The Scientific World Journal Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 127526, 10 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/127526 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/127526/ Research Article Ethnoveterinary Study of Medicinal Plants in a Tribal Society of Sulaiman Range Akash Tariq,1 Sakina Mussarat,1 Muhammad Adnan,1 Naser M. AbdElsalam,2 Riaz Ullah,3 and Abdul Latif Khan4
1Department of Botany, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat 26000, Pakistan 2Riyadh Community College, King Saud University, Riyadh 11437, Saudi Arabia 3Department of Chemistry, Government College Ara Khel, FR Kohat 26000, Pakistan 4Department of Biological Sciences and Chemistry, University of Nizwa, 616 Nizwa, Oman
Received 24 July 2014; Accepted 24 September 2014; Published 21 October 2014
The aims of the present study were (i) to document ethnoveterinary plants and their formulation techniques in an unexplored region of Pakistan and (ii) to select candidate medicinal plants with high consensus factor and fidelity value for further in vitro investigation. A total of 60 informants were interviewed using semistructured questionnaire. A total of 41 plants belonging to 30 families were used to treat livestock ailments in study area. Mostly leaves (47%) were used in recipes formulation mostly in the form of decoction. Gastrointestinal infections were found more common and majority of the plants were used against cow (31) and buffaloes (24) ailments. Recovery time of majority of the recipes was three to four days. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results have shown a high degree of consensus for gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive (0.95 each) ailments. Fidelity level (FL) results showed that Asparagus gracilis ranked first with FL value 93% followed by Rumex hastatus ranked second (91%) and Tinospora cordifolia ranked third (90%). Aged farmers and nomads had more traditional knowledge as compared to younger ones. Plants with high Fic and FL values could be further investigated in vitro for the search of some novel bioactive compounds and young generation should be educated regarding ethnoveterinary practices.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2014, 10:49
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Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha,
Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing
equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand
the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional
medicine in Belgaum region, India.
The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional
practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews
and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration,
sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed.
One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for
the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed
that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons
in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the
tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices
through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive
“Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily
symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything,
while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration.
Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation
methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from
villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation,
while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion.
Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum
region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and processing
between non-codified traditional system of medicine and Ayurveda require further methodical
studies to establish the relationship between the two on a more objective basis. However,
the practice appears to be at crossroads with threat of extinction, because of non-inheritance
of the knowledge and non-availability of medicinal plants. Hence conservation strategies
for both knowledge and resources at societal, scientific and legislative levels are
urgently required to preserve the traditional wisdom.
Belgaum; Convenience sampling;
Disease diagnosis; Ethnomedicine; Non-codified medicine; Preference
ranking; Sharing of knowledge; Traditional medicine; Traditional
practitioner; Western Ghats