Saturday, 18 July 2015

Hypercholesterolemia induced ocular disorder: Ameliorating role of phytotherapy

Available online 6 June 2015


Ocular structure and function.
Hypercholesterolemia induced ocular disorders such as retinopathy and cataractous lenses.
Mechanism of diseases and promising phytotherapy.


Ocular region is a complex structure, which allows conscious light perception, and vision, it is of ecto-mesodermal origin. Cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids are involved in retinal cell function; however, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes impaired its function. Retinal damage, neovascularization and cataracts are the main complications of cholesterol overload. Dietary supplementation of the selected plant products led to the scavenging of free reactive oxygen species thereby protecting the ocular regions from the damage of hypercholesterolemia. The present review illustrates the dramatic effects of increased cholesterol level on the ocular regions. The impact of phytotherapy is discussed in relation with the different regions of the eye including retina, cornea and lens.

Key words

  • Retina; 
  • cornea; 
  • lens; 
  • cholesterol metabolism; 
  • hypercholesterolemia; 
  • phytotherapy


  • 7KCh, 7-ketocholesterol; 
  • AA, Arachidonic acid; 
  • AANFB, Astrocytes associated with the nerve-fibre bundles; 
  • Abeta, Amyloid-beta; 
  • AGEs, Advanced glycation endproducts;
  • AMD, Aged macular degeneration; 
  • AMPK, AMP-activating protein kinase; 
  • apoE,Apolipoprotein E; 
  • APP, Amyloid precursor protein; 
  • AX, Arabinoxylan; 
  • BM, Bruch's membrane; 
  • DR, Diabetic retinopathy; 
  • ECD, Enriched cholesterol diet; 
  • FH, Familial hypercholesterolemia; 
  • GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid; 
  • GCL, Ganglion-cell layer; 
  • GGPP,Gerany lgeranyl pyrophosphate; 
  • GTPase, Guanosine triphosphatase; 
  • HDL, High-density lipoprotein; 
  • INL, Inner nuclear layer; 
  • IPL, Inner plexiform layer; 
  • LDL, Low-density lipoprotein; 
  • MDA, Malondialdehyde; 
  • MUL, Mulberroside A; 
  • NEP, Neprilysin;
  • NFL, Nerve fiber layer; 
  • OLM, Outer limiting membrane; 
  • OXY, Oxyresveratrol; 
  • PJ,Pomegranate juice; 
  • PoP, Pomegranate peel; 
  • PUFA, Polyunsaturated fatty acids; 
  • PVA,Perivascular astrocytes; 
  • RAGE, Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts; 
  • RNV,Retinal neovascularization; 
  • ROS, Reactive oxygen species; 
  • ROSs, Rod outer segments of photoreceptors; 
  • RPE, Retinal pigment epithelium; 
  • RPO, Red palm oil; 
  • TC,Total cholesterol; 
  • TEM, Transmission electron microscopy; 
  • TG, Triglyceride; 
  • VEGF,Vascular endothelial growth factor; 
  • VLDL, Very-low-density lipoproteins

Corresponding author: Dr. Prof. Hassan I El-Sayyad, PhD. Faculty of Science. Mansoura University, ; Telephone Number 0020502254850.