Hypercholesterolemia induced ocular disorders such as retinopathy and cataractous lenses.
Mechanism of diseases and promising phytotherapy.
Ocular region is a complex structure, which allows conscious light perception, and vision, it is of ecto-mesodermal origin. Cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids are involved in retinal cell function; however, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes impaired its function. Retinal damage, neovascularization and cataracts are the main complications of cholesterol overload. Dietary supplementation of the selected plant products led to the scavenging of free reactive oxygen species thereby protecting the ocular regions from the damage of hypercholesterolemia. The present review illustrates the dramatic effects of increased cholesterol level on the ocular regions. The impact of phytotherapy is discussed in relation with the different regions of the eye including retina, cornea and lens.
AANFB,Astrocytes associated with the nerve-fibre bundles;
AGEs,Advanced glycation endproducts;
AMD,Aged macular degeneration;
AMPK,AMP-activating protein kinase;
APP,Amyloid precursor protein;
ECD,Enriched cholesterol diet;
GGPP,Gerany lgeranyl pyrophosphate;
INL,Inner nuclear layer;
IPL,Inner plexiform layer;
NFL,Nerve fiber layer;
OLM,Outer limiting membrane;
PUFA,Polyunsaturated fatty acids;
RAGE,Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts;
ROS,Reactive oxygen species;
ROSs,Rod outer segments of photoreceptors;
RPE,Retinal pigment epithelium;
RPO,Red palm oil;
TEM,Transmission electron microscopy;
VEGF,Vascular endothelial growth factor;
Corresponding author: Dr. Prof. Hassan I El-Sayyad, PhD. Faculty of Science. Mansoura University, ; Telephone Number 0020502254850.