanut and cowpea were added to the preparation, the protein, mineral and amino acid contents were significantly increased.


    • Proximate composition;
    • Minerals;
    • Amino acids;
    • Traditional foods;
    • Pumpkin;
    • Cucurbita maxima;
    • Cameroon;
    • Food analysis;
    • Food composition

    1. Introduction

    According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the world production of pumpkins, squashes, and gourds in 2011 was estimated at over 24.3 million tons harvested from 1.7 million ha (FAOSTAT, 2013). There are three common types of pumpkin worldwide: Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata ( Lee et al., 2003). Pumpkin (C. maxima) is an angiosperm that belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. It is a climbing herbaceous vine with tendrils ( Acquaah, 2004). The fruits vary in size, color, shape and weight and have a moderately hard rind, with a thick edible flesh, and numerous seeds in the fruit which are either plump and tan, or soft and white ( Robinson and Decker-Walters, 1997 and Mohammed and Alfawaz, 2004). This important horticultural commodity is not commercially cultivated on a large scale in Cameroon. However, local populations grow it on the roofs of their houses or in their kitchen gardens and use the matured fruits as a vegetable. The leaves, fruits, flowers and seeds are health-promoting food. Different parts of the plant have been used as medicine in some developed countries ( Mukesh et al., 2010).
    Several studies have reported the nutritive value of the pumpkin and its varieties from different regions. For example, Achu et al. (2005) reported that cucurbit seeds, from different bioclimatic regions in Cameroon, contained 28–40% protein, 44–53% fat and 7–10% carbohydrate and could therefore be exploited as oil and protein sources. Younis et al. (2000) reported that the seed of Cucurbita pepo is rich in oil, carbohydrates and α-tocopherol, while the four dominant fatty acids present in the oil were palmitic 13.3%, stearic 8%, oleic 29% and linoleic 47%. The bright orange color indicates that pumpkin flesh is high in β-carotene ( Mukesh et al., 2010), which is converted to vitamin A in the human body ( Weinstein et al., 2004). The body needs vitamin A for proper growth, healthy eyes and protection from diseases ( Semba, 2001). Pumpkin is also rich in vitamin C, vitamin E, lycopene and dietary fiber ( Pratt and Matthews, 2003). These facts suggest that the processing of pumpkin into various food products can be benefits in many ways. Pumpkin (C. maxima) pulp has been used to supplement cereal flours in bakery products ( Adriana and Simona, 2014).
    In Maroua, a city of the Far-North region of Cameroon, ripe pumpkin is cooked as a vegetable, and many traditional dishes are also prepared using pumpkin pulp. However, there is a lack of information about the nutritional value of this fruit. In fact, knowledge of the nutritive value of local dishes, soup ingredients and local foodstuffs is necessary in order to encourage the increased cultivation and consumption of those that are highly nutritive. The present work focused on nutrients important to the diet of nutritionally vulnerable populations and found in the dishes, namely proteins, minerals and amino acids. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protein, mineral and amino acid content of some traditional dishes of the Far-North region of Cameroon prepared using pumpkin.