Tuesday, 28 November 2017
Pilot Study of the Tart Cherry Juice for the Treatment of Insomnia and Investigation of Mechanisms.
Am J Ther. 2017 Mar 27. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000584. [Epub ahead of print] Losso JN1, Finley JW, Karki N, Liu AG, Prudente A, Tipton R, Yu Y, Greenway FL. Author information 1 1Department of Food Science, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA; 2Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA; and 3BASF Corporation San Gabriel, LA. Abstract BACKGROUND: Insomnia is common in the elderly and is associated with chronic disease, but use of hypnotics increases the incidence of falls. Montmorency tart cherry juice has improved insomnia by self-report questionnaire. STUDY QUESTION: Is insomnia confirmed by polysomnography and is tryptophan availability a potential mechanism for treating insomnia? STUDY DESIGN: A placebo-controlled balanced crossover study with subjects older than 50 years and insomnia were randomized to placebo (2 weeks) or cherry juice (2 weeks) (240 mL 2 times/d) separated by a 2-week washout. MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: Sleep was evaluated by polysomnography and 5 validated questionnaires. Serum indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio, and prostaglandin E2 were measured. In vitro, Caco-2 cells were stimulated with interferon-gamma, and the ability of cherry juice procyanidin to inhibit IDO which degrades tryptophan and stimulates inflammation was measured. The content of procyanidin B-2 and other major anthocyanins in cherry juice were determined. RESULTS: Eleven subjects were randomized; 3 with sleep apnea were excluded and referred. The 8 completers with insomnia increased sleep time by 84 minutes on polysomnography (P = 0.0182) and sleep efficiency increased on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P = 0.03). Other questionnaires showed no significant differences. The serum kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio decreased, as did the level of prostaglandin E2 (both P < 0.05). In vitro, cherry juice procyanidin B-2 dose-dependently inhibited IDO. CONCLUSIONS: Cherry juice increased sleep time and sleep efficiency. Cherry juice procyanidin B-2 inhibited IDO, increased tryptophan availability, reduced inflammation, and may be partially responsible for improvement in insomnia.