Friday, 31 May 2019

Is There Any Evidence to Support the Use of Garlic as a Wormer for Dogs and Cats in the UK?

a Knowledge Summary by
Louise Buckley PhD, RVN 1*
1The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh
*Corresponding Author (

Vol 4, Issue 2 (2019)
Published: 29 May 2019
Reviewed by: Virginia Fajt (DVM, PhD, DACVCP) and William Chandler (BVetMed, MRCVS)
Next review date: 20 Feb 2021

PICO question
In dogs and cats, is the oral administration of garlic, compared to no treatment, efficacious at preventing or reducing the intestinal worm burden (species found in the UK)?
Clinical bottom line
No studies were identified that investigated the efficacy of garlic at preventing intestinal worm burden. Garlic reduced egg and/or larvae counts in the worm species studied. However, where measured, egg and larvae count rapidly (2 days) returned to pretreatment levels once dietary garlic was discontinued. None of the studies included adulticidal action as an outcome measure. In the absence of research to demonstrate high levels of adulticidal action against a range of intestinal wormers at therapeutic, non-toxic levels in cats and dogs, clients should be advised that garlic has not been demonstrated to be an effective anthelmintic (either for multiple or single species use) for use in dogs and cats either to prevent or to treat an intestinal worm burden.
Clinical scenario
The veterinary nurse is reading through the worming advice being given in a Facebook group that encourages a natural approach to preventative medicine in dogs and cats. She notices that garlic is being recommended quite frequently by some pet owners as an alternative to a conventional anthelmintic and wonders what the evidence base is for this recommendation. She notes that some owners are recommending its routine use to prevent dogs or cats becoming parasitised and others are recommending it for dogs or cats known to have an intestinal worm burden so she includes both aspects in her PICO.
The evidence
No papers were identified that addressed the use of garlic to prevent dogs and/or cats becoming parasitised by intestinal worm species. Three papers were identified that either fully (Bastidas, 1969; Ronagh et al2015) or partially (Andrei et al., 2011) addressed the intestinal worm reduction aspect of the PICO. Two of the studies focused on dogs (Bastidas, 1969; Andrei et al., 2011) and one of the studies focused on cats (Ronagh et al., 2015). Not all species of intestinal worm known to parasitise cats and/or dogs in the UK were represented, with tapeworm species being the notable exception. All three studies were clinical trials that either used the animal as its own control (Andrei et al., 2011, Bastidas, 1969) or allocated the animals to separate treatment groups (Ronagh et al., 2015). Random allocation of the latter was not reported. Despite being clinical trials, all three studies are very limited with poor data handling and insufficient reporting of the methodology and/or results.
The Andrei et al(2011) study used the garlic in conjunction with other herbs so any potential anthelmintic effect of garlic is totally confounded with the other components (n = 6, plus water) of the tincture and pumpkin oil preparation used. However, this tincture was associated with a greater than 90% reduction in eggs per gram of faeces for all species (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma spp., Trichocephalus spp.), with similar findings across both populations (shelter dogs: n = 37, owned dogs: n = 10)) studied. Bastidas (1969), with a sample size of one, found that larvae count of Ancylostoma Caninum decreased during daily dosing with garlic, but eggs per gram of faeces was only slightly reduced. Rapid recovery to pre-dosing levels (2 days) was observed following treatment cessation. Finally, Ronagh et al(2015) found that cats dosed with garlic (n = 5) showed a numerical reduction in Toxocara cati eggs on a faecal egg count and a numerical reduction in fecundity rate (number of eggs produced by a female adult Toxocara cati worm). No such reduction in either parameter was observed for Control cats (n = 5). None of the studies directly studied the effect of garlic as an adulticide and this remained an important practical limitation in the use of these findings.
Summary of the evidence
Andrei et al. (2011)
Bastidas (1969)
Ronagh et al. (2015)
Appraisal, application and reflection
Plant-based anthelmentics have been suggested as a potential alternative to overcome increasing resistance to conventional anthelmentics (French, 2018). The use of garlic as a traditional anthelmintic for dogs with intestinal worms has been reported (n = 1 interviewee) in a study exploring central-southern Italy’s ethno-veterinary practices (Guarrera et al., 2008), and more widely elsewhere in pigs (Lans et al., 2007; Bartha et al., 2015) and ruminants (Lans et al., 2007; Bullitta et al., 2018). Thus, the promotion of garlic as an anthelmintic in dogs and cats is probably derived from traditional ethnobotanical medical practices. More recently, there has been some growth in scientific interest in its potential anthelmintic properties in a range of mammalian and avian species. Extracts from garlic bulbs shown to have in vivo (e.g. Palacious-Landin et al., 2015, but see e.g. Worku, 2009; Velkers et al., 2011) and/or in vitro (e.g. Palacious-Landin et al., 2015; Orengo et al., 2016; Tavassoli et al., 2018) efficacy (differing stages of the life cycle, dependent on the study) against various species of helminth. This includes in vitro activity against some species (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum) that infest dogs (Orengo et al., 2016). Consequently, scientific and veterinary growth in its interest in a wormer for dogs and cats may be likely to develop over time.
No English language papers were identified that addressed the prevention aspect of the PICO. Three papers were identified that either fully (Bastidas, 1969; Ronagh et al., 2015) or partially (Andrei et al., 2011) addressed the treatment aspect of the PICO. Two of the studies focused on dogs (Bastidas, 1969; Andrei et al., 2011) and one of the studies focused on cats (Ronagh et al., 2015).  A further abstract (Bekirov et al., 1979) that examined the use of garlic (in conjunction with other ingredients) as a canine anthelmintic effective against Echinococcus or Taenia hydatigena was excluded as the main paper was in Russian but reported 92–94.8% and 100% efficacy respectively against each species. The relative lack of studies that addressed the PICO also meant that some of the intestinal worms known to affect dogs and cats in the UK did not have any evidence available to address the use of garlic as an anthelmintic for that species. Studies focusing on tapeworm species were notably absent, with the exception of the Bekirov study, which combined garlic with several other products thereby confounding interpretation of the efficacy of garlic per se as an anthelmintic. Thus, any positive anthelmintic effects at the level of the individual species may still limit clinical use to the practitioner or owner when seeking an anthelmintic effective against a broad range of intestinal worms.
All three studies included in this Knowledge Summary were clinical trials, which either used the animal as its own control (Andrei et al., 2011, Bastidas, 1969) or allocated the animals to separate treatment groups (Ronagh et al., 2015). However, despite being clinical trials, all of the studies showed clear limitations in terms of methodological approach and/or study methodology reporting and/or results reporting and highlight the importance of not using the evidence pyramid (see: O’Connor, 2017 for a discussion on the limitations to the evidence pyramid) in isolation when evaluating the relative quality of a study. Furthermore, the outcome measures used by each of the studies used are unlikely to address the clinical need of veterinary practitioners or clients seeking an anthelmintic that will kill intestinal worms present at the point of dosing the dog or cat.
In the Andrei et al. (2011) study a 90% reduction in eggs per gram of faeces for all species (Toxocara canisAncylostoma spp, Trichocephalus spp.) following a twice daily weight dependent dose of their worming preparation (tincture and pumpkin oil). Similar results were obtained for both populations (shelter dogs: n = 37, owned dogs: n = 10)) studied. However, this worming preparation used the garlic in conjunction with other herbs so any potential anthelmintic effect of garlic is totally confounded with the other components (n = 6, plus water) of the tincture and pumpkin oil preparation used. Thus, it is impossible to quantify the relative contribution (positive, negative, additive, synergistic, or no effect at all) of garlic to these findings. In defence of the authors, this study was designed to test the efficacy of this worming preparation rather than to investigate the efficacy of garlic in isolation as an anthelmintic. However, this study is also problematic in terms of its scientific quality, with authors failing to report tincture composition in sufficient detail, with no detail available on the quantity of each herb added to the tincture preparation. Dosing standardisation was achieved through product dosing based on the weight of the dog, but this is only described in terms of quantity of the tincture plus pumpkin oil supplied. Despite the most impressive sample size (relative to the other two studies reported here), the authors do not perform analytical statistics on their findings, and while they describe reporting the confidence intervals (which can be used in preference to p values), they appear to be reporting this as one value rather than as an upper and lower limit which limits its value in interpreting the data. However, the descriptive statistics do suggest that the before and after treatment faecal egg counts would be significantly different across all three of the worm species studied (and the direction of the effect is similar for both shelter and owned dogs) should a suitable analytical test be performed. Despite this, the study suffers from another key issue when considering the clinical application of this tincture, and that is that the outcome measure assessed did not include either a direct or indirect (proxy) measurement of the effect of the preparation on adult worm mortality and/or long-term fecundity. The study finished immediately after the end of the tincture and pumpkin oil dosing period. Thus, all that is known is that this worming preparation had effects on egg production during the period of dosing, without anything to indicate the possible reason for this reduction. This is a clinically important issue that is of relevance to any anthelmintic product selection, and represents a major study limitation within the context of any clinician considering using this worming preparation in preference to any product with known adulticidal efficacy.
The second of the studies evaluated (Bastidas, 1969) was included as a clinical trial based on its study methodology (before, during, after treatment) allowing it to meet the inclusion criteria but it had a sample size of one dog, and with each study phase undertaken only once, findings were potentially explicable, either partially or fully, by other undefined or unreported effects. This should be borne in mind when considering the reported findings. This study found that larvae count of Ancylostoma caninum decreased during daily dosing with garlic (non-standardised dose), but eggs per gram of faeces remained similar following a five-day dosing period. Application of the Andrei et al. (2011) equation for evaluating anthelmintic efficacy to Bastidas’ (1969) raw data indicated that efficacy at reducing egg count after 5 days of garlic treatment was only 14.75%. This was much lower than the Andrei et al. (2011) study, and suggests that other components of the Andrei et al. study’s worming preparation may have explained the increased efficacy at reducing egg count identified in that study. However, there are other differences in the study methodology and lack of detail regarding the tincture preparation mean that meaningful comparisons are difficult to draw. Garlic appeared more effective at reducing larvae count and was 81.77% effective at reducing larvae count by day 5 (the last day) of treatment. However, it is important to note that this effect was very short lived and mean larvae count increased rapidly (1 day) following discontinuation of the garlic and returned to approximately pretreatment levels only 2 days after discontinuation of the garlic. Again, while the presence of viable adult female worms was not an outcome measure of this study, these post-treatment changes in larvae count suggest that the addition of garlic to the diet at this dosage and dosing period did not affect adult female worm mortality or longer-term fecundity rates.
Finally, Ronagh et al. (2015) found that cats dosed with garlic (n = 5) showed a numerical reduction in Toxocara cati eggs on a faecal egg count and a numerical reduction in fecundity rate (number of eggs produced by a female adult Toxocara cati worm). No such reduction in either parameter was observed for Control cats (n = 5). However, this study euthanised the cats at the end of the study (to assess fecundity rate and gastrointestinal damage to the mucosa) and did not measure faecal egg counts for a few days post-treatment cessation. Thus, while it is known that egg counts were lower, and this reduction was probably due to a reduction in the number of eggs produced by each viable female, it is not known whether any inhibitory effect of the garlic is temporary (i.e. females will increase egg production when the garlic is discontinued) or whether it is more permanent (e.g. through increased morbidity/mortality rates of adult female worms). In the light of the Bastidas (1969) study findings this is an important consideration. This study did count the number of adult female worms present within the intestines at the point of euthanasia of both the Control group and the Garlic group but does not report this information. However, the authors do not report how the cats were allocated to their respective treatment groups. Frustratingly, the pretreatment faecal egg count demonstrates that the Control cats had a lower mean (± standard deviation) faecal egg count (9.4 ± 1.1) and fecundity rate (6.4 ± 2.0) than the Garlic group (egg count: 19.0 ± 2.0; fecundity rate: 10.4 ± 3.5), with important implications for data handling, analysis and interpretation. The authors’ report a significant effect of treatment group (Garlic versus Control) but fail to report what data was analysed to obtain this probability value, and its value to the data interpretation is thereby questionable. With better management of subject allocation to the treatment groups (for example by using faecal egg counts to rank cats according to worm burden severity and then allocating to treatments using a randomised block approach) this study could have been strengthened. It is not clear why this was not undertaken as the authors originally trapped 100 cats, and retained the 25 most Toxocara cati parasitised cats to use in this study, so this limitation could have been addressed at the study outset.
In summary, based on the limited and relatively poor quality studies available to address the PICO, garlic may have a temporary inhibitory action on larvae and/or egg production of the intestinal worm species studied but none of the studies directly investigated the effect of garlic on adult worm mortality or viability. However, where a proxy measure was used (egg/larvae production after treatment cessation) this suggested that garlic did not have adulticidal action against Ancyclostoma caninum. In the absence of research to demonstrate high levels of adulticidal action against a range of intestinal wormers at therapeutic, non-toxic levels in cats and dogs, clients should be advised that garlic is not proven as an effective anthelmintic (either against multiple species or a single species) for use in dogs and cats with to prevent, or to treat, an intestinal worm burden.
Methodology Section
Search Strategy
Databases searched and dates covered:Pubmed, accessed  via the NCBI website (01/01/1900 – 20/02/2019); Web of Science (1990 – 20/02/2019)
Search terms:Pubmed & Web of Science search:
(dog OR dogs OR canine OR canid OR canis OR bitch OR bitches OR pup OR puppy OR puppies OR cat OR cats OR feline OR felid OR kitten OR kittens) AND (garlic OR “allium sativum”) AND (worm OR tapeworm OR tape-worm OR “tape worm” OR roundworm OR round-worm OR “round worm” OR hookworm OR hook-worm OR “hook worm” OR whipworm OR whip-worm OR “whip worm” OR flatworm OR “flat worm” OR flat-worm OR endoparasite OR endo-parasite OR parasite OR parasitic OR anthelmintic OR ascarid OR ascaris OR larvae OR toxocara OR toxascaris OR ancylostoma OR trichuris OR uncinaria OR Dipylidium OR Taenia OR echinococcus OR cestode OR cestodes OR nematode OR nematodes OR Trematode OR Trematodes OR Fluke OR Flukes OR Nanophytus OR heterophyes OR cryptocotyle OR apophallus OR alaria)
CAB Abstract search:
  1. (dog or dogs or canine or canid or canis or bitch or bitches or pup or puppy or puppies or cat or cats or feline or felid or kitten or kittens).mp. [mp=abstract, title, original title, broad terms, heading words, identifiers, cabicodes]
  2. (garlic or allium sativum).mp. [mp=abstract, title, original title, broad terms, heading words, identifiers, cabicodes]
  3. (worm or tapeworm or tape-worm or tape worm or roundworm or round-worm or round worm or hookworm or hook-worm or hook worm or whipworm or whip-worm or whip worm or flatworm or flat worm or flat-worm or endoparasite or endo-parasite or parasite or parasitic or anthelmintic or ascarid or ascaris or larvae or toxocara or toxascaris or ancylostoma or trichuris or uncinaria or Dipylidium or Taenia or echinococcus or cestode or cestodes or nematode or nematodes or Trematode or Trematodes or Fluke or Flukes or Nanophytus or heterophyes or cryptocotyle or apophallus or alaria).mp. [mp=abstract, title, original title, broad terms, heading words, identifiers, cabicodes]
  4. 1 and 2 and 3
Dates searches performed:Pubmed (20/02/2019); Web of Science (20/02/2019); CAB Abstracts (20/02/2019)
Exclusion / Inclusion Criteria
Exclusion:Pre-defined exclusion criteria: non-English language, popular press articles, in vitro studies, conference abstracts
Inclusion:Any comparative study in which the effect of garlic on intestinal worms in dogs or cats was studied
Search Outcome
Number of results
Excluded – did not answer the PICO question
Excluded – not English language
Excluded – conference abstract only
Excluded – duplicates
Total relevant papers
Web of Science
CAB Abstracts
Total relevant papers when duplicates removed

Conflict of Interest
The author declares no conflicts of interest.

  1. Andrei, S., Ilie, M. S., Mederle, N. & Darabus, G. (2011) Testing the effectiveness of a plant extract in the therapy on some endoparasites in dogs. Lucrari Stiintifice - Medicina Veterinara, Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" Iasi, 54(3), pp. 247–254.
  2. Bartha, S. G., Quave, C. L., Balogh, L., Papp, N. (2015) Ethnoveterinary practices of Covasna County, Transylvania, Romania. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 11: 35 [online] Available from: (accessed: 16/05/2019) DOI:
  3. Bastidas, G. J. (1969) Effect of ingested garlic on Necator americanus and Ancylostoma caninumThe American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 18(6), pp. 920–923. DOI:
  4. Bekirov, R. E., Azimov, Sh. A., Oripov, A. O., & Dzhumaev, Z. (1979) The efficacy of granules against cestodes in dogs. Veterinariya, Moscow 8, pp. 50–51.
  5. Bullitta, S., Re, G. A., Manunta, D. I., & Oiluzza, G. (2018) Traditional knowledge about plant, animal, and mineral-based remedies to treat cattle, pigs, horses, and other domestic animals in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 14: 50 [online] Available from: (accessed: 16/05/2019) DOI:
  6. Buona, F., Pacifico, L., Piantedosi, D., Sgroi, G., Neola, B., Roncoroni, C., Genovese, A., Rufrano, D., & Veneziano, V. (2019) Preliminary Observations of the Effect of Garlic on Egg Shedding in Horses Naturally Infected by Intestinal Strongyles. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 72: 79–83. DOI:
  7. French, K. E. (2018) Plant-Based Solutions to Global Livestock Anthelmintic Resistance. Ethonobiology Letters 9(2): 110–123. DOI:
  8. Guarrera, P. M., Lucchese, F., & Medori, S. (2008) Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4: 7 [online] Available from: (accessed: 16/05/2019) DOI:
  9. Lans, C., Turner, N., Khan, T., Brauer, G., & Boepple, W. (2007) Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 3: 11 [online] Available from: (accessed: 16/05/2019) DOI:
  10. O’Connor, A. (2017) Is the simplicity of the evidence pyramid actually detrimental for understanding evidence? Veterinary Evidence 2(1).  DOI:
  11. Orengo, K. O., Maitho, T., & Mbaria, J. 2016. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Allium sativumAllium cepa and Jatropha curcas against Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninumAfrican Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 10(21): 465–471.
  12. Martin, L. K. & Beaver, P. C. (1968) Evaluation of Kato thick-smear technique for quantitative diagnosis of helminth infections. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 17, pp. 382–391. DOI:
  13. Palacious-Landin, J., Mendoza-de Gives, P., Salinas-Sanchez, D. O., Lopez-Arellano, M. E., Liebano-Hernadez, E., Hernadez-Velazquez, V. M., & Valladares-Cisneros, M. G. (2015) In vitro and in vivo nematocidal activity of Allium sativum and Tagetes erecta extracts Against Haemonchus contortusTurkish Journal of Parasitology 31: 277–282. DOI:
  14. Ronagh, K., Gharouni, A., Bahadori, S. R., Zakian, A., Gholami, N., Rezaeian, H. & Shahraki, M. S. (2015) Effect of Nigella sativa, Allium sativum, Syzgium aromaticum and Cucurbita maxima on Toxocara cati fecal egg count in stray cats. Online Journal of Veterinary Research, 19(5), pp. 325–330.
  15. Tavassoli, M., Jalilzadeh-Amin, G,. Fard, V. R. B., & Esfandiarpour, R. 2018. The in vitro effect of Ferula asafoetida and Allium sativum extracts on Strongylus spp. Annals of Parasitology 64(1): 59–63.
  16. Velkers, F. C., Dieho, K., Pecher, F. W. M., Vernooij, J. C. M., van Eck, J. H. H., &Landman, W. J. M. (2011) Efficacy of allicin from garlic against Ascaridia galli infection in chickens. Poultry Science 90(2): 364–368. DOI:
  17. Worku, M., Franco, R., & Baldwin, K. (2009) Efficacy of garlic as an anthelmintic in adult Boer goats. Archives of Biological Sciences 61(1): 135–140. DOI:

Intellectual Property Rights
Authors of Knowledge Summaries submitted to RCVS Knowledge for publication will retain copyright in their work, and will be required to grant to RCVS Knowledge a non-exclusive licence of the rights of copyright in the materials including but not limited to the right to publish, re-publish, transmit, sell, distribute and otherwise use the materials in all languages and all media throughout the world, and to licence or permit others to do so.
Knowledge Summaries are a peer-reviewed article type which aims to answer a clinical question based on the best available current evidence. It does not override the responsibility of the practitioner. Informed decisions should be made by considering such factors as individual clinical expertise and judgement along with patient’s circumstances and owners’ values. Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help inform and any opinions expressed within the Knowledge Summaries are the author's own and do not necessarily reflect the view of the RCVS Knowledge. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the content. While the Editor and Publisher believe that all content herein are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication, they accept no legal responsibility for any errors or omissions, and make no warranty, express or implied, with respect to material contained within. For further information please refer to our Terms of Use.

Wednesday, 29 May 2019

Save the 8 UBC Bosque trees

We the undersigned do not support the chopping down of the eight mature 60-foot pin oaks in the UBC Bosque for the placement of the new Arts Student Centre building, for the following reasons:
  1. The original approved location for the Arts Student Centre is already clear
  2. UBC Campus Planning says the other suggested location, between Music and the Wood Theatre "did not meet Arts Undergraduate Society criteria to be close to the main hub of the Faculty of Arts." A glance at a campus map makes this a puzzle.
  3. There are at least three surface-level parking lots in the same area that could be used for the Arts Student Centre instead of chopping down eight mature 60-foot trees.
  4. Everything proposed in the "revitalization" of the bosque can happen without chopping down eight mature trees or is already happening. 
  5. The arborist's report on the trees shows that some of these trees are currently used for nesting
We do not oppose the creation of a new building for the Arts Student Centre, but we do oppose the alteration of the bosque and chopping down of trees to build a structure that could be placed elsewhere. 
We call on UBC President Santa Ono and the UBC Board of Governors to intervene in this development process and stop the destruction of these trees.

Sunday, 26 May 2019

Nutraceuticals in Genitourinary Maladies

  • April 2019
  • DOI: 
  • 10.1007/978-3-030-04624-8_33
  • In book: Nutraceuticals in Veterinary Medicine
  • Robert W. Coppock
  • Abstract
    Nutraceuticals are used as prophylactics and remedies for genitourinary maladies in domestic animals and have been used throughout recorded history. They are also used to control and improve reproductive performance, improve the storability of semen and enhance ovum maturation, and improve in vitro fertilization. In the last decade, the effects and mechanisms of oxidative stress on reproductive performance and immune dysfunction have been elucidated. The antioxidative effects of certain nutraceuticals during periods of the reproductive cycle with high oxidative stress improve reproductive performance and reduce infections and other gentiourinary diseases. This chapter also reviews the current use of nutraceuticals to prevent and treat genitourinary diseases.

Saturday, 25 May 2019

Nutraceuticals in Mastitis


  • May 2019
  • DOI:
  • 10.1007/978-3-030-04624-8_38
  • In book: Nutraceuticals in Veterinary Medicine 

Acute and chronic forms of mastitis are the costliest disease in the dairy industry. Resistance of microbial pathogens to antimicrobials approved for clinical use is a significant threat to controlling mastitic pathogens and is a public health issue. In some countries, the cost of antimicrobial drugs reduces their usage, and ethnic remedies are being used. Organic dairies have prioritized the maintenance of mammary health and the use of nutraceuticals to prevent and treat mastitis. In some jurisdictions, dairy animals on organic farms that receive antibiotics are disqualified for life as dairy animals. There is conflicting evidence on the efficacy of nutraceuticals, homeopathy, and traditional medicine in treating mastitis and a lack of standards for evaluation of these remedies. Studies are showing that nutraceuticals can be efficacious. Phytotherapeutics generally are complex chemical mixtures and can be multifaceted in mechanisms of action. Intramammary infusions of probiotics and bacteriocins are being shown to be efficacious, and their mechanisms of action include being an immune stimulant. Immunotherapy with antibodies and immune system components can be efficacious. Intermingled treatments with nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals can be more efficacious than either treatment alone.

Thursday, 23 May 2019

International Society for Environmental Ethics 2019 Summer Conference

Adapting Environmental Ethics to Rapid, Anthropogenic, and Global Ecological Change
H.J. Andrews Forest Research Station
Blue River, Oregon
 JULY 10-13, 2019
 Global biophysical systems have remined relatively stable across twelve thousand years of the Holocene Epoch, providing background climatic and ecological conditions for the emergence and development of human civilization as we know it. While there is convincing evidence of that the state and function of global earth systems, and thus subsequent environmental and biological conditions, have been significantly different across geologic time, alterations underway today stand out for their rapidity and anthropogenic origin. The so-called Anthropocene portends unprecedented and arguably irreversible ecological conditions arising within only a few hundred years, or less.
The theme of this conference is to recognize the need for received frameworks of environmental thinking and historic environmental imaginaries to be revisited, adapted, and perhaps radically revised – or not – in response to normative, political, and existential demands precipitated by radical anthropogenic environmental change across global, regional, and local scales.

July 10                                                                                           
5:00 pm     Introduction, Check-in, and Welcome to the H.J. Andrews
5:30 – 6:15 pm     Dinner
  • Eugene Chislenko, “The Role of Philosophers in Climate Change”
    • Comments by Jeremy Bendik-Keymer
  • Jeremy Sorgen, “Adapting Ethics to Environmental Change”
    • Comments by Ken Shockley
8:00 – 10:00 pm     Welcome Reception
July 11                                                                                            
8:00 – 8:45 am     Breakfast
9:00 – 10:30 am     Session II – BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • Christopher Preston, “Whither Gene Drives”
    • Comments by Tama Weisman
  • Evelyn Brister, “Is Biotech a Strategy for Rewilding?”
    • Comments by Ben Hale
10:45 am – 12:15     Session III – JUSTICE FOR ALL
  • Thomas Bretz, “Disability and Environmental Justice”
    • Comments by Eugene Chislenko
  • Julia Gibson, “Climate Justice for the Dead and Dying”
    • Comments by Ben Almassi
12:30 – 1:15 pm     Lunch
1:30 – 3:00 pm     Session IV (NEO-) LIBERALISM IN ACTION
  • Christopher Rice, “The Green New Deal and Local Action”
    • Comments by Jay Odenbaugh
  • Tama Weisman, “On Honey Bees, Neo-Liberalism, and the Anthropocene”
    • Comments by Allison Fritz
3:15-4:45 pm     Session V – SEEING CHANGE IN NATURE
  • Allison Fitz, “Visualizing Climate Change: How Perception, Affect, and Personality Influence ‘Seeing'”
    • Comments by Kimberly Dill
  • Eva Maria Räpple, “Nature Passing By”
    • Comments by Katie McShane
5:00 – 5:45 pm     ISEE Annual Business Meeting
6:00 – 6:45 pm     Dinner
7:00 – 9:00 pm   KEYNOTE SPEAKER – Katie McShane
9:00 – 11:00 pm     Social Reception
July 12                                                                                             
8:00 – 8:45 am     Breakfast
9:00 – 10:30 pm     Session VII – CLIMATE CHANGE ETHICS
  • Mikko Puumala, “Climate Change & Adaptive Limits of Human Morality”
    • Comments by Allen Thompson
  • Kian Mintz-Woo, “Historical Responsibility for Loss and Damage”
    • Comments by Av Hiller
10:45 – 12:15 pm     Session VI – ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE
  • Levi Tenen, “Nature’s Extrinsic Final Value”
    • Comments by Huey-li Li
  • Megs Gendreau, “Valuing Out of Context”
    • Comments by Thomas Bretz
12:30 – 1:15 pm     Lunch
1:30 – 2:00 pm     Long Term Ecological Research/Reflections at the Andrews Forest, with Dr. Michael Nelson (PI, OSU/H.J. Andrews LTER)
2:00 – 3:00 pm     Walk down to the Blue River with Dr. Fred Swanson (OSU Forestry)
3:00 – 5:30 pm     Hike the Discovery Trail or Old Growth Trail with Fred Swanson
5:30 – 7:00 pm    Spotted Owl Listening Walk with Tim Fox
7:00 – 8:00 pm     Dinner
8:00 – 10:00 pm     Campfire Reception

July 13                                                                                                 
8:00 – 8:45 pm     Breakfast
9:00 – 11:15 pm    Session IX – ISSEUS RE: THE ANTHROPOCENE
  • Simona Capisani, “Assuming the Anthropocene”
    • Comments by Alex Lee
  • Jeremy Bendik-Keymer, “Autonomous Conceptions of Our Planetary Situation”
    • Comments by Kian Mintz-Woo
  • Huey-li Li, “A Critical Examination of Confucianism in the Age of the Anthropocene”
    • Comments by Marion Hourdequin
11:30 – 1:00 pm     Session X – MORAL REPAIR AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Ben Almassi, “Environmental Justice and Restorative Justice Without Romanticism”
    • Comments by Julia Gibson
  • Alex Hamilton and Alex Lee, “Environmental Problems are Development Problems”
    • Comments by Mikko Puumala
1:00 – 2:00 pm     Lunch
Conference Close

Plants of veterinary interest in the peasant culture of Sierra de Ancasti (Catamarca, Argentina)

In this work we aim at presenting and interpreting the use and meaning of plants in traditional veterinary in Sierra de Ancasti (Catamarca, Argentina). By employing ethnobotanical research methods and techniques, we registered taxa of vernacular ailments and 62 medicinal uses corresponding to 43 species from 30 botanical families. They are used medicinally due to their healing, digestive, anti-parasitic and oxytocic properties. In addition, the role of toxic and dangerous species was analyzed in the local veterinary. Together with the repertoire of plants, we also described other popular therapeutic techniques and cultural practices of religious-ritualistic nature. Finally, tension was analyzed between tradition and modernity in this field of knowledge. It has been concluded that, despite ethnoveterinary knowledge is relevant for many species and uses, its practice is being gradually neglected, which could eventually lead to the extinction of experience. © 2017 Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas.

Wednesday, 22 May 2019

Tuesday, 21 May 2019

Ethnoveterinary Therapeutic Practices and Conservation Status of the Medicinal Flora of Chamla Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


Ethno pharmacology is defined as a slipt up approach for novel drug overture by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. Identification and documentation data of medicinal plants in veterinary treatments of north khorasan province in the past, take the aim of this ethno pharmacological study. North khorasan province with different climates and wide diversity in plant species located in the Northeastern of Iran. Ethno veterinary data was collected from rural areas of two city of north khorasan province, Bojnord and Shirval, over an 8-month period in 2017. The medical plants and traditional knowledge of ethno veterinary practices that used for livestock remedy gathered from 20 local informants and practitioners in animal husbandry from the past, by face to face interview and semi-structured questionnaires. In this present investigation, 19 plants founded to be used in treating illness and problems of sheep and cattle. In this research also the amount of number of use (NU), frequency of citation (FC) and Relative cultural importance (RCI) indecies determined.

Monday, 20 May 2019

Use of phytotherapy as a form of ethnoveterinary medicine in the area of Stara planina mountain in Serbia

  • July 2015
  • AMHA - Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica 13(1):75-94

Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) considers implementation of folk knowledge and skills in animal health care, production and breeding. Also it means understanding of diagnostic, preventive, therapeutic skills and treatments in order to improve public health. EVM has a wide importance in the organic farming and environmental protection. Our studied geographic area is important because it is inhabited with Shops or Torlaks, a special ethnographic group of the South Slavs. Torlaks have developed special animal treatment and methods of animal breeding, particularly in sheep. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of ethno veterinary medicine in villagers from the eastern part of Stara planina in the Dimitrovgrad municipality, District of Pirot, to point out the specificity and importance of knowledge in relation to the geographic places and determine the applicability of knowledge in veterinary medicine and organic production. The research included 50 inhabitants from area of villages: Gornji Krivodol, Boljev Dol, Kamenica and Senokos. All villages are in the territory of the municipality of Dimitrovgrad, District of Pirot, Republic of Serbia. Performed methods were: non-structural, semi-structured and field interviews. According to the collected data, 64 different recipes and methods were noted, of which 43 include medicinal plants recipes, and other data include different methods of diagnosis, treatment, prevention and animal nutrition.

Friday, 17 May 2019


Phytochemical processing is an area of engineering that is critical to the growing multi million dollar global business of healthcare in pharmaceutical, neutraceutical, and herbal based industries. The herbal related market includes herbs used as food or food additives, cosmetic ingredients, and herbal medicines. In developing countries they pose a large threat to public health and contribute to the prevalence of malnutrition, anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia. A main stream medicine is increasing receptive to use of antimicrobials and other drugs derived from plants as traditional antibiotics. The results of phytochemical screening of methanolic extracts of Alstonia scholaris, Lawsonia inermis, Ervatamia divaricata and Asparagus racemosus revealed the presence of terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, carbohydrates and some other phyotochemicals.

Healing Horses Their Way

Hello friends,

In case you missed it, I just announced that I’ll be offering a free online webinar this coming Tuesday. I’ll be teaching you how to solve some common equine conditions using natural methods. This is just a tiny taste of what I’m teaching in my full online course, Healing Horses Their Way.

I can’t wait to connect with all of you!

Even if you can’t make the live event, I still invite you to register as I’ll be sending everyone who signs up an email the next day to access the recording (you’ll have access until 27th May).