Volume 38, 2014, Pages 1-39
Latvian Language Institute, Riga, Latvia
The information of the counting of souls containing both house names and names of individuals is an essential aspect of historical onomastics. The first counting of souls in Vidzeme took place in 1782 and coincided with the 4th analogous census of the provinces of Russia. Subsequently these took place at irregular intervals, the 5th in 1795, the 6th in 1811, the 7th in 1816, the 8th in 1834, the 9th in 1850, and the final, 10th in 1858. The number of house names entered in the 1826 counting of souls in Vidzeme province (guberna) is 14,500, including those of peasant homes that had been separated from another property whilst retaining the same name. House names based on flora (incl. names of mushrooms) semantics are listed for 574 dwellings, which represent just about 4% of all house names listed for Vidzeme, providing that repeated house names are counted separately. In case of several manors data is missing (lost) for the 1826 census, information for these manors is taken from previous and subsequent censuses. In many instances (279 cases registered) house names were based on the names of deciduous trees found in their immediate vicinity: such names comprise 48.6% of all house names of flora semantic origin, i. e., ozols 'oak-tree', berzs 'birch-tree', karkls 'osier', liepa 'linden tree', klava 'maple tree', apses 'aspen', osis 'ash tree', alksnis 'alder', lazda 'hazel-tree', vitols 'willow', ieva 'bird cherry'. Names based on names of conifers are found (35 instances were recorded, or 6.1% of all house names based on flora semantics), i. e., egle 'spruce tree', paeglis, kadikis 'juniper', priede 'pine-tree'. House names based on names of fruit trees and bushes are only occasionally found in Vidzeme, with 8 recorded instances, or 1.4% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., abele 'apple tree', and upene 'black-currant'. The next sub-group of house names based on flora semantics comprises those based on names of cereals. This is one of the most widely occurring flora semantics sub-groups and contains 58 entries, or 10,1% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., auzas 'oats', rudzi 'rye', mieži 'barley', kvieši 'wheat', griki 'buckwheat'. House names have been found based on terms of 6 legumes, which represents 1% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., zirnis 'pea', pupa, 'bean'. Names of common vegetables are the basis for a considerable number of house names. i. e. 53 instances are recorded, representing 9.2% of all house names derived from flora semantics, i. e., rutks, ruduks 'radish', kaposts 'cabbage', racenis 'turnip', sipols 'onion', kiploks 'garlic', kalis 'swede', gurkis 'cucumber'. House names also derive from terms of widely-cultivated plants such as kanepes 'hemp', apini 'hops' and lini 'flax'. These have been the basis for 40 house names, which represent 7% of all hose names based on flora semantics. House names are also based on the names of cultivated and wild herbal plants, and of garden weeds. 47 such cases have been recorded, corresponding to 8.2% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., dadzis 'thistle', abolinš 'clover', and amolinš 'sweet clover', dille 'dill', grislis 'sedge', smilga 'bent grass', usne 'creeping thistle', pienene 'dandelion', perkones 'charlocks', niedre 'reed', skosta 'horse-tail', vibotne 'mugwart'. A total of 32 house names based on three flower terms, roze 'rose', magone 'poppy' and astere 'aster' have been recorded; this represents 5.6% of all house names based on flora semantics. The majority (26) of these house names are based on terms of roses. A number of house names in Vidzeme appear to be based on names of mushrooms. 6 such names have been recorded, which represent 1% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., bekas 'boletus', krimilde, and rudmiese 'Loctarius'. House names listed in the 1826 counting of souls are based on a wide range of flora semantics, with a clear preference for lexemes associated with names of trees. It is possible that this reflects landscape elements close to these homes, as well as the place that these features have in the relationship of home owners with nature, and their work. In order to draw any deeper conclusions about the presence of flora semantics in house names it would be necessary to examine all relevant historical records up to the present time. © The Author(s) 2014.
Counting of souls in 19th century; Flora semantic; House names; Onomastics
ISSN: 00651044Source Type: Journal Original language: English
DOI: 10.11649/abs.2014.008Document Type: Article
Publisher: Polska Akademia Nauk