Tuesday, 31 October 2017

Thank you good people at Horseshoe Bay terminal

Some good people helped me with my heavy bags today. They didn't need to know me in advance or receive favours from me, and I did not have to offer to pay them [handsome is as handsome does]. I managed the bags OK until the biggest one got stuck in Compass Barriers at Vancouver city centre. The handle bent and it was broken by the time I got off the bus at Horseshoe Bay. But a man with a bike carried them into the terminal and a woman who had just come in to the terminal [going to Langdale] pulled one down the mile of corridor in the terminal. Ferry staff pulled them in turns from one end of the boat to the next and another passenger helped me carry them off. Of course when I unpacked them seeking the source of the weight - one item was my jewelry making case- something I can't leave behind.

Historical Ecology of Cultural Keystone Places of the Northwest Coast: Historical Ecology of Cultural Keystone Places

Article in American Anthropologist · July 2017 DOI: 10.1111/aman.12893 Dana Lepofsky Chelsey Geralda Armstrong at Simon Fraser University 6.51Simon Fraser University + 4 Spencer Greening Nancy J. Turner at University of Victoria 34.38University of Victoria Abstract For many Indigenous peoples, their traditional lands are archives of their histories, from the deepest of time to recent memories and actions. These histories are written in the landscapes’ geological features, contemporary plant and animal communities, and associated archaeological and paleoecological records. Some of these landscapes, recently termed “cultural keystone places” (CKPs), are iconic for these groups and have become symbols of the connections between the past and the future, and between people and place. Using an historical-ecological approach, we describe our novel methods and initial results for documenting the history of three cultural keystone places in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Hauyat, Laxgalts'ap (Old Town) and Dałk Gyilakyaw (Robin Town) (territories of Heiltsuk, Gitga'ata, and Gitsm'geelm, respectively). We combine data and knowledge from diverse disciplines and communities to tell the deep and recent histories of these cultural landscapes. Each of CKPs encompasses expansive landscapes of diverse habitats transformed by generations of people interacting with their surrounding environments. Documenting the “softer” footprints of past human-environmental interactions can be elusive and requires diverse approaches and novel techniques.

Ocean Cultures: Northwest Coast Ecosystems and Indigenous Management Systems

Chapter · June 2017 In book: Conservation for the Anthropocene Ocean: Interdisciplinary Science in Support of Nature and People, Publisher: Academic Press., Editors: P. S. Levin and M. R. Poe, pp.169-199 Darcy Mathews at University of Victoria Darcy Mathews 7.5University of Victoria Nancy J. Turner at University of Victoria Nancy J. Turner 34.38University of Victoria Abstract In this chapter, we examine the diversity of strategies developed over mil- lennia by Northwest Coast First Peoples to maintain and enhance marine and coastal species and habitats. These form a continuum with traditional terres- trial management systems, and tend to reflect the same overarching values and protocols applied and upheld by Indigenous People of the region “since time immemorial." Our work is based on compila- tions and analyses of oral histories and ethnographic accounts from Indigenous environmental experts, along with reviews of published literature, journals and field notes of surveyors, colonial officials and others, as well as surveys and documentation by ourselves and colleagues of the physical, archaeological, and biological evidence of traditional management systems in various sites along the coast. In the following sections we define the features, both tangible and intangible, of traditional land and resource management systems, including the geographical extent and the potential time depth of their development on the Northwest Coast. We consider how these various management practices have been integrated across different ecosystems and over seasonal and broader time scales, and how they have contributed to people’s food security, cultural com- plexity, adaptation, and resilience. In addition to this information, the question of “learning”—both past and present—concerns not just knowledge transmis- sion through time, but also restoring social relationships and developing new collaborations. To illustrate these points, we present three examples of marine resource management systems, with their physical, biological, ecological, and social attributes. Finally, we consider the implications of these traditional man- agement systems for restoring productivity and well-being of coastal ecosys- tems, and for supporting Indigenous peoples’ food security, food sovereignty, and cultural identity.

Natural triterpenoids from Cecropia lyratiloba are cytotoxic to both sensitive and multidrug resistant leukemia cell lines

Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Dec 1;15(23):7355-60. Epub 2007 Aug 22. Rocha Gda G1, Simões M, Lúcio KA, Oliveira RR, Coelho Kaplan MA, Gattass CR. Author information 1 Lab. de Imunologia Celular, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS B1 G, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Abstract The cytotoxicity of four triterpenoids, euscaphic acid (1), tormentic acid (2), 2alpha-acetyl tormentic acid (3), and 3beta-acetyl tormentic acid (4), isolated from the roots of Cecropia lyratiloba (Moraceae) by countercurrent chromatography, was evaluated in vitro in sensitive and multidrug resistant leukemia cell lines. A structure/activity relationship analysis of the compounds was performed. Acetylation of compound 2 at C2 increased its activity by a factor of 2 while acetylation at C3 had a smaller effect. Compound 1 induces death by activation of caspase-3, dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the four triterpenoids were also active toward a multidrug resistant (MDR) leukemia cell line, overexpressing glycoprotein-P (P-gp). These results reveal the potential of the terpenoids as source for the development of new anti-neoplastic and anti-MDR drugs. PMID: 17889544 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2007.07.020 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Black Women with Multiple Sex Partners The Role of Sexual Agency

J Black Sex Relatsh. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 Oct 1. Published in final edited form as: J Black Sex Relatsh. 2016 Fall; 3(2): 53–74. doi: 10.1353/bsr.2016.0028 PMCID: PMC5512887 NIHMSID: NIHMS866622 Stephanie Campos, Ellen Benoit, and Eloise Dunlap Author information ► Copyright and License information ► The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Black Sex Relatsh Abstract Motivations of low-income substance using heterosexual Black women in New York City for having multiple sexual partners are explored in this paper. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 50 study participants demonstrates that their relationships consisted of those who had: (1) a main sex partner and a secondary sex partner; or (2) two or more “casual” partners. Individual-level motivations for extra relational sex fell into four dominant themes: sexual pleasure, partner infidelity, sex exchange and past main partners. Using a Black feminist framework, we describe how participants displayed considerable autonomy by actively forming and withdrawing from sexual relationships with men. However, women described low rates of condom use with main partners and inconsistent use of condoms with more casual sexual partners. This contradiction becomes an important area for sexual health interventions. Women who had sexual relations with only one current mate in the past two years were recruited as a monogamous comparison group.

Mercury in Feathers and Blood of Gulls from the Southern Baltic Coast, Poland.

Water Air Soil Pollut. 2017;228(4):138. doi: 10.1007/s11270-017-3308-6. Epub 2017 Mar 11. Szumiło-Pilarska E1, Falkowska L1, Grajewska A1, Meissner W2. Author information 1 Department of Marine Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, University of Gdańsk, Al. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-387 Gdynia, Poland. 2 Avian Ecophysiology Unit, Department of Vertebrate Ecology and Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, ul. Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland. Abstract Gulls were assessed as sentinels of contamination in the coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, research material being obtained from dead birds collected on Polish beaches and near fishing ports in 2009-2012. In feathers and blood of four gull species: herring gull (Larus argentatus), common gull (Larus canus), black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), and great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), concentration of total mercury (HgT) was assayed, taking into account the type of feathers, sex, and age. Stable isotopes (δ15N, δ13C) were used as tracers of trophic position in the food web. In the study, feathers and blood were compared as non-invasive indicators of alimentary exposure introducing mercury into the system. In order to do that, the correlations between mercury concentrations in the blood, feathers, and the birds' internal tissues were examined. The strongest relations were observed in the liver for each species R2Common Gull = 0.94, p = 0.001; R2Black-headed Gull = 0.89, p = 0.001; R2Great Black-backed Gull = 0.53, p = 0.001; R2Herring Gull = 0.78, p = 0.001. While no correlation was found with feathers, only developing feathers of juvenile herring gulls were found to be a good indicator immediate of exposure through food (R2muscle = 0.71, p = 0.001; R2kidneys = 0.73, p = 0.001; R2heart = 0.89, p = 0.001; R2lungs = 0.86, p = 0.001; R2brain = 0.83, p = 0.001). Additionally, based on studies of herring gull primary feathers, decrease of mercury concentration in the diet of birds over the last two decades is also discussed. KEYWORDS: Baltic Sea; Blood; Feathers; Gulls; Mercury; Sentinels PMID: 28344366 PMCID: PMC5346437 DOI: 10.1007/s11270-017-3308-6 Free PMC Article

Insights on dispersal and recruitment paradigms: sex- and age-dependent variations in a nomadic breeder

Oecologia. 2017 Oct 23. doi: 10.1007/s00442-017-3972-7. [Epub ahead of print] Acker P1,2, Francesiaz C3, Béchet A4, Sadoul N5, Lessells CM6, Pijl AS6, Besnard A3. Author information 1 Laboratoire Évolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB) UMR 5174, Université Paul Sabatier, CNRS, ENSFEA, IRD, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062, Toulouse, France. 2 CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS, PSL Research University, EPHE UM, SupAgro, IRD INRA, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293, Montpellier, France. 3 CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS, PSL Research University, EPHE UM, SupAgro, IRD INRA, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293, Montpellier, France. 4 Centre de Recherche de la Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, 13200, Arles, France. 5 Les Amis des Marais du Vigueirat, Marais du Vigueirat, Mas Thibert, 13104, Arles, France. 6 Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Postbus 50, 67000 AB, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Abstract Sex- and age-dependence in recruitment and dispersal are often explained by costs arising from competition for holding a breeding territory over the years-a typical feature of species living in stable habitats. For instance, long-lived birds with male territoriality often exhibit large variation in recruitment age and higher dispersal in females and young individuals. As a corollary, we expected that species with ephemeral habitat suitability, and hence nomadic breeding, would show weak age- and sex-dependence in dispersal and low variation in recruitment age, because territory ownership is not maintained over the years. In addition, the higher cost of reproduction in females might not be (over)compensated for by costs of territoriality in males. Accordingly, females would recruit later than males. We explored these variations using multievent capture-recapture models over 13 years, 3479 (2392 sexed) slender-billed gulls (Chroicocephalus genei) and 45 colony sites along the French Mediterranean coast. As expected, variability in recruitment age was low with males recruiting earlier than females. Nonetheless, dispersal in and out of the study area decreased with age and was slightly higher in males than in females. Decreased dispersal with age might result from foraging benefits associated with increased spatial familiarity. Higher dispersal in males might be explained by a male-biased sex ratio or higher philopatry benefits in females (arising from their higher cost of reproduction). Sex- and age-dependent dispersal and recruitment may thus occur in the absence of year-to-year breeding territory ownership, which stresses the importance of considering other processes in shaping recruitment and dispersal patterns. KEYWORDS: Capture–recapture; Colonial species; Multievent models; Temporary emigration; Unstable habitats PMID: 29063200 DOI: 10.1007/s00442-017-3972-7

Extensive Core Microbiome in Drone-Captured Whale Blow Supports a Framework for Health Monitoring

mSystems. 2017 Oct 10;2(5). pii: e00119-17. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00119-17. eCollection 2017 Sep-Oct. Apprill A1, Miller CA1, Moore MJ2, Durban JW3, Fearnbach H4, Barrett-Lennard LG5,6. Author information 1 Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA. 2 Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA. 3 Marine Mammal and Turtle Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, La Jolla, California, USA. 4 SR3 SeaLife Response, Rehabilitation, and Research, Mukilteo, Washington, USA. 5 Coastal Ocean Research Institute, Vancouver Aquarium, Vancouver, BC, Canada. 6 Zoology Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Abstract The pulmonary system is a common site for bacterial infections in cetaceans, but very little is known about their respiratory microbiome. We used a small, unmanned hexacopter to collect exhaled breath condensate (blow) from two geographically distinct populations of apparently healthy humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), sampled in the Massachusetts coastal waters off Cape Cod (n = 17) and coastal waters around Vancouver Island (n = 9). Bacterial and archaeal small-subunit rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced from blow samples, including many of sparse volume, as well as seawater and other controls, to characterize the associated microbial community. The blow microbiomes were distinct from the seawater microbiomes and included 25 phylogenetically diverse bacteria common to all sampled whales. This core assemblage comprised on average 36% of the microbiome, making it one of the more consistent animal microbiomes studied to date. The closest phylogenetic relatives of 20 of these core microbes were previously detected in marine mammals, suggesting that this core microbiome assemblage is specialized for marine mammals and may indicate a healthy, noninfected pulmonary system. Pathogen screening was conducted on the microbiomes at the genus level, which showed that all blow and few seawater microbiomes contained relatives of bacterial pathogens; no known cetacean respiratory pathogens were detected in the blow. Overall, the discovery of a shared large core microbiome in humpback whales is an important advancement for health and disease monitoring of this species and of other large whales. IMPORTANCE The conservation and management of large whales rely in part upon health monitoring of individuals and populations, and methods generally necessitate invasive sampling. Here, we used a small, unmanned hexacopter drone to noninvasively fly above humpback whales from two populations, capture their exhaled breath (blow), and examine the associated microbiome. In the first extensive examination of the large-whale blow microbiome, we present surprising results about the discovery of a large core microbiome that was shared across individual whales from geographically separated populations in two ocean basins. We suggest that this core microbiome, in addition to other microbiome characteristics, could be a useful feature for health monitoring of large whales worldwide. KEYWORDS: SSU rRNA gene; bacteria; drone; humpback whale; microbiome PMID: 29034331 PMCID: PMC5634792 DOI: 10.1128/mSystems.00119-17 Free PMC Article

Changes in humpback whale singing behavior with abundance: Implications for the development of acoustic surveys of cetaceans

J Acoust Soc Am. 2017 Sep;142(3):1611. doi: 10.1121/1.5001502. . Noad MJ1, Dunlop RA1, Mack AK1. Author information 1 Cetacean Ecology and Acoustics Laboratory, School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343, Australia. Abstract Acoustic surveys of vocal animals can have significant advantages over visual surveys, particularly for marine mammals. For acoustic density estimates to be viable, however, the vocal output of the animals surveyed needs to be determined under a range of conditions and shown to be a robust predictor of abundance. In this study, the songs of humpback whales, one of the most vocal and best studied species of marine mammals, were tested as predictors of abundance. Two acoustic metrics, the number of singing whales and amount of songs produced, were compared with the number of whales seen traversing a study site on the eastern coast of Australia over an 18 year period. Although there were predictive relationships between both metrics and numbers of passing whales, these relationships changed significantly as the population grew in size. The proportion of passing whales that sang decreased as the population increased. Singing in humpback whales, therefore, is a poor predictor even of relative abundance and illustrates the caution required when developing acoustic survey techniques particularly when using social vocalizations. PMID: 28964095 DOI: 10.1121/1.5001502

Youthful Blood Reverses Menopause, Aging In Ongoing Clinical Trials via @PRWeb A breakthrough treatment in reversing menopause and restoring female fertility shows novel impacts on mitigating the effects of the aging process. Ongoing clinical trial data released from the Inovium Ovarian Rejuvenation Trials shows live births, pregnancy, positive IVF, increased egg quality and quantity, and substantial increases in overall physical health. News Image “The goal of the trial is not to prove that we can reverse menopause, because over and over again, we have proven this. Now, we have begun to see for the first time the link between the restoration of fertility and the reversal of the aging process in women." Aaron Traywick Managing Director CARLSBAD, CALIF. (PRWEB) OCTOBER 30, 2017 Preliminary results from the world’s first clinical trials to reverse menopause and its associated negative health effects in women has shown reversal of menopausal symptoms and hormone restoration to fertile levels. Since July 2017, the California-based Inovium trials have been evaluating the link between a new treatment to restore ovarian function discovered in 2015 by partner clinicians in Athens, Greece. Approximately 10 women and their partners have been selected to move forward in the trial, which will further examine their progress as they begin In-Vitro Fertilization and other strategies for late-life pregnancy. Over 100 additional women have received the treatment in 2017, with over 75% of all women proceeding forward positively towards pregnancy. The clinical results of the California trials have effectively reproduced the success of preclinical trials conducted in Greece in 2015, where Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections were discovered to rejuvenate the ovaries of menopausal women, restore fertility, and pursue pregnancy. Of more than 60 women who received the treatment preclinically, over 75% now have the option of natural pregnancy or in vitro fertilization, including 9 successful pregnancies. Over 75% have also seen overall hormone levels return to youthful levels. No donor is needed - instead, the patient’s own genetic material is used to heal the body. The basic process involves the removal of the patient’s own blood plasma, enrichment via centrifuge, and re-injection into the ovaries once elements commonly present in youthful blood have emerged. Enrollment is now open for the trials. Future study locations will open in New York, Chicago, Texas, and other global locations in January 2018. Women who have entered or are entering menopause, and would like to regain fertility and healthy hormone and energy levels are encouraged to sign up at for more information. Enrollment is also open for the Inovium Endometrial Rejuvenation Trials, separate trials which will study increases in health to the uterus and success rates for embryo transfer and implantation as a result of the treatment. Before and after blood test data have been compared to a randomized dataset of over 50,000 persons, to determine the average number of years of health restored to each woman. Anonymized clinical data is available for release upon request. Inovium is a new company committed to exploring new, safe, and affordable innovations in fertility sciences. Inovium is the dedicated fiscal sponsor of the world’s first clinical trials to restore fertility naturally using the body's own genetic material, and is a division of Ascendance Biomedical, a biomedical research and development firm developing novel interventions in the treatment, mitigation, and reversal of chronic, aging-related disease and its underlying causes. Do I qualify to participate in the trials? While all women qualify to receive the treatment and no woman will be turned away, not all women qualify to participate in the actual trial, which is limited to 50 women. Preference and expedited treatment is given to perimenopausal and menopausal women who have undertaken at least one failed IVF cycle in the last two years, and can commit to a full IVF process at our clinical facility in Carlsbad, CA. No woman will be turned away who wants to receive the treatment. Please complete the application form here, and we will find a way to help.

Monday, 30 October 2017

Category anxiety and the invisible white woman: Managing intersectionality at the scene of argument

Barbara Tomlinson First Published October 24, 2017 Research Article Abstract Feminists may overlook the way that our practices of reading and writing serve as discursive technologies of power, particularly if we fail to acknowledge the dominance of the invisible subject position of the (middle-class, heterosexual) white woman. Under such circumstances, specific seemingly neutral rhetorical strategies can serve as potent tools of dominance, infusing the reading situation with strategies of subordination that go unremarked because they are authorised by tradition and convention. I examine here the use of a specific rhetorical device in a specific context, the evocation of a comment by Judith Butler that I call The Case of the Et Cetera, as it appears in six critiques of intersectionality by European scholars and one by a North American scholar relying on the European narrative. I argue that Butler’s comment is used to deploy a pattern of rhetoric that I call managing intersectionality. 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Ethnozoology: animals in our lives

Book · September 2017 Publisher: Elsevier Rômulo Alves 39.37Universidade Estadual da Paraíba Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque 41.86Federal University of Pernambuco Abstract Ethnozoology: Animals In Our Lives represents the first book (in English) about this discipline, providing a discussion on key themes on human-animal interactions and their implications, along with recent major advances in research. Humans share the world with a bewildering variety of other animals, and have interacted with them in different ways. This variety of interactions (both past and present) is investigated through ethnozoology, which is a hybrid discipline structured with elements from both the natural and social sciences, as it seeks to understand how humans have perceived and interacted with faunal resources throughout history. In a broader context, ethnozoology, and its companion discipline, ethnobotany, form part of the larger body of the science of ethnobiology. In recent years, the importance of ethnozoological/ethnobiological studies has increasingly been recognized, unsurprisingly given the strong human influence on biodiversity. From the perspective of ethnozoology, the book addresses all aspects of human connection, animals and health, from its use in traditional medicine, to bioprospecting derivatives of fauna for pharmaceuticals, with expert contributions from leading researchers in the field.

Intersectionality and its discontents: Intersectionality as traveling theory

Sara Salem First Published April 22, 2016 Abstract ‘Intersectionality’ has now become a major feature of feminist scholarly work, despite continued debates surrounding its precise definition. Since the term was coined and the field established in the late 1980s, countless articles, volumes and conferences have grown out of it, heralding a new phase in feminist and gender studies. Over the past few years, however, the growing number of critiques leveled against intersectionality warrants us as feminists to pause and reflect on the trajectory the concept has taken and on the ways in which it has traveled through time and space. Conceptualizing intersectionality as a traveling theory allows for these multiple critiques to be contextualized and addressed. It is argued that the context of the neoliberal academy plays a major role in the ways in which intersectionality has lost much of its critical potential in some of its usages today. It is further suggested that Marxist feminism(s) offers an important means of grounding intersectionality critically and expanding intersectionality’s ability to engage with feminism transnationally. References Aguilar D (2012) Tracing the roots of intersectionality. Monthly Review. Available at: (accessed 5 January 2015). Google Scholar Ahmed L (1982) Western ethnocentrism and perceptions of the harem. Feminist Studies 8(3): 521–534. Google Scholar Crossref Ahmed L (1992) Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Google Scholar Ahmed S (2007) The nonperformativity of antiracism. Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 7(1): 104–126. Google Scholar Al-Ali Nadje (2005) Reconstructing gender: Iraqi women between dictatorship, war, sanctions and occupation. Third World Quarterly 26(4–5): 739–758. Google Scholar Crossref Amin S (1977) Imperialism and Unequal Development. New York: Monthly Review Press. 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Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 226–247. Google Scholar Said E (2001) Traveling theory reconsidered. In: Reflections on Exile and Other Literary and Cultural Essays. London: Granta Books, pp. 436–452. Google Scholar Seymour R (2013) The point of intersection. Leninology. Available at: (accessed 5 January 2015). Google Scholar Smith S (2013–2014) Black feminism and intersectionality. International Socialist Review. Available at: (accessed 5 January 2015). Google Scholar Tomlinson B (2013) Colonizing intersectionality: Replicating racial hierarchy in feminist academic arguments. Social Identities 19(2): 254–272. Google Scholar Crossref Walgenbach K (2010) Postscriptum: Intersektionalität - Offenheit, interne Kontroversen und Komplexität als Ressourcen eines gemeinsamen Orientierungsrahmens. In: Lutz H, Herrera Vivar MT, Supik L (eds) Fokus Intersektionalität - Bewegungen und Verortungen eines vielschichtigen Konzeptes. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag, pp. 245–256. 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CFP: The Northwestern University Society for the Theory of Ethics and Politics

Call for Papers The Northwestern University Society for the Theory of Ethics and Politics (NUSTEP) will be holding its 12th annual conference at Northwestern University on March 8–March 10, 2018. The conference will feature keynote addresses by Niko Kolodny (Berkeley) and Sharon Street (NYU). We are now accepting paper submissions. SUBMISSION GUIDELINES: We welcome submissions from faculty and graduate students, as some sessions will be reserved for student presentations. Please submit an essay of approximately 4000 words. Essay topics in all areas of ethical theory and political philosophy will be considered, although some priority will be given to essays that take up themes from the work of Niko Kolodny and Sharon Street: constructivism, evolution and morality, democracy, subordination, domination, epistemic and practical reasons, friendship and love, liberalism, metaethics, political authority, and rationality. Essays should be prepared for blind review in word, rtf, or pdf format. Graduate submissions should be sent by e-mail to Faculty submissions should be sent by e-mail to The deadline for submissions is December 15, 2017. Notices of acceptance will be sent by January 31, 2018. For more information, please contact Kyla Ebels-Duggan at the e-mail address above or visit our website: PrintEmailFacebookTwitterGoogleMore

Save the Date: Gender Summit is coming to Canada for the first time in 2017

image006 GS11 One-pager image007 Do you want your company to benefit from gender and diversity? Message from the hosts: From November 6 to 8, 2017, close to 600 advocates of gender equality from science, innovation and development will participate in the Gender Summit North America 2017, to be held in Montréal, Canada. It is a great honour for Canada to welcome the Summit and all of its participants for the first time. Those present will not only have the opportunity to engage in fruitful discussions under the overarching theme of “Embracing pluralism and thriving through diversity – shaping science and innovation” but they will also have the unique opportunity of participating in Canada’s 150th and the city of Montréal’s 375th anniversary celebrations. The Gender Summit 11 North America 2017 will be co-hosted by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Fonds de recherche du Québec – Nature et technologies, Fonds de recherche du Québec – Santé, and Fonds de recherche du Québec – Société et culture, in collaboration with many other organizations, including Portia Ltd from the UK, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, the International Development Research Centre, the National Science Foundation from the US, and the Centre national de la recherche scientifique from France. The Gender Summits are a series of interconnected, action-based events held across the globe since 2011. They follow the theme of “Quality Research and Innovation through Equality.” Their aim is to make gender equality in research and innovation the norm and to embed gender equality as a primary dimension of quality. The agenda promises stimulating discussions on themes like the benefits of pluralism, Canada and its commitments to supporting diversity, diversity in an international context, diversity and leadership, perspectives from academia, society and grassroots approaches, and many more. We invite members from industry, academia, research organizations, businesses, education, and other groups interested in gender equality issues to follow the discussions and participate in the dialogue emerging from the Gender Summit North America 2017. For more information, contact us at or Serge Villemure Director, Scholarships, Fellowships & Chairs for Women in Science and Engineering NSERC Maryse Lassonde Scientific Director Fonds de recherche du Québec – Nature et technologies "Dr B Mario Pinto, President NSERCNSERC helps build and support a strong culture of scientific discovery and innovation in the natural sciences and engineering. In pursuing these efforts, we must fully embrace diversity and provide equality of opportunity across gender and culture. Diversity increases our power of sight and strengthens the science, technology and innovation ecosystem by providing multiple points of view. The Gender Summit will be the ideal opportunity to highlight the importance of diversity and share best practices for reducing barriers faced by underrepresented groups in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics community." Dr B Mario Pinto, President NSERC "The progress and promotion of women in science, particularly in natural sciences and engineering, remains problematic, in Quebec, Canada, and abroad. At the same publication rate, the citation rate of papers published by women remains inferior to that of papers published by men. During the Gender Summit, we will discuss these issues and try to find solutions." Dr Rémi Quirion, Chief Scientist of Quebec Rémi Quirion, Chief Scientist of Quebec With the partnership of : Unesco300

Why has it taken so long for magazines to distance themselves from Terry Richardson?

Drop whatever you’re doing. This plant can count and communicate.

[VIDEO] via @thecanarysays

In Fashion, the Beauty (and Challenge) of Looking Back

Five Common Wine Myths, Debunked

Eric Asimov Daniel Johnnes, left, and Josh MacGregor pouring wines at a dinner at Daniel aimed at debunking wine myths. Credit Stephen Speranza for The New York Times The sommeliers of the New York restaurants in Daniel Boulud’s Dinex Group recently put on a dinner to debunk some commonly held wine myths. Given the number of erroneous beliefs about wine that persist, this could have been an epic feast lasting for weeks. But Daniel Johnnes, Dinex’s wine director, and four of his sommeliers mercifully held the line to five courses, each served with two wines (or a wine and a beer, in one case) meant to counter enduring shibboleths. I was drawn to this dinner because, as with anyone who writes or talks about wine regularly, I am intimately familiar with all sorts of widely held yet mistaken notions. They are worth discussing, as these fallacies can be significant barriers to getting the most pleasure out of drinking wine. At Daniel, the sommeliers, with an audience of about 40, took on five beliefs that may have originated either in custom or with an atom of truth, and over time grew into orthodoxy. Let’s dispel these myths one by one. Sweet Wines With Savory Dishes Many consumers assume that wines served with savory foods must be dry. They often associate sweetness with cheap jug wines, fortified wines or German wines, with the exception of dessert wines, which many people think must be consumed with or after dessert. Sweet white wines ranging from barely sweet to luscious can be glorious with food. The key is balance: The residual sugar in the wine, often caused by incomplete fermentation, must be countered by lively acidity. In successful bottles, the result is a thrilling tightrope walk as the wine treads the line between sweet and dry. These wines are indisputably sweet, but the acidity cleans away any cloying sensation, leaving a dry, refreshing feeling after swallowing. Good examples are certain German rieslings (another myth is that all German rieslings are sweet — not remotely true!) and demi-sec Vouvrays. For a course of foie gras and guinea hen terrine, Josh MacGregor of DB Bistro Moderne picked two Mosel rieslings from the Wehlener Sonnenuhr vineyard, a 2015 Dr. Loosen spätlese and a 2007 J.J. Prüm kabinett. This stacked the deck a bit. Traditionally, foie gras is served with unctuously sweet wines like Sauternes. Even so, many of the diners seemed unpersuaded. “People are stuck on the fact that they don’t like sweet wines,” Mr. Johnnes said after the dinner. “I don’t understand that. We’re such a sweet culture.” Serving Temperatures It’s sadly an article of faith that many restaurants, and homes for that matter, will serve white wines too cold and red wines too warm. It’s easy to see where this comes from. White wines are generally served cooler than reds, and in an era of refrigerators and ice, this has come to mean ice-cold. Reds, meanwhile, are to be served at “room temperature,” a term derived at a time when many rooms had thick stone walls, and the indoor temperature may have hovered around 60 degrees. Serving whites too cold seriously compromises good bottles, muffling nuances and complexities. Conversely, mediocre whites ought to be served ice-cold; the temperature masks any flaws. If you are knocking back the house pinot grigio at the corner bar, make sure the bottle comes directly from the refrigerator. For a fine white, though, take it out of the fridge a good half-hour before serving, and in restaurants, do not reflexively allow the bottle to be put on ice. Take its temperature first. Reds are a bit trickier, depending on the age and texture of the wine. Ideally, a bottle should be slightly cool to the touch. Modern room temperature can often leave a good red seeming flabby or fatiguing. A slight chill is bracing to the wine. Tannic wines served too cold can seem tough and unpleasant. If a bottle seems too warm, 15 minutes in the fridge — or, at a restaurant, 10 minutes in an ice bucket — can work wonders. For a complicated dish of potato gnocchi with sweetbreads, chanterelles and runner beans, Joe Robitaille of Bar Boulud and Boulud Sud picked two unusual wines: a rich, textured, amber-colored 2009 from Domaine Economou in Crete, made of the obscure vilana and thrapsathiri grapes, and a pinot noir from the Jura, the 2015 Arbois Les Gaudrettes from Domaine de Saint Pierre. These were excellent examples, and each benefited greatly from the correct serving temperature. Unconventional Food Pairings Few wine issues cause so much anxiety as putting together food and wine. For this reason, I’ve always believed that the conventional wisdom — white wine with fish and poultry, red wine with meat — is not a bad place to start. But as people become more confident, they quickly find the exceptions. Northern Rhône syrahs are beautiful with chicken, as is pinot noir or cabernet franc with duck. Seafood is another matter, and certain meatier specimens like salmon, tuna or octopus go well with light reds like pinot noir. For a dish of salmon with figs and fennel in a red-wine sauce, Aaron Fusco of Café Boulud picked two less-conventional reds, a 2014 cabernet sauvignon and a 2014 merlot from the Carneros region of Sonoma County, both from Inconnu Wine. Mr. Fusco’s underlying motive may have been to demonstrate that not all California reds are big and powerful. These were both delightfully fresh, the cabernet snappy and the merlot soft. They went well with the salmon, and though I might have preferred a pinot noir, the wines made their points. Fine Vintage Fixations I have met too many people who will buy fine wines only from vintages that critics deem great. This may be a fine strategy for investors — those who buy great wines with the intent of reselling for a profit — but for people who simply want to enjoy good wines, it is a mistake, and sometimes a costly one. Burgundy lovers who bought the 2005s and refused the 2007s have missed out on a lot of pleasure as they have waited, and perhaps lost patience, with the ’05s. Bordeaux drinkers who favored the 2000 and 2010 vintages over the ’01s and ’11s may have had similar experiences. If you buy wines with long-term aging in mind (20 years or more), then by all means focus on the best vintages. Keep in mind that what constitutes a great vintage is often a matter of opinion. This was borne out in a course of squab with currants. Mr. Johnnes and Raj Vaidya of Daniel picked two Côte-Rôties, a Domaine Ogier from 2010, an excellent vintage, and a Domaine Jamet from 2011, not a bad vintage though not as good as 2010. Even accounting for the different styles of the producers, the 2011 was far more giving, offering a chorus of savory flavors, while the 2010 was tight and reticent. I’m not sure how both of these wines will fare in another decade. At this tasting, one was a wine of pleasure, the other a wine of potential. Wine With Cheese The final fusty belief is that cheese goes best with red wine. Does anyone still follow this? It seems to me that many people now understand that white wine usually is a better match. People have become so dogmatic about this that I wrote a column a few years ago making the case that once in a while, red wine is still a good choice. Apparently, this battle is still being fought at the Boulud restaurants. So, with two goat cheeses, one from France and one from Vermont, Ian Smedley, who had been sommelier at DBGB until it closed in August, chose a 2013 L’Etoile from Domaine de Montbourgeau in the Jura, made of chardonnay and savagnin, and an unusual sour ale, Sakura from Carton Brewing in Atlantic Highlands, N.J. Now, I love sour ales and the combination of beer and cheese. Yet this particular ale was a little too odd for my comfort, blending sour, salty and fruity. The white, on the other hand, was beautiful with the cheeses. I’m not sure it was a revelation to the group, but if anyone needed reminding, this was a good way to do it. What other myths could have been addressed? The issue of aging, rosés included. The effect of oak barrels on wine. Vineyard practices and soil composition. As I said, the feast could have gone on for days.

A Warming Curry for Fall

City Kitchen By DAVID TANIS OCT. 27, 2017 Wild mushrooms and winter squash, ready to be combined in an autumnal curry. Credit Karsten Moran for The New York Times I had mushrooms on my mind, like an insidious song going round and round in my brain. It became clear there was only one way to stop the cycle: having some for dinner. Rather than the Italianate mushroom stew I often make to serve with polenta, I craved something with more personality, perhaps a spicy, creamy curry. Curried mushrooms, curried mushrooms, sang the inner voice. Whenever I’m cooking with Indian ingredients, I consult one of Madhur Jaffrey’s many cookbooks for guidance and inspiration. Ms. Jaffrey’s recipes are inventively streamlined for non-Indian cooks, but with no sacrifice of flavor. In “Vegetarian India” (Knopf, 2015), she offers several mushroom curries from different regions. With fall weather approaching, I decided my curry also needed some autumn vegetables, for a heartier meal. Sautéed cubes of butternut squash, with their warm color, appealed to me the most — though sweet potatoes, parsnips or carrots would work, too. Continue reading the main story RELATED COVERAGE recipe COOKING Winter Squash and Wild Mushroom Curry 30 minutes CITY KITCHEN A Better Beet, Fresh From the Market SEPT. 29, 2017 Photo A coconut milk and green chile sauce brightens up earthy mushrooms and winter squash. Credit Karsten Moran for The New York Times Of course, ordinary button mushrooms can be used, but a mixture of cultivated mushrooms in all shapes and sizes makes a splashier dish. I like oyster mushrooms, especially royal trumpets, a large, meaty type. A few shiitake caps (the stems are tough, best used for making stock) contribute a woodsy flavor, and small brown portobellos add depth. Tiny white enoki are beautiful, too, and can be stirred into the curry right at the end. Continue reading the main story For a more deluxe version, I was lucky enough to get my hands on some wild golden chanterelles. My mushroom guy had wild hen-of-the-woods and lobster mushrooms. Your selection depends on your budget, the season and what’s available where you live. There are just a few spices and seasonings to assemble: green chiles, garlic, cumin, coriander, cayenne and turmeric. Fresh curry leaves, if you can find them, are aromatic and floral when simmered with the mushrooms (they don’t taste like curry powder). Most Indian groceries have them, fresh or frozen. Substitute whole basil leaves if you wish, or go without. Newsletter Sign UpContinue reading the main story Cooking Daily inspiration, delicious recipes, and other updates from Sam Sifton and The New York Times, right to your inbox. Enter your email address Sign Up You agree to receive occasional updates and special offers for The New York Times's products and services. SEE SAMPLE PRIVACY POLICY OPT OUT OR CONTACT US ANYTIME You can make this curry as spicy as you wish, but be sure to include at least a little cayenne and green chile, to play off the creamy coconut sauce. A final addition of lime juice supplies a necessary, welcome hit of acidity. 8 COMMENTS This is welcome comfort food, Indian-style: bright, rich and ready in less than an hour.

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This craft beer is designed to help ease menopause symptoms via @MetroUK The beer is made from a heady concoction of herbs and plants known to be useful in calming down symptoms, including Motherwort, Lemon Balm, Chamomile, Stinging Nettle, Mugwort, Rose, Chickweed and Damiana. Read more: Twitter: | Facebook:

Scientists reveal herbal remedies containing aristolochic acid may cause liver cancer

PUBLIC RELEASE: 18-OCT-2017 Scientists find that AA related mutations are common in Asian liver cancers, with Taiwan most intensely affected; Scientists call for greater public awareness of the dangers of AA in herbal products DUKE-NUS MEDICAL SCHOOL IMAGE: FIGURE 1. PROPORTIONS OF EXAMINED LIVER CANCERS WITH AA MUTATIONS IN VARIOUS REGIONS.. view more CREDIT: DUKE-NUS MEDICAL SCHOOL Scientists from Singapore and Taiwan have revealed a decisive link between Aristolochic Acids (AA), a natural product of some plants used in herbal remedies, and liver cancers. Using mutational signature analysis, the researchers found that liver tumours had been exposed to AA, which had mutated many genes that cause cancer. The team, led by Professor Steven Rozen from Duke-NUS Medical School (Duke-NUS), Professor Teh Bin Tean from the National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS), Professor Alex Chang from Johns Hopkins Medicine Singapore and Professor Hsieh Sen-Yung from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan, first sequenced the DNA of 98 liver cancers from Taiwan. Using mutational signature analysis, they found high numbers of AA-related mutations in over three-quarters of these cancers. Mutational signatures are patterns of changes in the DNA caused by mutagens, compounds that cause cancer. "Although we knew that there was exposure to AA in Taiwan, we were very surprised to find such a high proportion of liver cancer sufferers had exposure to AA," said Professor Hsieh. The team then looked at publicly available data on mutations from 1,400 liver cancers from around the world. While AA is found in plants used in traditional medicine worldwide, the team found high prevalence of exposure in other parts of East and Southeast Asia (see Fig. 1). Professor Rozen noted: "This also was an unexpected finding. We did not suspect that exposure to AA was so prevalent in so many different areas." AA, a known mutagen, was previously implicated in kidney and urinary tract cancers in Taiwan. In this new study, the researchers confirm that AA mutations are involved in causing liver cancer as well. "This was also another surprising finding of this study," added Professor Rozen. Professor Teh from NCCS added, "This is a follow up study for our 2013 paper, when our team made a breakthrough in understanding the cancer-promoting action of AA in urinary tract cancer. Our new study establishes that AA is also implicated in liver cancer." AA is a natural compound found in Aristolochia and Asarum plants. These plants are commonly used in traditional herbal remedies for many purposes including weight loss and slimming. AA has been officially banned in Europe since 2001 and in Singapore since 2004. Some herbs that contain AA have been banned in Taiwan since 2003, and in China, the use of some, but not all, AA-containing herbs in traditional medicine is restricted. While the United States Food and Drug Administration has issued warnings about herbs containing AA, their sale is unrestricted as long as they are labelled correctly and no health claims are made. However, the effects of such bans may take years to materialise; so it could be years before rates of AA-associated cancers fall. In addition, herbs containing AA are easily available online. To complicate matters, herbs are often bundled and sold as formulations rather than individually, and some formulations might use herbs containing AA. Furthermore, herbs containing AA are sometimes improperly labelled, making it difficult for suppliers and consumers to be certain of the constituents of multi-herb formulations. Plants that may contain AA include Asarum plants ((细辛, xì xīn), and powered xì xīn products manufactured in Taiwan and China were recalled in Singapore in 2014 because they contained AA. Other herbs that are likely to contain AA are: 马兜铃 (mǎ dōu líng), 青木香 (qīng mù xiāng). 天仙藤 (tiān xiān téng), 广防己 (guǎng fángjǐ), 关木通 (guān mù tōng), 寻骨风 (xún gǔ fēng), 朱砂莲 (zhū shā lián, also written as 朱沙莲). As AA-containing plants and remedies are still widely available, Professor Alex Chang, noted that "public education and awareness are very important for avoiding exposure." This study was published online on 18 October 2017, 14:00 US Eastern Time, in Science Translational Medicine, a publication with high scientific impact that focuses on practical medical advances. The research was supported by the Singapore Medical Research Council (NMRC/CIRG/1422/2015), the Singapore Ministry of Health via the Duke-NUS Signature Research Programmes, and the Chang Gung Medical Foundation in Taiwan. Notes to Editors Chinese Glossary: Duke-NUS Medical School 杜克 - 新加坡国立大学医学院 Professor Steven Rozen Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Programme Director, Duke NUS Centre for Computational Biology 罗森教授 癌症与干细胞生物学 主任计算生物学中心 Professor Teh Bin Tean Deputy Director (Research), National Cancer Centre Singapore Professor, Cancer and Stem Cell Programme 郑敏展教授 副院长(研究), 新加坡国立癌症中心 Professor Alex Y. Chang Johns Hopkins Singapore 郑敏展教授 副院长(研究), 新加坡国立癌症中心 5. Professor Hsieh Sen-Yung Director, Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Department Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital 謝森永教授 胃腸肝膽科系主任,林口長庚紀念醫院 ### Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Yes, Diet Avocados Are a Thing—and They’re Driving Dietitians Crazy

Food as Medicine Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, Brassicaceae)

HerbalEGram: Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2015 Editor’s Note: This article is the continuation of the new HerbalEGram “Food as Medicine” series. Each month, HerbalEGram will highlight a conventional food and briefly explores its history, traditional uses, nutritional profile, and modern medicinal research. We also feature a nutritious recipe for an easy-to-prepare dish with each article to encourage readers to experience the extensive benefits of these whole foods. With this series, we hope our readers will gain a new appreciation for the foods they see at the supermarket and frequently include in their diets. The basic materials for this series were compiled by dietetic interns from Texas State University in San Marcos and the University of Texas at Austin through the American Botanical Council’s (ABC’s) Dietetic Internship Program, led by ABC Education Coordinator Jenny Perez. We would like to acknowledge Perez, ABC Special Projects Director Gayle Engels, and ABC Chief Science Officer Stefan Gafner, PhD, for their contributions to this project. By Hannah Baumana and Natalie Ebromb a HerbalGram Assistant Editor b ABC Dietetics Intern (TSU, 2014) History and Traditional Use Range and Habitat Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, Brassicaceae) is a hardy perennial native to southeastern Europe and western Asia. Today, it is grown in the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North and South America, as well as some parts of Africa and New Zealand.1 The plant grows in clumps with bright green leaves that radiate out from the main taproot, which is cultivated as a food ingredient.2 Small, white, four-petaled flowers grow from a stalk that can reach two to three feet or higher when flowering.2 Young leaves two to three inches in length also can be harvested for use in salads.3 Horseradish is easy to cultivate and often will continue to thrive even during periods of neglect.4 While technically a perennial, it is best treated as an annual or biennial crop due to the root’s tendency to become woody and unpalatable with age. Once established, horseradish grows well in full sun and slightly moist soil.1 Phytochemicals and Constituents Glucosinolates, sulfur-containing secondary metabolites, give horseradish its characteristic spicy flavor.5 Horseradish contains eight different glucosinolates, of which sinigrin, gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicin, and neoglucobrassicin are the most common.5 Once inside the body, glucosinolates are broken down into powerful derivatives called isothiocyanates and indoles, which are believed to be the main cancer-preventive constituents of horseradish and other cruciferous vegetables (i.e., vegetables of the family Brassicaceae).1,6 Horseradish also contains minerals such as phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.7 Freshly grated roots contain minimal fat, are low in calories, and rich in vitamin C. Cooking horseradish can strip it of its nutritional value, so it is best used fresh.1 Historical Uses Horseradish root has been ground into a spice, prepared as a condiment, and used medicinally for more than 3,000 years. It was used topically by both the Greeks and Romans as a poultice to ease muscle pain, such as back aches and menstrual cramps.3 Internally, it was used to relieve coughs and as an aphrodisiac.4 Starting in the Middle Ages (ca. 1000-1300 CE), horseradish was incorporated into the Jewish Passover Seder as one of the maror, or bitter herbs.3 In the 16th century, Europeans began using horseradish in sauces and condiments as well as for its medicinal applications. Historically, horseradish was used to treat a wide variety of illnesses including asthma, coughs, colic, toothache, and scurvy (due to its vitamin C content). Grated horseradish poultices were used to ease pain associated with gout and sciatica, and also were infused in milk to clarify the skin and remove freckles.3 Currently, horseradish is consumed regularly in the form of ready-to-use sauces and dips.2 In 2005, the Horseradish Information Council reported that in the United States, 24 million pounds of horseradish roots were processed into six million gallons of prepared horseradish sauce.3 Modern Research & Uses The chemoprotective role of horseradish’s gluconsinolate content against various types of cancers in humans has been widely studied.8,9 A hydrolyzed form of the glucosinolate sinigrin has been shown to suppress the growth of cancerous tumors in vitro and protect against further DNA damage.9,10 One hypothesis is that glucosinolates may work by enhancing the liver’s ability to detoxify carcinogens.10 Using a rat model, researchers found that sinigrin affects many organs involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, including the liver, pancreas, and intestine.11 Sinigrin also reduced lipid levels in the blood, suggesting that it could be beneficial in reducing elevated triglyceride levels after meals, a risk factor for coronary artery disease.11 Horseradish also contains allyl isothiocyanate, which is a well-recognized antimicrobial agent against a variety of organisms including pathogens like Escherichia coli (E. coli), a common food-borne pathogen, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacteria known to cause stomach ulcers and increase the risk for gastric cancer.12 Due to its antibiotic properties, horseradish can be used to treat urinary tract infections and destroy bacteria in the throat that can cause bronchitis, coughs, and other related problems.13 In a recent study, isothiocyanates extracted from horseradish showed antimicrobial activity against ten different oral microorganisms.14 Although broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea var. gemmifera), and other cruciferous vegetables also contain these compounds, horseradish has up to ten times more glucosinolates than other members of the family Brassicaceae.10 Horseradish root was approved as a nonprescription medicine ingredient by the German Commission E for treatment of infections of the respiratory tract and as supportive treatment in urinary tract infections.13 In the United States, horseradish root is the active ingredient of Rasapen, a urinary antiseptic drug.13 Horseradish is considered a strong diuretic and, coupled with its antibacterial properties, acts to flush out harmful bacteria or other inflammatory agents in the bladder sooner than they normally would be eliminated.10 Isothiocyanates in horseradish root are released when hydrolyzed by other active enzymes, which are activated only when the root is scratched.15 Fumes released from grating or cutting the root can irritate the membranes of the eyes and nose, and therefore horseradish should be prepared in a well-ventilated room and care should be taken in its use. Nutrient Profile Macronutrient Profile: (Per 1 tablespoon [15 g] raw horseradish) Calories: 7 Protein: 0.18 g Carbohydrates: 1.69 g Fat: 0.1 g Secondary Metabolites: (Per 1 tablespoon [15 g] raw horseradish) Good source of: Vitamin C: 3.7 mg (6.2% DV) Vitamin K: 0.2 mcg (2.5% DV) Folate: 9 mcg (2.25% DV) Dietary fiber: 0.5 g (2% DV) Potassium: 37 mg (1.1% DV) Magnesium: 4 mg (1% DV) Calcium: 8 mg (0.8% DV) Zinc: 0.12 mg (0.8% DV) Vitamin B6: 0.01 mg (0.5%DV) Phosphorus: 5 mg (0.5% DV) Niacin: 0.06 mg (0.3% DV) DV = Daily Value, as established by the US Food and Drug Administration, based on a 2,000-calorie diet. Recipe: Kale and Potato Hash Recipe courtesy of EatingWell magazine16 Ingredients: · 8 cups torn kale leaves · 2 tablespoons freshly grated horseradish · 1 medium shallot, minced · 1/2 teaspoon freshly ground pepper · 1/4 teaspoon kosher salt · 2 cups shredded cooked potatoes · 3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil Directions: 1. Place kale in a large microwave-safe bowl, cover, and microwave until wilted, about 3 minutes. Drain, cool slightly, and finely chop. 2. Meanwhile, mix horseradish, shallot, pepper, and salt in a large bowl. Add the chopped kale and potatoes; stir to combine. 3. Heat oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium heat. Add the kale mixture, spread into an even layer, and cook, stirring every 3 to 4 minutes and returning the mixture to an even layer, until the potatoes begin to turn golden brown and crisp, 12 to 15 minutes total. —Hannah Bauman References Small E, ed. Culinary Herbs. Ottawa, ON: NRC Research Press; 1997. Van Wyk B-E. Food Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press; 2005. The Essential Guide to Horseradish. The Herbal Society of America website. Available here. Accessed January 5, 2015. National Geographic Society. Edible: An Illustrated Guide to the World's Food Plants. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society; 2008. Alnsour M, Kleinwächter M, Böhme J, Selmar D. Sulfate determines the glucosinolate concentration of horseradish in vitro plants (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., Mey. & Scherb.). J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93(4):918-923. Rinzler CA. The New Complete Book of Herbs, Spices, and Condiments: A Nutritional, Medical, and Culinary Guide. New York, NY: Checkmark Books; 2001. US Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. Available here. Accessed January 5, 2015. Hayes JD, Kelleher MO, Eggleston IM. The cancer chemopreventive actions of phytochemicals derived from glucosinolates. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47(2):73-88. Bonnesen C, Eggleston IM, Hayes JD. Dietary indoles and isothiocyanates that are generated from cruciferous vegetables can both stimulate apoptosis and confer protection against DNA damage in human colon cell lines. Cancer Res. 2001;61(16):6120-6130. Available here. Accessed January 5, 2015. Patel DK, Patel K, Gadewar M, Tahilyani V. A concise report on pharmacological and bioanalytical aspect of sinigrin. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(1):S446-S448. Okulicz M. Multidirectional time-dependent effect of sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate on metabolic parameters in rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010;65(3):217-224. Luciano FB, Holley RA. Enzymatic inhibition by allyl isothiocyanate and factors affecting its antimicrobial action against escherichia coli O157:H7. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;131(2): 240-245. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinkmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council and Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000. Park HW, Choi KD, Shin IS. Antimicrobial activity of isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) root against oral microorganisms. Biocontrol Sci. 2013;18(3):163-168. Available here. Accessed January 5, 2015. Duke JA, ed. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Spices. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2002. Kale and Potato Hash. EatingWell. October/November 2005. Available here. Accessed January 13, 2005.

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Sunday, 29 October 2017

Commercially important properties of plants of the genus Plantago

OI: Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska, Anna Matysik-Woźniak, Aneta Sulborska, Robert Rejdak Abstract The centuries-old experience of folk medicine, nutritional traditions, and the results of numerous research studies show that plants of the genus Plantago can be used for medicinal, cosmetic, dietetic, and ritual purposes. In the phytochemical composition of Plantago, there is an abundance of biologically active substances (among others, glycosides, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and vitamins) exhibiting beneficial effects and, simultaneously, there is a low content of compounds that may exert a toxic effect. Scientific research has confirmed that Plantago plants have antioxidative, apoptosis-inhibiting, protective, healing-enhancing, spasmolytic, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial properties; they inhibit the development of some tumours, reduce the level of lipids in blood and inhibit tissue glycation. In phytotherapy, leaves, stems, and/or seeds of different plantain species are used. Plantago leaves and seeds are also used to manufacture creams, lotions, and face masks. Different parts of these plants (fresh plant material, extracts, or isolated substances) are also used in human and animal nutrition. Plantain leaves can be eaten like lettuce or added to salads, fried in pastry, used to prepare a tea, juice, or wine. Its seeds are added to cakes, bread, breakfast cereals, ice cream, and drinks, or they are cooked like groats. Animals fed with plantain can live longer and are healthier, while meat derived from such animals is tastier and healthier to humans. Plantago seeds are readily eaten by cage birds. Plantain pollen, produced in large amounts (up to 20,000 pollen grains per 1 stamen of P. lancolata), can cause allergies in sensitive people. Due to a long flowering period of plants of the genus Plantago, the effect of the allergenic factor persists for many weeks. In Poland days with the maximum concentration of airborne plantain pollen most often occur in July. Keywords Plantago; medicinal uses; cosmetics; edible plants; animal feed; allergenic pollen Full Text: PDF

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Disagreement: Perspectives from Argumentation Theory and Epistemology: a special issue of Topoi

Call for Papers Submission Deadline Extended to: 31 January, 2018 Guest Edited by Patrick Bondy and David Godden Topoi invites submissions to Disagreement: Perspectives from Argumentation Theory and Epistemology, a special issue edited by Patrick Bondy (Brandon University) and David Godden (Michigan State University). The subject of this special issue is disagreement and how to rationally respond to it. The issue itself aims to bring together multiple perspectives bearing on the epistemological dimensions of disagreement broadly conceived. Robert Fogelin’s 1985 paper “The logic of deep disagreement” (Informal Logic) contends that “deep disagreements cannot be resolved through the use of argument, for they undercut the conditions essential to arguing.” Chris Campolo (2007) characterizes this as the view that “there is a kind of disagreement which will always turn our spade.” Similarly, Michael Lynch (2010) has remarked that “Where there is deep epistemic disagreement over some fundamental principle, the disagreement has hit bedrock, the spade has turned.” The idea is that disagreements involving conflicting “framework” or “hinge” propositions are not susceptible to rational resolution, because framework propositions articulate paradigms of judgement: as such they are epistemically primitive and fundamental, and are entwined together with whole systems of beliefs, values, and practices. Argumentation theorists since Fogelin have grappled with problems such as whether rational resolutions are possible in cases of deep disagreement, and how one rationally ought to proceed in cases of apparently deep disagreements, and with what it means to say that a disagreement is “deep.” Other recent epistemological work on disagreement primarily concerns what one ought to do in cases of “peer disagreement”—i.e., cases of disagreement between rational agents judged to be roughly equally reliable and informed on some topic. Epistemologists have wrestled with what one ought rationally to do in such situations, as well as with what it means to call someone an “epistemic peer,” and with whether a true situation of peer disagreement could ever really arise in practice. Yet, despite their common interests, and with a few notable exceptions (e.g., Feldman (2005) and Siegel (2013)), work on disagreement in each of these literatures—argumentation-theoretic and epistemological—has occurred largely independently of work in the other. Our intention with this issue is to push research on these topics forward by encouraging authors to engage with the topic by drawing upon the scholarship and theoretical resources provided by both perspectives. References: Campolo, C. (2007) Commentary on V. Memedi: “Resolving deep disagreement.” In H.V. Hansen et al. (Eds.) Dissensus and the Search for Common Ground. Windsor, ON: OSSA. Feldman, R. (2005). Deep disagreement, rational resolutions, and critical thinking. Informal Logic, 25, 13-23. Fogelin, R.J. (1985). The logic of deep disagreements. Informal Logic 7, 1-8. [Reprinted in Informal Logic 25 (2005): 3-11.] Lynch, M. (2010). Epistemic circularity and epistemic incommensurability. In A. Haddock, A. Millar, and D. Pritchard (eds.), Social Epistemology. Oxford: Oxford UP. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0013 Siegel, H. (2013). Argumentation and the epistemology of deep disagreement. Cogency, 5, 135-170. Possible topics include (but are not limited to): Are there meaningful disagreements which, in principle, presuppose conflicting framework propositions? How can recent work in epistemology and argumentation theory be combined to answer practical, “real-world” problems surrounding (deep) disagreement and its management or resolution? How one should rationally proceed in the face of “real-world” disagreement, including apparently deep disagreements? Does a concession that some disagreements are deep involve a limit to reason and reasoning itself and a concession to misology? What sorts of social factors contribute to the depth of disagreements? Confirmed Invited Contributors: Andrew Aberdein (Florida Institute of Technology); Scott Aikin (Vanderbilt University); J. Adam Carter (University of Glasgow); Bryan Frances (Lingnan University) and Zoe Cocchiaro (University of Hong Kong); Michael Hoffmann (Georgia Institute of Technology); Catherine Hundleby (University of Windsor); Moira Kloster (University of the Fraser Valley); Martin Kusch (University of Vienna); Michael Lynch (University of Connecticut) and Paul Simard Smith (University of Windsor); Jonathan Matheson (University of North Florida); Duncan Pritchard (University of Edinburgh); Harvey Siegel (University of Miami). SUBMISSION PROCESS Papers must be in English, should not exceed 8,000 words, and should follow Topoi’s formatting guidelines which can be found at All manuscripts should be prepared for double-blind peer-review and be submitted exclusively through the Online Manuscript Submission System (Editorial Manager), accessible at . When making a new submission, ensure you select the correct article type – "S.I. : Disagreement: argumentation and epistemology (Godden/Bondy)" – from the scroll-down menu for article type. For further information please contact: David Godden or Patrick Bondy Submission deadline: 31 January, 2018

Saturday, 28 October 2017

How an American Became ‘The French Chef’

26/10/2017 Lisa Smith By Juliet Tempest There can be no better description of Julia Child than “meticulous.” Indeed, Amy Vidor and Caroline Barta describe her thus in their delightful post this month. They review the history of Child’s success in circulating French cuisine in the U.S. As they discuss, Child held the highest respect for the integrity of a recipe, which enabled her cookbooks to become the first authoritative American “translations” of French food. Yet her enthusiasm for these recipes eclipsed even her exacting nature in developing them, allowing her to connect with her audience and thereby introduce French cuisine into American homes—through the sense of “hospitality” to which Vidor and Barta refer. Child, Paul. “Julia Child on WGBH.” Credit: Biography of Julia Child, PBS, 15 June 2005. Child removed the cultural and political implications of French food, as Ashley Armes has argued (133). Here I add that the theory of cognitive dissonance explains the mechanism by which she accomplished this. Psychologist Elliot Aronson describes dissonance as mental discomfort associated with hypocritical cognitions or actions (107). People tend to rationalize such hypocrisies away, either through avoidance or re-description of beliefs. To cook French food, Americans of Child’s day would experience dissonance on two levels: due first to an ambivalent political relationship with France, and second to a cultural inferiority complex. Julia Child mitigated both sources of dissonance through her accessible persona; the audience could identify effortlessly with Child because of her humanizing imperfections and comprehension of the American psyche. The Omelette Show from The French Chef. Granted, Child did not succeed on personality alone. She possessed ample qualifications to teach French cuisine, as Vidor and Barta point out. After publishing the first volume of Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Child gained rapid visibility as the star of the television program The French Chef (Pillsbury 135). Child wanted to teach authentically French cuisine to the authentic American (Ferguson 5). Her comprehensive instructions therefore reflected while elucidating the complexity of French food. With the advent of microwaveable meals, one might have expected Child’s economizing competitors to capture the American audience. Many of them tried to propagate French cooking through shortcuts, like canned foods; these trendy hacks highlighted their Americanization of French food, however (Armes 122). It would have been a dissonance-creating admission of inadequacy should Americans prepare anything less than genuine French food. Child’s approach did not require such damage to Americans’ positive self-concept. Around that time, a 1969 New York Times Magazine article implied that France still overshadowed America in culinary achievement (Armes 120). Like a younger sibling, the U.S. has long aspired to live up to France’s example while cultivating an individualized identity—a dynamic present since perhaps American emancipation from the British Empire, made possible by the intervention of the French. Despite this historical affinity for France, the moment when Child managed to popularize its cuisine hardly seemed ripe. Charles de Gaulle’s nationalist tendencies fed tense relations with the U.S. over the decade he served as president from 1959. Based on the unflattering media coverage that ensued, France appeared to lose its prominence in every arena, save the culinary (Armes 91, 101, 109-110, 120). This separation of cuisine from other aspects of French culture is largely attributable to Child. Her predecessors had employed French cooking as “a tool for cultural education” (Armes 118). Loathe to submit to pedantic lecturing, let alone about emulating a country critical of them, Americans would not take up French cooking and associated cognitive dissonance within this framework. They needed Child to re-cast adoption of other food cultures, French specifically, as an American enterprise, one whose political implications featured national strength. Child celebrated how Americans “‘borrow from cuisines from all over the world. We take what we like from another culture and add it to our own’” (Algert 155). France then was not condescending to teach the U.S. to cook, just as de Gaulle was governance; rather, the U.S. exhibited agency in electing to learn. Beyond this ideological shift, Child herself made French cooking all the more approachable. A slightly disheveled eccentric who preferred not to rehearse and (consequently perhaps) dropped food on air, Child demonstrated implicitly that the least coordinated among us could still master the art (Armes 129; “Profile”). She reduced any cognitive dissonance around assuming a challenge beyond one’s abilities for anyone previously too intimidated to attempt French cuisine. Indeed, psychologists Roger Marshall, et al. argue that the more unrealistic a spokesperson’s image, the more dissonance will be created through customers’ identification with the product represented (566). That everyone could imagine Child in his own kitchen reinforced the connection to her and the food she prepared. Child’s accessibility might not have eliminated all potential cognitive dissonance. The theory nonetheless contains the mechanism by which she could still become an American culinary icon. Viewers who watched The French Chef yet whose negative perceptions of France persisted required some way of reconciling this apparent hypocrisy; they might instead re-evaluate their beliefs about Child more positively to justify their viewership. Thus for uncertain cooks and Franco-skeptics alike, Julia made learning to cook French food worthwhile. References Algert, Susan. “Julia Child at 91 Comments on American Culinary Culture.” Nutrition Today. 39.4 (2004): 154-156. WilsonWeb. Web. 6 Apr. 2010. Armes, Ashley R. “Image of Nation, Image of Culture: France and French Cooking in the American Press 1918-1969.” MA Thesis. Texas Tech University, 2006. Aronson, Elliot. “Dissonance, Hypocrisy, and the Self-Concept.” Cognitive dissonance: Progress on a pivotal theory in social psychology (1999): 103-126. PsycBooks. Web. 24 Apr. 2010. Child, Julia and Alex Prud’homme. My Life in France. New York: Knopf, 2006. Child, Julia, Louise Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. Vol. 1. New York: Knopf, 2001. Ferguson, Kennan. “Mastering the Art of the Sensible: Julia Child, Nationalist.” Theory and Event 12.2 (2009). Marshall, Roger, et al. “Endorsement Theory: How Consumers Relate to Celebrity Models.” Journal of Advertising Research 48.4 (Dec. 2008): 564-572. EBSCOhost. Web. 24 Apr. 2010. Pillsbury, Richard. No Foreign Food: The American Diet In Time and Place (Geographies of the Imagination). Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998. Print. “Profile: Julia Child, who brought the art of French cooking to the United States, has died at age 91.” All Things Considered. Host Michele Block. Natl. Public Radio, 13 Aug. 2004. Literature Resource Center. Web. 7 Apr. 2010. Juliet M. Tempest is an aspiring anthropologist of Chinese foodways who holds a B.A. in Economics, Finance, and Translation & Intercultural Communication from Princeton University. Her research has focused on the effects of culture on trade and finance, in China specifically, though (simultaneously and) subsequently evolved into scholarship of food studies. She formally completed certificates in Cuisine & Patisserie de Base at L’Ecole du Cordon Bleu in Paris, an internship at the organic Buena Vista Farm in New South Wales, and a seminar on “Reading Historic Cookbooks” at Harvard’s Radcliffe Institute in Boston. She has recorded and translated cooking class recipes through interviews with a classically trained Yunnanese chef and served as a Mandarin interpreter for disbursing farmers market vouchers to low-income individuals in DC.

1930: Bill, the U.S. Life-Saving Services horse of Fire Island, New York

Posted: 19th October 2013 by The Hatching Cat in Horse Tales, the life-saving horse 4 U.S. Life-Saving Service A Life-Saving Service crew and their horse pull their equipment to the water’s edge. “Here are people who have been on the ocean for a week at least, no land seen, and nothing seen on the coast yet but the red light on shore, in trouble now, in danger of their lives, and here comes a man from the unseen world, in a pair of short canvas trousers, riding on a rope, to tell them of the succor near and bid them be of good heart.” — William Drysdale, November 16, 1890. On July 28, 1988, President Ronald Reagan spoke to representatives from the Future Farmers of America in Room 450 of the Old Executive Office Building. About five minutes into his speech, Reagan told his audience, “There seems to be an increasing awareness of something we Americans have known for some time: that the 10 most dangerous words in the English language are, ‘Hi, I’m from the Government, and I’m here to help.’” (Cue laughter.) The anti-government, pro-market politicians may be having a field day with this famous quote today, particularly in light of the Affordable Care Act. But for more than 177,000 people who were rescued by the U.S. Life-Saving Services between 1871 and 1915, those 10 words were a gift from the heavens above. Life-Saving Services In a storm, any ship stranded on a sandbar usually fell to pieces within a few hours, leaving a swim to shore the only chance for survival. But few people could survive in 40-degree turbulent waters. Even if a few sailors managed to reach the beach in winter, they stood a good chance of perishing from exposure on the largely uninhabited shore. The U.S. Life-Saving Services (USLSS) – a forerunner to the U.S. Coast Guard — was established by Congress in 1871 in response to the high loss of life in ship wrecks along America’s coastlines, particularly on the Atlantic coast. Not only were thousands of people killed in wrecks, but survivors often succumbed to their injuries because there was no one to help them. Many survivors also fell prey to pirates who would rob and attack them. Sumner Increase Kimball General Superintendent USLSS Sumner Increase Kimball, a young lawyer from Maine, was appointed General Superintendent of the USLSS in 1871. He remained the only General Superintendent: The law which created the U.S. Coast Guard in 1915 also provided for his retirement. By 1880, the USLSS had 183 live-saving stations: 7 along the coasts of Maine and New Hampshire; 15 in Massachusetts; 37 along the coasts of Rhode Island and Long Island; 40 in New Jersey; 44 south of Cape May, N.J. and in the Gulf; 34 on the Great Lakes; and 6 along the Pacific Coast. In its ninth year of operations, the USLSS responded to 250 ship disasters in which 1,854 people were rescued and only 24 lives were lost. USLSS Life Car In 1842, Boston inventor Joseph Francis invented the corrugated metallic life car. The first life car was placed on the coast of New Jersey, near Long Branch, in the autumn of 1849. It was first called into use in January 1850, when the British emigrant vessel Ayrshire was wrecked on Squan Beach near Manasquan in a violent winter storm. Of the 201 persons on board, 200 were saved by the life car. Unfortunately, few stations had access to these boats because Congress had not provided enough funding to provide for the horses that were needed to haul the two-ton vessels. A Day in the Life of a Surfman Each life-saving station was manned by a crew of surfmen who lived at the station for eight to ten months a year (usually from November to April, which was called the “active season”). Station surfmen were paid $40 a month; the keeper, also known to the men as the captain, was employed all year and paid $400. These men patrolled the shores either on foot or on horseback to look for ships that were in distress or coming too close to shore. When faced with an ocean rescue situation their motto was, “You have to go out. You don’t have to come back.” USLSS Surfmen In this photo, the two surfmen in center bury the sand anchor, the surfman at right carries the breeches buoy and a support for the hawser, and the other three haul in the line that has been shot over the vessel. In the Spring 1992 issue of Naval History, Lieutenant Commander Robert V. Hulse of the Coast Guard vividly describes the typical duties of a surfman and his 16-year-old horse, Bill, at Blue Point Station on Fire Island. Commander Hulse worked at this station in the 1930s, shortly after the USLSS and the Revenue Cutter Service merged together to form the Coast Guard. USLSS crew with three-horse hitch A 7-member USLSS crew with a rare three-horse hitch, 1910. “Sitting atop the roof of each two-storied lifesaving station was an observation tower. There a lookout was stationed during the daylight hour to note in his log every vessel that passed. He had a pair of binoculars as well as a spyglass to aid in his observations. Once night had fallen, foot patrols would start out from each station to keep a watchful eye on any ship passing by. If we saw red and green running lights too clearly, it usually indicated that the vessel had strayed in too close to shore. If the ship kept on her present course she was bound to plow right into the outer sandbar. LSS Surfman uses a Coston flare If a ship came too close to shore, a surfman would strike his red Coston flare against a rock, which could be seen for 20 miles. The flare warned the captain that he was too close and alerted the station crew of a pending disaster. In such a case you had to quickly haul a Coston flare out of your knapsack. A few seconds sufficed to twist off the outer cover and ignite the light. You held it aloft so that the reddish-orange glow would clearly be seen out at sea. The signal burned for a good five minutes. Its clear message was: “You are coming in too close to shore. Change course immediately. You are in danger.” Rushing topside to the crew’s dormitory, you go from bunk to bunk to wake up your shipmates. A minute later and you are outside putting the harness over old Bill. Rolling the cart out of the boathouse is easy. Just ahead, however, is deep, loose sand, and all eight surfmen are now positioned on either side of the cart to keep it moving forward. Poor old Bill would never be able to drag it over to the water’s edge without such help. The surfboat weighs a good thousand pounds, and that’s not counting the gear. A Life-Saving crew A Life-Saving crew with their surfboat on a carriage and a team of horses participate in a parade, circa 1900. Finally, you and your mates have drawn abreast of the shipwreck. The rescue attempt is about to begin. Captain Bennett, of course, is in total command; many lives depend on his experience and judgment. Carefully, you help slide the surfboat off the cart into the freezing cold water swirling around your feet. Captain Bennett is studying the sea. It is he who must decide on the most propitious moment to launch. You and the others are knee-deep in the numbing cold water, steadying the surfboat whose bow is pointed straight out into that ugly, unforgiving ocean. After a split second more of appraisal, your gruff old skipper suddenly roars out, “All right, men, let’s go!” U.S. Life-Saving Services surfmen 1896: The Wreck of English Steamship Lamington In the 19th century, the number of ships that wrecked along the beaches and sandbars of Fire Island were almost countless. Raging gales drove ships of every type and nation onto the outer bar, some never to return to the sea again. On February 4, 1896, the English steamship Lamington, with a cargo of fruit from Valencia, Spain, forged at full speed through the dense fog into the sand bar of Great South Beach, two miles east of the Blue Point Life Saving Station. Jetur Rose Payne, the number-one surfman at Blue Point, saw the lights of the ship at 8 p.m. as he was returning from the sundown patrol. The ship was moving too fast, though, and it crashed before he could warn the ship’s captain. Payne ran to the station and notified Captain Frank Rorke and the crew. A telephone message was also sent for assistance to the Bellport, Long Hill, and Patchogue stations. Lyle Gun The Lyle rescue gun is named after its inventor, U.S. Army Colonel David A. Lyle (West Point Class of 1869). A line was fastened to a weighted projectile and shot from the gun toward the ship in distress. The sailors would grab the line as it passed over the ship, and use the line to pull out the heavier hawser cable rope. (Attached to the line were small wooden tags with instructions in English, French, and Spanish: “Pull on this line.”) The Lyle gun could reach over 600 yards, and could sometimes be shot from a boat if the water was calm enough. Lyle guns were used from the late 19th century to 1952, when they were replaced by rockets. Launching a lifeboat was out of the question, so the crew used a Lyle gun to fire a line about 150 yards to the ship in distress. The first sailor to be rescued by the breeches buoy was 16-year-old Jimmie Holbrook. One by one, 17 more crew members were brought ashore, including James Brady of Buffalo, New York, who paid his way home from London by working on the ship. David A. Lyle Colonel David A. Lyle The crews worked for almost 48 hours trying to rescue the remaining crew on board, including Captain G.W. Duff, the master of the freighter, the chief officer, and three engineers. Two days after the wreck, the newspapers reported that the men were still on board the doomed ship. Tremendous breakers were making rescue impossible, and it was feared all six men would perish as the ship continued to fall apart in the turbulent seas. As it was, all of the crew survived, albeit, Captain Rorke and his life-saving crew had to make two more rescues in the following weeks to save some wreckers and engineers of a wrecking corps that were trying to salvage the steamer. Homer The Life Line The Life Line, by Winslow Homer, 1884, depicts a woman overwhelmed as she’s carried ashore with her rescuer in a breeches buoy. A breeches buoy resembled a life-preserver ring with canvas pants attached. It could be pulled out to the ship by pulleys, enabling a sailor to step into the pants and then be pulled to safety. The men drilled using the breeches buoy once a week – if after a month’s practice the crew could not rescue a person in five minutes they were reprimanded. Many crews could set it up and make the rescue in under three minutes, even during night drills when there were no light sources. Photo, Philadelphia Museum of Art A Cat and Dog Are Rescued In addition to the 18 rescued sailors, several animals were also onboard the Lamington. A large cat weighing 18 pounds, which had been the sailors’ pet, was carried ashore by one of the sailors on the breeches buoy (I’d love to see them try this with my cat). The cat was presented to Harrison Craig Dare, a newspaper editor from Patchogue, Long Island. A terrier was also rescued via the breeches buoy and given to Frank Soper of Ocean Beach, Fire Island. Four Trick Ponies Are Lost On board were four trained ponies that were being transported from Spain to Jose Aymor of the Cambridge Hotel in New York. (There had been five, but one died shortly before the ship struck the sand bar.) Unfortunately, all four ponies drowned two days after the ship crashed into the sandbar. Life-Saving Stations of the Long Island Coast In the late 19th century, there were 30 life-saving stations scattered along the Long Island Coast from Montauk Point to Rockaway Point. The following is a list of those stations and the keepers in about 1880: Ditch Plain, William B. Miller Hither Plain, William D. Parsons Napeague, John S. Edwards Amagansett, Jesse B. Edwards Georgica, Nathaniel Dominy Mecox, John W. Hedges Southampton, Nelson Burnett Life-Saving Service Station An 1871 Red House-Type station at Fire Island. Shinnecock, Alanson G. Penny Tiana, John E. Carter Quogue, Charles H. Herman Potunk, Isaac Gildersleeve. Moriches, Gilbert H. Seaman Forge River, Ira G. Ketcham U. S. Volunteer Life Saving Corps Sheepshead Bay The U. S. Volunteer Life Saving Corps was an early supplement to the USLSS. This photo of the crew of the VLSC station at Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn, was taken around 1900. Smith’s Point, John Penny Bellport, Henry Kremer Blue Point, Frank Rorke Lone Hill, George E. Stoddard Point O’ Woods, William H. Miller Fire Island, J.T. Doxsee U.S. Life Saving Station, Ditch Plains, Long Island, New York. U.S. Life Saving Station, Ditch Plains, Long Island, New York. This 1882-type life saving station was just southwest of the Montauk Lighthouse. Oak Island, Edgar Freese Gilgo, William E. Austin Jones Beach, Steven Austin Zach’s Inlet, Philip K. Chichester Short Beach, John Edwards Point Lookout, Andrew Rhode Rockaway Point Lifeboat Rockaway Point Lifeboat, August 4, 1890 Long Beach, Richard Van Wicklen Rockaway, William Rhinehart Rockaway Point, Daniel B. Abrams (today this is Beach 129th Street) Eatons Neck, Henry E. Ketcham Rocky Point, Harvey S. Brown The Blue Point Life-Saving Station The Blue Point Life-Saving Station USLSS Station #22, Third District: Blue Point The Blue Point Life-Saving Station, constructed in 1856, was located on the beach of Great South Bay near the community of Water Island (about 10 miles east of the Fire Island Lighthouse and about 4 miles south of Patchogue). In its first year of operation, Charles R. Smith was appointed keeper. In 1896, when the wreck of the Lamington took place, Frank Rorke was the keeper. Rorke was appointed to this position on July 5, 1887, and remained at Blue Point until his retirement with thirty years of service on May 31, 1919. Although the USLSS merged with the Revenue Cutter Service to form the U.S. Coast Guard in 1915, Blue Point stayed in operation until 1937. Blue Point LIfe-Saving Station The Blue Point Station was abandoned after the war in 1946. The End of an Era The era of rescuing shipwrecked sailors by surfboat and breeches buoy ended in 1915, when the USLSS merged with the Revenue Cutter Service to create the U.S. Coast Guard. Some of the old stations, however, continued to be manned by surfmen who helped rescue mariners until the end of World War II. Improvements in navigation, radar, sonar, and the helicopter combined to render these stations obsolete. Unfortunately, most of them were sold at auction or torn down. The good news though, is that while the Life-Saving Services only existed as a separate entity for 44 years, during that time the brave surfmen and their horses came to the rescue of 178,741 men, women, and children — 177,286 of whom were saved. That’s an outstanding record, considering the limited equipment they had. If you enjoyed this story, you may like reading about Tim, the shipwrecked cat rescued by the men of the Eatons Neck Life-Saving Station on Fire Island.