Monday, 7 March 2016
Antiurolithiatic plants in different countries and cultures
Salman Ahmed, Muhammad Mohtasheemul Hasan, Zafar Alam Mahmood
Urolithiasis is very old and common urological disorder with its worldwide prevalence, multi-factorial etiology, increased recurrent rate and severe consequences. The adverse effects of currently available antiurolithiatic agents potentiate the natural product researchers to explore the natural antiurolithiatic compounds with fewer side effects. The presented communication constitutes a review on antiurolithiatic effect of four hundred and fifty seven (457) plants belonging to one hundred and eight (108) families found in different parts of the world. This review will provide useful information for the discovery of natural antiurolitiatic compounds and fill the gaps in knowledge. Keywords: urolithiasis, antiurolithiatic, natural products, drug development. Introduction Current world-wide interest in traditional medicine has led to rapid development and studies of many remedies employed by various cultures of the world. The side effects of these anti urolithiatic drugs are given much attention to the application of traditional medicines. Therefore, it is a need to concentrate on all folk natural products useful in urolithiasis for their pharmacological evaluation, isolating single drug entity responsible for antiurolithiatic effect and developing suitable formulation used against urolithiasis. All provided information was obtained through Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sci Finder, Scirus, Web of Science and a library search. The search terms included Ethno-medicinal survey of anti-urolithiatic plants, antiurolithiatic plants, and plants against kidney stones, traditional antiurolithiatic remedies. It is recorded in alphabetical order of plant scientific name, family, parts used and country name where it is used for the treatment of urolithiasis (table1). Ethnomedicinal surveys from America, Australia, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Cuba, Eastern Albania, Fiji, Germany, Haiti, India, Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Réunion, Thailand, Turkey, Uzbekistan and Yemen (34 countries) are reported as antiurolithiatic. In this report we have enumerated 457 medicinal plants of 108 families used as antiurolithiatic drugs in different countries and cultures. Conclusion The present review not only gives an extensive ethnomedicinal information about the medicinal plants used against urolithiasis in different countries and cultures. But, it also provide an elaborative literature search of traditionally reported antiurolithiatic plants. In future, it will opens a door for the discovery of natural antiurolithiatic drugs with fewer side effects.