Tuesday, 16 January 2018

Comprehensive dataset of the medicinal plants used by a Tashelhit speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco

Data in Brief Volume 8, September 2016, Pages 516-519 open access Author links open overlay panelIreneTeixidor-ToneuaGary J.MartinbAhmedOuhammoucRajindra K.PuridJulie A.Hawkinsa a Section of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (EEB), Harborne Building, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AS, UK b Global Diversity Foundation, Marrakech, Morocco c Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecology and Environment, Regional Herbarium MARK, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, PO Box 2390, Marrakech 40001, Morocco d Centre for Biocultural Diversity, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR, UK Received 9 May 2016, Revised 21 May 2016, Accepted 31 May 2016, Available online 7 June 2016. crossmark-logo Show less rights and content Open Access funded by European Research Council Under a Creative Commons license Refers to Irene Teixidor-Toneu, Gary J. Martin, Ahmed Ouhammou, Rajindra K. Puri, Julie A. Hawkins An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 188, 21 July 2016, Pages 96-110 PDF (526KB) Abstract This dataset describes medicinal plants used in a poorly studied area of Morocco: the High Atlas mountains, inhabited by Ishelhin people, the southern Moroccan Amazigh (Berber) ethnic group, “An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco” (Teixidor-Toneu et al., 2016) [1]. It includes a comprehensive list of the plants used in the commune, as well as details on the plant voucher specimens collected and a glossary of Tashelhit terminology relevant to the study. To collect the data, semi-structured and structured interviews were carried out, as well as focus group discussions. Free prior informed consent was obtained for all interactions. A hundred and six adults were interviewed and 2084 use reports were collected; a hundred fifty-one vernacular names corresponding to 159 botanical species were found. Previous article in issueNext article in issue Keywords EthnomedicineTraditional knowledgeMedicinal plantsTashelhitBerber Specifications Table Subject area Ethnobotany, ethnomedicine More specific subject area Medicinal plant use Type of data Tables How data was acquired Ethnobotanical surveys Data format Analysed Experimental factors Voucher specimens collected Experimental features Vernacular names, botanical names, voucher specimen details, plant source, plant parts used, mode of administration, additives, folk ailments and etic categories of use are reported, as well as values for standard ethnobotanical indexes. Data source location Rural commune of Imegdale, N’Fiss valley, High Atlas, Marrakech province, Morocco (approximate geographical coordinates 31.12 N, 8.14 W) Data accessibility Data is within this article Value of the data • These data can inform pharmacological search for new medicines from traditional knowledge repositories [2]. • These data identify culturally valuable species that can potentially be incorporated into rural development programs in the Maghreb [3]. • Plants listed are often over-harvested, this list can inform biodiversity conservation by highlighting species vulnerable due to human pressure on wild populations [3,4]. • These data can also be used in comparative studies about medicinal plant use (e.g., cross-cultural comparisons). 1. Data The dataset presents a comprehensive inventory of the medicinal plants used by a Tashelhit-speaking community in the N’Fiss valley, including linguistic, ecological and ethnomedicinal data (High Atlas, Marrakech; Supplementary Table S1). Details for the herbarium specimens collected during the study and a comprehensive glossary of the Tashelhit vocabulary used are also provided (Supplementary Table S2 and Table 1). Table 1. Glossary of folk ailments, related terms and mixture names. T stands for Tashelhit and MA for Moroccan Arabic. Term Language(s) Meaning ‘aeen MA Evil eye. Ado T It literally means “wind”, believed to be responsible for several Otolaryngological and Respiratory ailments. Alen T Eyes. Asumid T Cold. Atsirid T Wash, specifically of the urogenital area. Azbar T Pain (can refer to muscular pain, menstrual cramps, stomach ache, etc.). Bkhorr T, MA Fumigation. Also used to refer to the fumigant, incense burned on embers in an earthware pot called mjmar (usually used to cook tajine on). Boumzui T, MA Palpitations felt in the abdominal area due to lack of food or stress. Bousfer MA Folk ailment usually translated as jaundice (due to yellow skin and eye coloration); from classical Arabic “asfar”, which means yellow. Bouzlou T Sciatica. Ch׳aar T Hair. Fqrdem T, MA Normally translated as anaemia, but also refers to general tiredness and lack of energy. The word comes from classical Arabic and refers to the medical condition of anaemia. It translates literally to “poverty of blood”. Frigg T, MA Term used to describe the healing practice used by ferraggat, herbal healers that treat children and women׳s ailments, as well as of the specific mixture of plants used. Immi T Mouth. Iqdi T Child׳s ailment due to contact with “sorcery”. Called “shm” in Darija. Imezguane T Ear, referring as well to “ear pain” (Inghayi imezguane). Ishgaf T, MA Name given to a mixture of dried plants and animal parts used as incense to clean the ambience and heal when ailments are believed to be caused by sorcery. Izoran T Roots. Generic name also given to a remedy that consists in a dried powdered mixture of roots. Jerh T Injuries. Klawi T, MA Kidneys. “Klua” in singular. Kolshi T, MA Literally means “everything”, used to refer to plants used for all ailments. Lariah MA It literally means “the winds”, but the word is used to refer to spirits and invisible forces. They are associated with jinni and could be associated with sorcery. Meda T, MA Stomach, from classical Arabic. Mrrara T, MA Gallbladder. Msakhan MA The word derives from skhon, meaning “hot”; it refers to a mixture (mainly consisting of spices) of “hot” plants used to heal “cold” ailments as well as in general as a food flavouring. Msran T Intestines; as a folk category it includes constipation. Lqabt T, MA Constipation. Okhass T Tooth, referring to toothache (inghayi okhass). Qwi T, MA Healing technique that consists of touching specific points of the body (normally around the joints, and on the back and abdominal areas) with a hot object. Usually a plant stem, dried and burned, is used. Alternatively a metal object can be used, either a sickle or a golden piece of jewellery. Ruah T, MA Flu, congestion; due to “wind” (ado) or also “cold” (asumid). Saht MA Literally, it means health and also strength, but it also refers to plants used to put on weight (as there is strong association between being heavy and being healthy). Skar T, MA Diabetes. Literally, sugar. Skhana T, MA Fever. Shqeqa MA Migraine; also used to refer to headaches. From classical Arabic “shak”, which means to crack something. Tafalda T Wart. Taumist T Child׳s ailment believed to be caused by sorcery with symptoms similar to gastroenteritis. Taqait T Child׳s ailment with symptoms similar to ear pain and tonsillitis. Touqal T, MA Gastrointestinal intoxication due to eating food in a bad state or to poisoning (normally attributed to acts of sorcery). Tuhut T Cough. 2. Experimental design, materials and methods Fieldwork was conducted in the rural community of Imegdale, High Atlas, Morocco, between March and June 2015, as detailed in [1]. Ethical guidelines of the American Anthropological Association (2012), the Code of Ethics of the International Society of Ethnobiology (2006) and University of Reading ethical protocols were followed. Approval from the Ethics Committee of the School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, was obtained (Research Ethics Project Submission SBS 14-15 05). In Supplementary Table S1, quantitative data and relevant ethnobotanical indices are also presented for each plant, including the number of Use Reports (UR), the highest Fidelity Level [5] and Use Value [6,7]. Acknowledgements This work has received funding from the European Union׳s Seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development And Demonstration under the Grant agreement no. 606895. We would like to acknowledge in kind support provided by the Darwin Initiative (Project number 20-013: Medicinal root trade, plant conservation and local livelihoods in Morocco). Heartfelt thanks to the people from Imegdale and all those who agreed to participate in this study; this work belongs to them and will return to the community. Conducting fieldwork in Morocco would have not been possible without the collaboration of H. Ait Baskad, F. Ait Iligh, M. El Haouzi, A. Ouarghidi and H. Rankou, many thanks to them. Especial thanks to H. Benlafkih for elucidating specific terminology included in the glossary. Transparency document. Supplementary material Download Word document (44KB)Help with doc files Supplementary material Appendix A. Supplementary material Download Acrobat PDF file (423KB)Help with pdf files Supplementary material References [1] I. Teixidor-Toneu, G.J. Martin, A. Ouhammou, R.K. Puri, J.A. Hawkins An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco J Ethnopharmacol., 188 (2016), pp. 96-110 ArticlePDF (526KB)View Record in Scopus [2] C.H. Saslis-Lagoudakis, V. Savolainen, E.M. Williamson, F. Forest, S.J. Wagstaff, S.R. Baral, M.F. Watson, C.A. Pendry, J.A. Hawkins Phylogenies reveal predictive power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 109 (2012), pp. 15835-15840 CrossRefView Record in Scopus [3] G.J. Martin Ethnobotany: a Methods Manual, Chapman & Hall, London (1995) [4] U. Schippmann, D.J. Leaman, A.B. Cunningham, Impact of Cultivation and Gathering of Medicinal Plants on Biodiversity: Global Trends and Issues. Published in FAO, Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Approach in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Rome, 12–13 October 2002, Inter-Departmental Working Group on Biological Diversity for Food and Agriculture, Rome, 2002. [5] J. Friedman, Z. Yaniv, A. Dafni, D.A. Palewitch Preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev Desert, Israel J Ethnopharmacol., 16 (1986), pp. 275-287 ArticlePDF (816KB)View Record in Scopus [6] O. Phillips, A.H. Gentry The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique Econ Bot., 47 (1993), pp. 15-32 CrossRefView Record in Scopus [7] S. Rossato, H.F. Leitao-Filho, A. Begossi Ethnobotany of Caiçaras of the Atlantic forest coast (Brazil) Econ Bot., 53 (1999), pp. 377-385 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.