Friday, 8 December 2017

Cross‐Cultural Analysis of Medicinal Plants commonly used in Ethnoveterinary Practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan

Volume 210, 10 January 2018, Pages 443-468 Journal of Ethnopharmacology Author links open overlay panelMuhammad AbdulAzizaMuhammadAdnanaAmir HasanKhanbMuhammadSufyancShahid NiazKhand a Department of Botany, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat 26000, Pakistan b Department of Botany, Shaheed Benazir Bhuto University Sheringal, District Dir (Upper) Khyber, Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan c Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat 26000, Pakistan d Department of Zoology, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat 26000, Pakistan Received 20 November 2016, Revised 10 September 2017, Accepted 11 September 2017, Available online 14 September 2017. crossmark-logo Get rights and content Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance In remote areas, medicinal plants have an imperative role in curing various livestock's ailments. In Pakistan, people residing in remote areas including South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency depend on traditional herbal remedies for treating their domestic animals. Medicinal plants are an important part of the medical system in these Agencies. The prime goal of the current study is to explore the ethnoveterinary practices in the two regions and discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants. In this study, we have given detailed description on the ethnoveterinary usage of certain medicinal plants and their recipes. Moreover, we have also elaborated the ethnoveterinary potential of certain plants in relation to their ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and phytochemicals reports. Methodology Fieldwork comprised of two fields surveys conducted at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency. A total of 75 informants from South Waziristan Agency and 80 informants from Bajaur Agency were interviewed with the help of semi-structured questionnaires. Use reports (URs) were recorded for all the documented taxa. Data were quantitatively analyzed by using informant consensus factor (Fic) index in order to find out information homogeneity provided by the informants. To analyze the cross-cultural consensus, the recorded data were tabulated as well as shown by Venn diagram. Results Overall, 94 medicinal plant taxa were recorded in the comparative analysis. Out of these, most of the plants species (72 species) were used at Bajaur Agency than South Waziristan Agency (37 species). Cross-cultural analysis showed that only 15 medicinal plants were used in common by the indigenous communities in both Agencies, which indicates a low interregional consensus with regard to the ethnoveterinary practices of medicinal plants. Apiaceae was the dominant family in both regions by representing maximum number of plant species (11 species). Gastro intestinal complexities were common in both regions having higher Fic values (above 90). Moreover, the current investigation reported new ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants from South Waziristan Agency, which were Sideroxylon mascatense, Raphanus sativus, Salix babylonica, Solanum nigrum, Sophora mollis, Taraxacum campylodes and Tulipa stellata. On the other hand from Bajaur Agency, Boerhavia erecta, Celtis australis, Chamaecyparis obtusa var. obtuse, Eryngium biehersteinianum, Gossypium arboreum, Narcissus tazetta, Opuntia littoralis, Streblus asper were reported with new ethnoveterinary uses. Conclusions The current study has an important contribution towards the preservation of indigenous plants’ based knowledge. Several plants are carrying important ethnoveterinary uses being practiced by the local people mostly against the gastrointestinal disorders in both regions. Importantly, the cross-cultural approach has reported some new traditional uses of plants against livestock's diseases. Hence, this is an opportunity to investigate such plants phytopharmacologically and toxicologically for the discovery of new drug sources. Graphical abstract Comparative analysis of Veterinary practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency. fx1 Download high-res image (239KB)Download full-size image Previous article Next article Keywords Cross-culture consensus Livestock ailments Medicinal plants Ethnoveterinary knowledge Informant consensus factor Use value 1. Introduction Ethnoveterinary medicines (EVM) are a basic source of traditional knowledge for the maintenance of livestock's health. It's not only involves information related to the medication of livestock, but also addresses the social context onto these traditional practices (Mathias, 2004). Rural people mainly rely on domestic cattle for their incomes and livelihood in many parts of the world (Pica-Ciamarra et al., 2011). Domestic animals play pivotal role by improving the economy of mountain communities and considered a symbol of socio-economic status (Abbasi et al., 2013). That is why reliance of rural people on medicinal plants is higher in order to keep their livestock healthy. In developing countries, medicinal plants significantly contribute in the treatment of livestock's disorders due to no or less access to allopathic medicines (Katerere and Luseba, 2010). Knowledge about the ethnoveterinary practices has been transferred from one generation to another generation through verbal communication. However, threat of extinction goes in parallel with the knowledge transfer due to decrease in natural resources and modernization. This may result in the elimination of precious hereditary knowledge if not properly documented. Indigenous communities have a key role in the preservation of knowledge related to the local uses of medicinal flora. The indigenous knowledge can be used as a tool to conserve the green diversity and scientific validation of medicinal recipes. Several studies have focused on the documentation of ethnoveterinary knowledge in South Asia (Eswaran et al., 2013; Galav et al., 2013). Studies related to the knowledge on ethnoveterinary practices carries great potential from the socio-economic perspectives. Therefore, it is necessary to secure and boost this valuable heritable knowledge to improve the revenue generation of native people. Livestock is an important sub-sector of Pakistan's agriculture, which significantly contributes into the country's economy. Livestock sector has a share of 55.91% in the agriculture value added and 11.8% in national GDP, which has grown by 3.99% in year 2013–2014 (GoP, 2014). A study has shown about 40% of all the income arises from the livestock and their products (Shahid et al., 2012). People residing in remote areas are dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Nomadic grazers and farmers not only use plants as fodder, but also for treating various ailments of their livestock. There are several reports on the ethnoveterinary uses of plants from other regions of Pakistan (Deeba et al., 2009; Raziq et al., 2010; Abbasi et al., 2013; Ul Hassan et al., 2014; Mussarat et al., 2014; Ahmad et al., 2015). The study area comprised of Ladha a sub-division of the South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency located in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. Due to their remoteness, the indigenous communities residing in these areas have less access to synthetic pharmaceuticals. In both areas, most of the people using medicinal plants are having no or little schooling. Lack of proper education and less access to the modern veterinary pharmaceuticals are the two major reasons behind the dependency of local people on natural sources of medicines for the livestock's healthcare. Therefore, the people mainly rely on traditional therapies for curing diseases of their livestock. There are no such cross sectional studies and this is the very first systemic documentation highlighting the cross-culture medicinal values of plants used in the livestock health care system of the two study regions. As both of the regions are existing nearby, so the disappearance of EVM in both of the regions is mainly due to the speedy urbanization, increasing sedentarization, changing livestock systems from subsistence (extensive) to commercial (intensive), war and conflicts, increasing competition for natural resources and environmental degradation. Hence, there is a dire need to document the ethnoveterinary knowledge from the whole FATA regions. Therefore, the current study was designed with the objective to record and document the traditional veterinary practices from unexplored regions of South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, and to discuss cross sectional consensus on the uses of medicinal plants. This is to evaluate the traditional acuity of plants based remedies as a right solution for the animals’ health. This study would ensure the preservation of valuable ethnoveterinary knowledge of the regions and provide a base for the exploration of new phytochemicals. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Ethnographical background and description of study area South Waziristan and Bajaur are the two out of total eight Agencies of the Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. The regions are geographically isolated having variation with respect to biodiversity, topographic, climatic and cultural factors. The study area Ladha of South Waziristan Agency is comprised of mountains and rich in plants diversity. The total area covered by the Agency is 6619 km2 and is situated at E 69°42′ longitude N 32°24′ latitude and with an altitude of 1250–2134 m above the sea level. The temperature falls below 0 °C in winter mostly at higher altitudinal places whereas summer is comparatively hot in the plain area. The average precipitation rate per annum is 152.4 mm. Ethnographically, the study area is populated by three ethnic groups including Mehsood, Wazir and Barki tribes who speak Pashto language. Mostly the local people are government servants, farmers, drivers and running their own businesses. Most of the people depend on domestic and foreign remittances, and marketing of forest products. The indigenous communities keep domestic cattle in their homes as a key source of their livelihood. The dominant flora of the Agency is Quercus oblongata D.Don, Olea ferruginea Wall. ex Aitch., Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex. D.Don, Sideroxylon mascatense (A.DC.) T.D.Penn., Morus alba Bureau., Morus nigra L., Sophora mollis (Royle) Graham ex Baker, Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal and species of genus Mentha. At lower elevation, the flora also consists members of the genus Acacia. No comprehensive literature is available mentioning the total number taxa in both regions. Bajaur is the smallest Agency among FATA having hilly terrain. It shares 52 km borders with Afghanistan with Khar as the main headquarter of the Agency. This border is of the economic importance between the two countries. The study area laying at the altitude of 1125.93 m and geographically exists at E 71°30′ longitude and N 34°41′ latitude. The total area of the Agency is comprised of 1290 km2. The Agency is surrounded to the west by Kunar Valley being separated by rugged Hindukush hills and other irregular mountain passes known as Nawa Pass, Ghakhi Pass and Letaisar. Mohmand Agency is bordered to the South of Bajaur Agency, while District Dir to the east and north side of the Agency. The Agency is laying at the extreme end of the Himalayan Range, which offers great variation in climatic conditions. The dominant vegetation in the area is comprised of Olea ferruginea, Pinus roxburghii, Ficus carica L., Melia azedarach L., Morus nigra, Quercus baloot, Rumex hastatus D.Don, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Morus alba, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Tarkani and Utman Khel are the two main tribes of Bajaur Agency who also speak Pashto language. The socio-economic background of the local people is comparatively poor with most people are farmers by profession. People with other professions are teacher, drivers and others in addition to the ones having their own small-scale businesses. A high proportion of the local populations also obtain remittances from other parts of the country or abroad. Almost every household has a herd of domestic animals that greatly help in the livelihood of local communities. No proper education system is available in the area. One veterinary hospital and 20 small dispensaries are present in the area in order to treat the domestic cattle. This is one of the reasons that the local people still use traditional recipes to treat their animals. Many of the plants present in the study area are being used by the local people for various medicinal purposes. 2.2. Data collection Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out in the month of May to August, 2016 in both Agencies. Regular field visits to various sites were conducted prior to data collection. The surveys were based on direct interaction with the inhabitants of study areas (Mahmood et al., 2013). Information was summarized from the indigenous communities by means of corner meetings and semi-structured interviews. Fig. 1 shows the maps of the two study regions. Informants were selected through snowball technique in both of the regions. Seventy five informants (50 males and 25 females) form South Waziristan Agency belonging to Mehsood tribe while 80 key respondents (68 male and 12 female) were selected from Bajaur Agency belonging to Tarkani and Utman Khel tribes. Informants were herders, farmers and housewives. Large proportion of the selected informants did not go to the school while others have hardly primary level education, which reflects lack of awareness and shortage of standard educational facilities in these regions. Educated people were found to be less conversant regarding the traditional knowledge as compared to illiterate ones. Ten experienced and most conversant people in the field of ethnoveterinary medicines were selected for the interview from each village in the two areas. All of the informants were familiar with the livestock diseases and local veterinary practices including different recipes to treat ailments. The interviews in the field surveys were conducted in the local language called “Pashto”, however with different dialects in both areas. The local dialect of Waziristan is called “Masood Walla Zaba” while that of Bajaur Agency is “Bajauray Zaba”. Mr. Muhammad Abdul Aziz and Mr. Amir Hasan Khan, the local occupants of South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, respectively were familiar with the native dialects of the Pashto language in their respective regions. Both of them stayed with the respondents in order to document the practices on ethnoveterinary medications. The local names of the reported plants were indicated in their native dialects in both of the regions. The preliminary results were redisplayed to each of the informants for the possible feedback. Further, group discussions were conducted to validate and clarify the results. Semi-structured questionnaires were harmonized by informal conversation and free interviews (Huntington, 2000). Gender and age differences were considered and interviews were taken individually and collectively. Most interviews were taken from men due to cultural barriers in interviewing women in their cultures from the study areas. Males usually do herding, therefore, they keep knowledge on traditional therapies. Fig. 1 Download high-res image (444KB)Download full-size image Fig. 1. Area map of South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, Pakistan. 2.3. Taxonomic verification The documented medicinal plants from South Waziristan were identified by Muhammad Adnan from the Department of Botany, Kohat University of Science and Technology, District Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Those plants, which were collected and recorded from Bajaur Agency were identified by another taxonomist from the Department of Botany, Shaheed Benazir Bhuto University Sheringal, District Dir (Upper), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The plants were mounted and preserved on herbarium sheets, assigned vernacular names and tag the voucher number to every species. Afterwards, the plants were deposited at the herbarium of Department of Botany, Shaheed Benazir Bhuto University Sheringal. Taxonomic problems regarding the correct names and updated systematic position were verified by using The Plant List ( 2.4. Data organization and analysis Data were arranged and organized by using Microsoft Excel. Descriptive statistics were carried out through use reports. Use reports may be defined as the utilization of part of a plant species for a particular disease mentioned by an informant whereas the frequency of species being described by determining the number of species citation in the free list. The informant consensus factors (Fic) is calculated as: In the given formula the “nur” shows the number of use reports or category of use while nspp shows the number of species used or category (Trotter and Logan, 1986). After analyzing the Fic values of both surveys, a comparison was made to sort out variations in diseases’ consensus across the two regions. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Cross-cultural consensus on medicinal plants A total of 94 medicinal plant species were recorded from both of the study areas. Details on the documented species include botanical names, voucher number, family name, vernacular names, parts used, category of medicinal use, animals treated, medicinal uses and use reports’ numbers (Table 1). After comparing the ethnoveterinary data recorded from two regions, maximum number of plants taxa (72 species) were used for veterinary practices by indigenous communities resides at Bajaur Agency as compared to South Waziristan Agency (37 species). Overall people in South Waziristan use lesser number of medicinal plants for livestock health care services. These results do not necessarily mean that Bajaur Agency is floristically more diverse than South Waziristan Agency, but it may be due to the less familiarity of the local people towards plants’ usage. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plants of a particular community is usually unique to that community. Most studies in the past have documented the traditional knowledge of one ethnic group, however neglected the cross-cultural comparisons of such knowledge (Heinrich et al., 1998). Recent literature has shown an increasing trend of inter-cultural and intra-cultural comparisons of traditional knowledge on medicinal plants (Lardos and Heinrich, 2013; Gairola et al., 2014; Sharma et al., 2014). Inter-cultural comparison has practical applications because we can address both the consensus and variations by this approach. The use of ethnoveterinary plant species by one ethnic community is almost different from other communities due to several reasons. Most commonly plant species recorded form Bajaur Agency were Visnaga daucoides Gaertn. (49 URs), followed by Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (47 URs), Solanum virginianum L. (43 URs), Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, (38 URs) Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (33 URs) and Curcuma longa L. (29 URs). In South Waziristan Agency, the most widely accepted species were Brassica rapa L. (35 URs) followed by Punica granatum L. (30 URs), Capparis desidua (Forsk.) Edgew. (29 URs), Mentha longifolia (L.) (29 URs), Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (29 URs), and Curcuma longa L. (25 URs). Table 1. Shows the comparative analysis of medicinal plants' uses by the two indigenous communities. Plant name/Family name South Waziristan Agency Bajaur Agency Voucher numbers Local name (Masood Walla Zaba dialect of Pashto language) Part used Disease/Animal treated/Route of administration UR Mode of utilization Voucher numbers Local name (Bajauray Zaba dialect of Pashto language) Part used Disease/Animal treated/Route of administration UR Mode of utilization Acacia modesta Wall./Fabaceae KUS-546 Palosa Fruit Tonic (10)/Goat, Cow, Sheep/Oral 10 Fruit of the plant is given to domestic cattle in order to improve general body function. SBBU-27 Palusa Bark Skin problems (5), blood purification (6)/Goat, Cow, Sheep/oral and topical 11 The decoction of the bark is mixed with butter and given to all types of domestic animals for the treatment of skin problems and blood purification. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle/Simaroubaceae – – – – – – SBBU-50 Spena bokana Leaves Galactagogue (13)/Cow/oral 13 Fresh Leaves are directly given to cow to increase milk production. Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don/Lamiaceae – – – – – – SBBU-30 Gutee Leaves Vermifuge (4), blood purifier (7), skin problems (5)/Goat, Cow, Sheep 16 The decoction of leaves is combined with Gurr and given to all type of cattle as vermifuge and as blood purifier. Also bath is given with the water to relieve skin problems. Allium cepa L/Amaryllidaceae KUS-557 Pyoz Bulb Galactagogue (10)/Goat, Sheep/Oral 10 Mix powdered bulbs with milk and sugar, which is then orally given to the cattle two times in a day for the duration of one week. SBBU-32 Piaz Bulb Digestive problems (14)/cow, sheep, buffalo and goat/oral 14 The crushed bulb are mixed with milk and orally administered to cow, sheep, buffalo and goat for the duration of 5–7 days to treat digestive problems. Allium sativum L./Amaryllidaceae KUS-548 Yazza Bulb Genital prolapse (7)/Oral 7 Mix 250 g each of powdered bulb and butter and taken for 3 days SBBU-16 Oga Bulb Sexual tonic (13)/cow, sheep, goat/oral 13 Fresh bulb are mixed with whey and given to cow up to 5 days to increase the fertility rate in domestic cattle. Amaranthus viridis L./Amaranthaceae KUS-542 Ranzaka Seeds Tonic (6), Diuretic (6)/Goat, Sheep/Oral 12 One kg of the fresh plant is taken and is crushed, mixing it with wheat flour and given to animals for several days as tonic. Seeds given inside the cake of dough in order to enhance the urine production. – – – – – Anethum graveolens L./Apiaceae KUS-541 Not Known Seeds Galactagogue (10)/Goat, Sheep/Oral 11 About one hundred grams of the powdered seeds are thoroughly mixed with wheat flour for oral administration up to 15 days regularly to enhance milk production. – – – – – Artemisia absinthium L./Asteraceae – – – – – – SBBU-52 Sparo botay Whol plant Anthelmintic (5)/cow, sheep, goat/oral 5 The powder of the plant mixed with wheat flour along with Gurr. This remedy is used as anthelmintic. Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit./Asteraceae – – – – – – SBBU-67 Tarkha Leaves Blood purification (3), gastric problems (7) skin irritation (3)/cow, sheep, goat/oral, topical 13 About ½ kg leaves is taken and decoction, then mixed with Gurr. On daily basis, 1 or 2 glasses are orally administered to goat, sheep and cow. This is the best remedy for blood purification, gastric problems and skin irritation. Berberis lycium Royle/Berberidaceae – – – – – – SBBU-42 Kowary Roots Mouth infection (4), healing agent (7), refrigerant (13)/Cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, donkey/oral 24 About ¼ kg of its root is taken and decoction is made which is orally administered for 8–10 day to all type of cattle (Cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, donkey) for curing digestive problems, mouth infection, as healing agent and also for the production of cooling effect in summer season. Beta vulgaris L./Amaranthaceae – – – – – – SBBU-33 Chaqandar Whol plant digestive ailments (6)/cow, buffalo/oral 6 The powder are mixed with the wheat flour and black tea as orally administered for the curing of digestive ailments of cow, buffalo. Boerhavia erecta L./Nyctaginaceae – – – – – – SBBU-36 Insut Whol plant Skin problems (7)/goat/topical 7 The powder are mixed with Gurr and cooked locally called ‘Paa” topically used for skin complexities. Brassica rapa L./Brassicaceae KUS-575 Sharshum Seeds Appetizer (5), Tonic (12), Cough (4), Seasonal allergies (4), Stomach disorders (8), Skin infection (2)/Goat, Sheep, Cow/Topical, Oral 35 Seed of the plant is crushed and then take two hundred gm, which is mixed with 50 g sulfur and make a mixture by combining with mustard plant oil. The paste is then administered topically for 1 week to treat dermal infections. The ground seeds are mixed with egg and are given the animal for 2–3 days to improve general health conditions. To enhance the appetite cattle, 3–4 grains of black pepper are soaked in the Brassica oil for some days and after that cooked with bread and orally given to the respective animal for 6–10 days. The extracted oil from seeds is being used in the relief of flatulence. The oil of the plants is mixed with whey and is given to animal. The oil is mixed with egg and is given for the treatment of cough. Oil of the plant is applied topically to treat seasonal allergies of nose and eyes. SBBU-39 Sharsham Oil Digestion (28)/cow, buffalo/oral 28 About 75 ml of mustered oil is mixed with whey and orally administered to cattle, cow, buffalo for 3 day to relieve from abdominal pain. Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand./Apocynaceae KUS-574 Spalmay Leaves Joint pain (3)/Goat, Sheep/Topical 3 Leaves of the plants are get warm and then the leaves are kept on the joints. The leaves are boiled in the water and topically used for killing the lice present on the skin of animals. SBBU-18 Spalmai Leaves Skin problems (21)/goat, sheep/topical 21 The decoction of the fresh leaves are mix with ‘Ajuga integrifolia Buch’ decoction and topically used for 3 days. This is good remedy for dermal problems and used against skin parasites. Cannabis sativa L./Cannabaceae KUS-576 Banga Whole plant Gastrointestinal problems (11), Antiparasite (5), Stimulant (3)/Goat, Sheep/Oral, Topical 19 Whole plants are kept in cold water and then the infusion is drunken by the cattle so as to relieve from the diarrhea. It also produces cooling effect in animals. About 1 kg of dried leaves and seed are taken and powder is made from them, which is further combined with wheat flour, salt and water. Later, this paste is applied orally for 2 weeks. Plants fresh leaves are taken along with one hundred gm of the paste and applied topically to relieve from the ectoparasites. SBBU-20 Bang Leaves, Stem Genital prolapsed (7), cooling agent (15)/goat, cow, sheep/oral 22 About ½ kg fresh leaves are boiled in black tea and mixed with wheat flour then fed to the animals suffered from genital prolapsed for the duration of one week. This is also used for cooling effect. Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew./Capparaceae KUS-545 Krerra Whole plant Gastrointestinal disorders (20), Antiparasite (9)/Goat, Sheep/Oral, Topical 29 The plant is burned and then the burned twigs are grinded to fine powder and mix with whey and are given to animal for flatulence. To relieve from ticks and mites, ash obtained from the wood of the plant is mixed with one-liter water and administered topically. – – – – – – Carum carvi L./Apiaceae – – – – – – SBBU-24 Zera Fruit Digestive problems (14)/cow, goat, and buffalo/oral 14 ¼ kg fruit is taken and boiled in black tea along with wheat flour which is orally administered to cow, goat, and buffalo for at least 3 days to get rid of digestive problems. Cassia fistula L./Fabaceae – – – – – – SBBU-4 Amaltas Fruit Gastric problems (10), fever (3)/goat, cow, sheep/oral 13 The fresh fruit are boiled in milk and orally administered to all type of cattle. It is given once a day for the duration of 3 days, which is a best remedy for fever and gastric problems. Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don/Pinaceae – – – – – – SBBU-45 Nanzra Oil Cooling agent (9) gastric problems (10), sexual debility (4)/cow, buffalo, sheep, goat/oral 23 About 10–15 drops of its oil mixed with water and orally administered to cow, buffalo, sheep and goat when the milk give bed smell. This remedy is also used as cooling agent and treat the gastric problems. Large amount of oil along water are is given to depress the sexual power male animals. Celtis australis L./Cannabaceae – – – – – – SBBU-25 Tagha Bark Skin problems (8)/goat, cow/topical 8 The powder of bark is mixed with ghee and then boiled Gurr and topically used for 3 days twice a day. Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl./Cupressaceae – – – – – – SBBU-40 Saber Dana Fruit Sexual tonic (9)/cow, buffalo/oral 9 Two fruit seed are mixed with black tea and orally administered to cow and buffalo for 3 days to give heat to animals. Chenopodium album L./Chenopodiaceae KUS-561 Unknown Whole plant Wound healing (5), Flatulence (7)/Goat/Oral, Topical 12 Leaves of the herb are taken and boiled in Brassica oil and then crushed the material, which is applied topically to the affected areas suffering from wounds. Whole plant is grounded and is used for flatulence. SBBU-35 Sarmy Whole plant Stomachic (17)/Donkey, cow, goat, sheep, buffalo/oral 17 In mustered oil, ½ kg fresh leaves of the plant are boiled along with Gurr and orally administered as stomachic to donkey, cow, goat, sheep, buffalo for 3–5 days one time a day Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck/Rutaceae KUS-552 Nimbo Fruit Mastitis (9)/Oral, Topical 9 Juice of fruits is thoroughly mixed with sugar, which is given to animal and applied topically to the mammary gland to relieve from mastitis. Used for a duration of 10–15 days. – – – – – Convolvulus arvensis L./Convolvulaceae – – – – – – SBBU-31 Perwaty Whole plant Galactogague (13)/goat, sheep, cow/oral 13 1 kg of the fresh leaves boiled in water along with Gurr, then the mixture is given orally for 3–4 days to increase milk production. Cuminum cyminum L./Apiaceae – – – – – – SBBU-63 Zankai Fruit Gastric problems (9), anthelmintic (3)/goat, cow/oral 12 About ½ kg of fruit is boiled in black tea along with wheat flour and then orally administered for 10–12 day once a day for the treatment of gastric problems and as anthelmintic. Curcuma longa L./Zingiberaceae KUS-555 Kurkaman Rhizome Jaundice (16), Skeleto-muscular (5), Internal body infection (4)/Oral 25 Powder is obtained from the rhizome of the plant and thoroughly mixed with eggs for the treatment of jaundice in animals. This remedy is used for skeleto-muscular diseases and internal body infections. SBBU-1 Korkaman Rhizome Wound healing (29)/goat, cow, donkey, sheep/orally and topically 29 The powder obtained from the rhizome is mixed with ghee and boiled. Then it is orally used twice a day for the duration of 4–5 days for internal and external infections. Also used for genital infection problems. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb./Cuscutaceae – – – – – – SBBU-66 Mecha Whole plant Muscular problems (8)/cow, goat/oral 8 Past is made from the fresh plant body and combine with wheat flour and then orally administered to goat and sheep which are suffering from spasms. This remedy is used for the duration of 4–5 days Daphne gnidium L./Thymelaeaceae KUS-571 Laghenai Leaves Testicles swellings (8), Skin infection (9)/Cow, Goat/Topical 17 After castration the testicles of the male goat, the incision site is fumigated with smoke of the plant so as to treat the internal injury. Twigs and leaves of the plant are grinded and paste is made keeping it for one night and then the next day it is applied externally on the area affected. – – – – – Daphne oleoides Schreb./Thymelaeaceae – – – – – – SBBU-3 Laighonay Flower Anthelmintic (6)/cattle, buffalo/oral 6 The fresh flower are dried in shadow for 14 days and then powder is made and mixed with wheat flour and Gurr orally administered to cattle, buffalo for intestinal worms. Eryngium biehersteinianum (M. Bieb.) Nevski/Apiaceae – – – – – – SBBU-5 Yakandaz Leaves and stem Liver problems (23)/sheep, goat, cow/oral 23 About ¼ kg powder of the leaves and stem are orally administered along with water for 10–12 days for liver problems. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh./Myrtaceae – – – – – – SBBU-41 Lachi Leaves Gastric problems (11) appetizers (6)/sheep, goat, cow/oral 17 The decoction of the fresh leaves along with Gurr are orally administered to all type of cattle 5–6 days for the treatment of gastric problems. This remedy is used as appetizers. Ficus carica L./Moraceae – – – – – – SBBU-73 Inzar Leavs,fruit Digestive problems (7), removal of placenta (9)/cow, goat, and sheep/oral 16 About ½ kg fresh leaves are orally administered to cow, goat, and sheep for 5–6 days for digestive problems. About ¼ kg of fresh fruit orally administered two time a day for the removal of placenta. Foeniculum vulgare Mill./Apiaceae KUS-543 Kalwo Aerial parts Appetizer (15) Diarrhea (4)/Goat, Sheep, Cow/Oral 19 The aerial parts of the plant of about 200 g are boiled in water. Then the prepared decoction is mixed with Camelia sinensis, Trachyspermum ammi and adding brown sugar and ghee. Then the prepared paste is given orally to the respective animal for the duration of 6–8 days for the treatment of indigestion. Similarly, the aerial parts of the plant and pomegranate are crushed and mixed,and then the resulting powder is administered orally for 4–6 days for the treatment of diarrhea. SBBU-61 Kagelani Fruit, leaves Gastric problems and appetizer (31) and sedative (16)/sheep, goat, cow/oral 47 About 150–200 g of fresh leaves and fruit are boiled in water, then the decoction is mixed with Gurr, which is fed orally administered to all domestic cattle for 5–6 days. This remedy is used for gastric problems appetizer and sedative. Glycyrrhiza glabra L./Fabaceae – – – – – – SBBU-26 Khwagawaly Roots Sexual tonic (22), galactogague (11)/Cow, goat, sheep, buffaloes/oral 33 ¼ kg fresh root is taken and past is made and then is mixed with oil and wheat flour which is orally administered to cow, goat, sheep and buffaloes for 5–7 days. This is the remedy used to increase the fertility rate in animals and increase milk production. Gossypium arboreum L./Malvaceae – – – – – – SBBU-43 Pomba Kal Galactogague (11)/sheep, goat, cow/oral 11 ¼ kg powder mixed with Gurr and used for 10–12 day orally administered one time a day as galactogague. Grewia optiva J.R.Drumm. ex Burret/Malvaceae – – – – – – SBBU-62 Pastawony Whole plant Wound healing (6)/donkey, cow, sheep, gaot/oral, topical 6 Whole plant is dried for 14 day in shadow powder are soak in 250 ml oil which is topically and orally administered to animals twice a day for 5–7 days to treat wounds. Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC./Apiaceae – – – – – – SBBU-17 Skhwara Roots Sexual tonic (13)/cow, goat sheep/oral 13 About 200 g fresh root is taken and paste is made along with wheat flour and orally administered to cow, goat and sheep for 3 days. This remedy is given as a sexual tonic. It also increase the fertility rate. Hordeum vulgare L./Poaceae KUS-551 Warbashay Seeds Genital prolapse (11)/Oral 11 Take 2 kg crushed seeds and administer per os in 4 days – – – Juglans regia L./Juglandaceae KUS- 578 Matak Leaves Retention of placenta (3)/Cow, Goat/Oral 3 Leaves of plant are fed to all types of cattle for expulsion of retained placenta after the parturition. SBBU-55 Ghuz Leaves Gastric problems (18)/goat, sheep, cow/oral 18 ¼ kg of the fresh leaves along with gurr solution is orally administered to all type of cattle for the relive of gastric problems. Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajagopal/Asteraceae – – – – – – SBBU-44 Shodapai Whole plant Galactogague (6), tonic (3)/cow, sheep, goat/oral 9 The fresh plant is directly given orally to cow, sheep and goat to gain general body weight and as galactagogue Lotus corniculatus L./Fabaceae – – – – – – SBBU-72 Fati khany Leaves, Stem Genital problems (19)/cow/oral 19 ¼ kg powder of leaves and stem are orally fed to animals along with dough or bread for 7–10 days for treating Urinary tract infections and as sexual tonic. Malva neglecta Wallr./Malvaceae KUS-577 Tikali Root Flatulence (5)/Goat, Cow/Oral 5 Root extract of the plant is given to animal to facilitate the flatulence. – – – – – – Mangifera indica L./Anacardiaceae KUS-572 Aam Seed Gastrointestinal problems (4)/Cow/Oral 4 Endosperm is a good dose for the gastro problems in cattle. – – – – – – Melia azedarach L./Meliaceae – – – – – – SBBU-54 Tora bokana Leaves Gastric problems (7), diarrhea (8)/cow, buffalo/oral 15 About 200 g of leaves powder are mixed with sugar and water orally administered to cattle for 2–3 days treat gastric problems. The powder is also mixed with flour cakes of maize and given to cattle for treating diarrhea. Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds./Lamiaceae KUS-563 Valanai Whole plant Diarrhea (7), Retention of placenta (4), Tonic (8), Abdominal pain (10)/Goat/Oral 29 Whole plant is taken and make powder and then mixed with Whey. Effective for diarrheal treatment. Whole plant is water boiled. The decoction is effective in relieving placenta post delivery. Dried plant powder is mixed with Ghurr (unrefined sugar) and water boiled. This is given to the cattle for health improvement after delivery. – – – – – Mentha spicata L/Lamiaceae – – – – – – SBBU-58 Podina Leaves, Stem Gastric problems (22)/goat, sheep/oral 22 Whole plant is dried and ground and then boiled in water along with Gurr and is fed to cattle to remove the gastric problems. Myrtus communis L./Myrtaceae – – – – – – SBBU-23 Mano Leaves Digestive tract problems (18)/cow, buffalo, donkey/oral 18 The decoction of the leaves is ground and then the powder is mixed with and used for the gastric problem, and mouth diseases. Nannorrhops ritchieana (Griff.) Aitch./Arecaceae KUS-559 Mazarai Leaves Foot, Mouth disease (7)/Goat Sheep Cow/Topical 7 The fresh and green leaves (locally called Ponrriay) are tightened around the foots and neck of the animals. This is an effective remedy for the treatment of foot and mouth diseases. – – – – – – Narcissus tazetta L./Amaryllidaceae – – – – – – SBBU-59 Gul-e- Nargis Leaves Retained placenta (10)/cow, goat, sheep/oral 10 Approximately ¼ kg of fresh leaves are boiled in water along with Gurr and wheat flour and orally administered to cow, sheep and goat for the removal of placenta in animal. Nerium oleander L./Apocynaceae – – – – – – SBBU-22 Gandiray Leaves Skin problems (19)/goat, cow/topical 19 The leaves are boiled in water and then the animal is given a bath with the water. This is the best remedy used for the eternal parasites and skin diseases. This remedy is generally used for goat and cow. Nicotiana tabacum L./Solanaceae KUS-553 – – Antiparasitic (13)/Cow/Topical 13 Plant twigs are water boiled. This water is then dropped into the nose of the cattle in order to relieve from the internal parasite SBBU-70 Tambacoo Leaves Anti-parasitic (20)/cow/oral 20 The leaves are boiled in water and then is used externally rubbed on the body surface. The leaves infusion is administrated through nostrils for the infestation of leech in cow. Nigella sativa L./Ranunculaceae – – – – – – SBBU-34 Klonji Seed Tonic (16)/cow, buffaloes/oral 16 About 100 g seed are taken and then boiled in water, then the prepared mixture is given to cow and buffaloes as general body tonic and sexual tonic. Ocimum basilicum L./Lamiaceae – – – – – – SBBU-9 Kashmaly Seed, Leaves Skin problems (11)/goat/topical 11 The seed and leaves are boiled in water and used externally used for against skin parasite. Olea europaea L./Oleaceae – – – – – – SBBU-46 Zeytoon Oil Anti inflammatory (11), broken bones (7)/tonic/oral 18 The oil is used topically for inflammation and broken bones are also emulsified by the oil. This oil is used orally as general body tonic. Olea ferruginea Wall. ex Aitch./Oleaceae KUS-550 Shawan Leaves, Fruit Eye diseases (3), Tonic (12)/Goat, Cow/Oral, Topical 15 Twigs of the plants are heated in fire and then these twigs are placed on the eye lids of the cattle to relieve them from the swollen eyes. The fresh leaves of the plants are grounded and then put in water and leave for some time. Then the water is put drop wise to treat the infectious eyes. The dried fruit of the plant is used as tonic. – – – – – – Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell/Cactaceae – – – – – – SBBU-19 Zoqam Whole plant Dermal problems (10), inflammation (6)/goat/topical 16 Plant powder topically used for dermal problems (10). It is also used as anti-inflammatory for all domestic cattle. Oryza sativa L./Poaceae – – – – – – SBBU-28 Chawal Seed Galactogague (17)/goat, cow, sheep/oral 17 One kg of rice boiled in water along with yoghurt and orally administered to the animals for 20–25 days for the increase production of milk. Paeonia emodi Royle/Paeoniaceae – – – – – – SBBU-69 Mamekh Rhizome, Fruit Cough (12), tonic (6)/cow, goat/oral 18 The powder of fruit and rhizome are mixed maize flour and is used for the treatment of cough (12) and general body weakness. This remedy is used generally used for cow and goat. Papaver somniferum L./Papaveraceae – – – – – – SBBU-15 Koknar Latex Analgesic (8), blood clotting (5)/cow, goat sheep/oral, topical 13 About 10 g dried latex is taken and boiled in black tea and orally administered as analgesic. Small amount of dried latex locally called ‘Apim’ are mixed with human saliva and kept on wound to clot the blood. Peganum harmala L./Nitrariaceae KUS-565 Spalanai Whole plant Gastrointestinal problems (11), Antiparasitic (5), Skin diseases (5)/Goat/Oral Topical 21 Half kg of the fresh leaves are crushed and mixed with salt; the paste is then administered orally for gastro problems up to 4–6 days. Seeds of the herb are dried and then it is burnt and mixed the resulting product with mustered oil. The resulting infusion is a strong anti-parasitic agent and is topically applied for 2–4 days. To treat mastitis the smoke of the leaves and branches is used for 3–6 days. The whole plant is water boiled and then Ranzra (Logs of Pinus gerardiana are burned in a clavin like structure made of mud. A mixture having resins, oil and other ingredients is obtained after the burning process. This mixture from it locally known as Ranzra) is added to the decoction to make a mixture of the two ingredients. After this give bath the animals by using this mixture. It is a useful remedy for the relieving from skin disease. SBBU-49 Spalany Seed, Whole plant Antiparasitic (21)/goat, sheep/topical 21 About ½ kg of the fresh leaves are burned and the resulted smoke is fumigated to kill external parasites. Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex. D.Don/Pinaceae KUS-566 Nashtar Gums Wound healing (8), Skin diseases (8)/Goat/Topical 16 Gums are applied topically to treat the wounded area. Logs of Pinus gerardiana are burned in a clavin like structure made of mud. A mixture having resins, oil and other ingredients is obtained after the burning process. This mixture from it locally known as Ranzra which is topically administered on the infectious area and the application of dose depend on the size of the affected area. – – – – – – Pinus roxburghii Sarg./Pinaceae – – – – – – SBBU-53 Nakhtar Latex Skin problems/cow, buffalo and sheep/oral 13 Small amount of the latex along with water orally administered to cow, buffalo and sheep for the treatment of skin allergic reactions. Platanus orientalis L./Platanaceae – – – – – – SBBU-10 Chinar Bark Digestive tract problems (14)/sheep, cow, goat/oral 14 The powder of the bark is mixed with milk and ghee and boiled then in water and then the resulting mixture administrated orally for curing intestinal infections. Primula denticulata Sm./Primulaceae – – – – – – SBBU-37 Mamera Stem Eye infections (7)/cow/topical 7 The decoction of the stem are orally and topically used for eye infections. Prunus armeniaca L./Rosaceae – – – – – – SBBU-2 Khobanai Gum Abdominal pain (9), appetizer (5)/cow, goat, sheep/oral 14 The gum are cooked in ghee and the cooked gum are crushed and then mixed with milk and orally given to animals for the treatment of flatulence, abdominal pain and as strong appetizer. Piper nigrum L./Piperaceae KUS-569 Toor Mrach Fruit Skin infections (5)/Goat/Oral 5 The fruit is given inside the cake of dough to treat the skin diseases in cattle. – – – – – – Punica granatum L./Lythraceae KUS-549 Nargosa Exocarpe of fruit Diarrhea, Dysentry (21) Abdominal swelllings (9)/Goat, Sheep, Cow/Oral 30 The dried bark of the fruit is grind and the powder is mixed with whey and then the mixture is given to the animal. This is a best remedy for the treatment of diarrhea. About 1/4 kg rind is crushed and the powder is given orally to animals along the flour for one week to treat dysentery. – – – – – – Quercus oblongata D.Don/Fagaceae KUS-562 Sparkay Serray Root, Fruit Diarrhea (7), Tonic (16)/Goat/Oral 23 Bark of the plants is taken and is grinded to make powder and then water boiled. The filtrate is given against diarrhea and other gastro problems. In winter season the local people prefer to give the fruit of the plant to keep the animal energetic. SBBU-7 Tor batangar Fruit Tonic (14), Skeletal system (5), internal infection (3) 22 The kernels are eaten to animal in cold season to energize the animal and to treat the skeletal problems and internal infection. Raphanus sativus L./Brassicaceae KUS-544 Meelay Seeds Flatulance (9)/Goat, Cow/Oral 9 Seeds of the plants are given to treat the gas trouble in cattle. – – – – – Ricinus communis L./Euphorbiaceae – – – – – – SBBU-68 Aranda Oil Constipation (9) diarrhea (7)/goat, cow/oral 15 ½ cup of seed oil is given orally for a week for the breaking of constipation and treating diarrhea. Rosa moschata Herrm./Rosaceae – – – – – – SBBU-57 Gulab Flower Anti-inflammatory and anti-congestion effects (12)/sheep, cow, and goat/oral 12 About 100 g of flowers are kept in a sugar solution and milk mixed the mixture orally given to animals special for sheep, cow, and goat. This remedy has anti-inflammatory and anti-congestion effects. Rumex hastatus D.Don/Polygonaceae – – – – – – SBBU-21 Tarukay Whole plant Gastric problems (5), UTI (8), wound healing (4)/goat, sheep/oral 17 1 kg of Rumex hastatus roots are mixed with Quercus incana bark and boiled the decoction mixed with sugar and wheat flour this recommended sweet food fed to animals for 10–12 days for the treatment of gastric problems, urinary tract infections and also as healing of wounds. Salix babylonica L./Salicaceae KUS-556 Walla Leaves Skin infections (6)/Goat Sheep/Topical 6 Powder of leaves of Salix babylonica and Withania coagulance are mixed and boiled and then give bath to animal using this water. – – – – – – Salix tetrasperma Roxb./Salicaceae – – – – – – SBBU-47 Wala Bark Cough (11), infection (5)/goat, sheep, cow/oral 16 The powder of the bark is cooked in ghee maize mixed with flour which is given orally to all type of cattle for the treatment of cough and internal infections. Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth./Lamiaceae – – – – SBBU-13 Khar ghwag Leaves Gastric problems (9)/cow, goat/oral 9 The leaves are boiled in water and then decoction is used orally on daily basis for curing gastric problems. Sesamum indicum L./Pedaliaceae – – – – SBBU-65 Konzaly Oil Vaginal infection (8) cow buffaloes/oral 8 The oil is mixed with milk or whey and the mixture are orally given to cow and buffaloes for the treatment of vaginal thrush. Sideroxylon mascatense (A.DC.) T.D.Penn./Sapotaceae KUS-568 Gurgura Fruit Tonic (13)/Goat, Cow/Oral 13 Endocarp is given the animal to make stronger the health conditions. Leaves of the plant is fed to animal directly in order to retain the taste of the milk. – – – – – – Solanum virginianum L./Solanaceae – – – – – – SBBU-64 Maraghuny Roots, Leaves, Fruit Fever (14), cough (17), Galactogague (12)/cow, goat, sheep/oral 43 ½ kg fresh plant boiled in water along with salt, and yoghurt then the mixture is administered orally to animals 16–20 days for the treatment of fever, cough, pain and increase milk production. Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker/Caesalpinaceae KUS-560 Ghugera Leaves Internal body infection (15)/Goat, Cow/Topical 15 After castration, the testicles of the male goat are fumigated with the smoke of this plant to treat the internal injury. – – – – – – Streblus asper Lour./Moraceae – – – – – – SBBU-14 Tor tooth Fruit Cooling agent (12)/cow, goat/oral 12 2 kg fresh fruit of the plant along little amount of water are crushed and then juice is extracted which is given orally to the animal for the production of cooling effect. Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund/Asteraceae KUS-573 Zair Gul Whole plant Galactagogue (6) 6 The herb is given to cattle with fresh leaves of Acacia modesta to increase the milk production. – – – – – – Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague/Apiaceae KUS-558 Unknown Seed Appetizer (4), Galactagogue (10), Retention of placenta (4)/Goat, Sheep/Oral 18 About 1/4 kg of Allium cepa, seeds of Trachyspermum ammi, Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens are taken and mixed with the flour of wheat and the paste is made, which is administered orally for 15–20 days. This is a good remedy for the production of milk and to enhance appetite in cattle. For retained placenta, decoction made from seeds (125 g seeds and 1 L water); and is mixed with Jaggery and common salt; administered per os for 5 days SBBU-60 Ajwain Fruit Appetizer (7), Galactogague (11)/goat, sheep, cow/oral 19 ¼ kg seed are mixed with Allium cepa, and Foeniculum vulgare and wheat flour the mixture orally administered to animals for 10–15 day which is considered as strong appetizer. Also used as galactogague. Tribulus terrestris L./Zygophyllaceae – – – – – – SBBU-56 Azgha kay Leaves Gastric problems (17)/goat, cow/oral 17 Approximately 200 g dried leaves powder mixed to Foeniculum vulgare powder and then the powder are orally administered to cattle for 10–15 day for the treatment of gastro intestinal infections and complexities. Trigonella foenum-graecum L./Fabaceae – – – – – – SBBU-11 Malkhoozi Seeds Gastric problems (9)/cow, goat, sheep/oral 9 150 g seeds are ground and the obtained powder is given along the dough for 4–5 days to treat the gastric problems. Triticum aestivum L./Poaceae – – – – – – SBBU-51 Ghanum Seeds Sexual tonic (13)/cow/oral 13 ¼ kg of flour along Gurr is boiled and then resulting mixture is given to animals for 10–12 days to increase the rate of fertility in animals. Tulipa stellata HK. F./Liliaceae KUS-564 Shamdai Flower Galactagogue (9)/Goat, Sheep, Cow/Oral 9 Flower of the herb are eaten by the goats in order to increase the milk production. – – – – – – Visnaga daucoides Gaertn./Apiaceae KUS-540 Sperky Fruit Abdominal pain (20)/Goat, Cow, Sheep/Oral 20 Decoction of fruits is effective in abdominal pain and to facilitate flatulence. SBBU-48 Sparkai Fruit Diarrhea (22), abdominal pain (14), removal of placenta (13)/Goat, sheep, buffaloes and cows/oral 49 The fruit is boiled in black tea and orally administered to goat, sheep, buffaloes and cows for the treatment of diarrhea, abdominal pain and for the removal of placenta. This remedy is continuously for 3 days. Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal/Solanaceae KUS-570 Khamzera Seed Diarrhea (21), Febrifuge (8)/Goat, Sheep, Cow/Oral 29 The seeds of the plants are grinded and make powder of it and then this powder is given in water to the domestic animals for treating diarrhea. Plant seeds are taken into water and given to cattle to produce cooling effect. – – – – – – Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal/Solanaceae – – – – – – SBBU-38 Kotilal Leaves Galactogague (26), sexual tonic (12)/cows, Buffaloes and sheep/oral 38 The leaves and roots are cooked in ghee along with gurr and then the mixture is given orally to cows, Buffaloes and sheep as galactogague. Also used to treat fever. It is also considered a good sexual tonic. Zanthoxylum armatum DC./Rutaceae – – – – – – SBBU-29 Dambara Fruit Fever (11), tonic (8)/Cow/oral 19 Fruit powder is given along with flour for treating fever and killing mouth germs. The fruit is given as tonic. It is also used to energize the animal when the animal suffering from cold fever which is locally known as “Charmakh”. Zea mays L./Poaceae KUS-567 Jewoor Seeds Tonic (14), Retention of placenta (9)/Goat, Sheep/Oral 23 The seed powder of the plants are added to Agra (paste, which is prepared by boiling wheat flour in water mixing the sugar in it) and are given to cow to improve the health after giving birth to their younger one. The maize flour mixed with water is also used to relieve general body weakness. Seeds of the plants are given in order to relieve the placenta post delivery. – – – – – – Zingiber officinale Roscoe/Zingiberaceae – – – – – – SBBU-12 Adrak Root Gastric problems (11)/cow, goat and sheep/oral 11 About 80 g of the rhizome is crushed and mixed with 500 g Gurr and then boiled in 2 l milk and then the mixture is given orally cow, goat and sheep for 7–10 days for the treatment of gastric problems, flatulence and as appetizer. Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew./Rhamnaceae – – – – – – SBBU-8 Elanai Root Liver infection (15)/cow, sheep, goat/oral 15 Decoction is made from the fresh roots and then given to cattle for the treatment of liver infections. Zizyphus jujuba Mill./Rhamnaceae – – – – – – SBBU-6 Baira Fruit, Leaves, Anthelmintic (3) gastric ailments (11) diuretic (4)/cow, sheep, goat, donkey/oral 17 About 100 g fresh leaves are boiled in water and then the decoction is orally given to all domestic animals for 1–2 days. This the best remedy considered as anthelmintic. Also used for gastric ailments. Also used as diuretic. Both regions are parts of FATA, however they are geographically isolated from each other resulting in the variation of biodiversity, climatic conditions, geography and other cultural values. Out of the total 94 medicinal plant species, only 15 medicinal plants were commonly used in both regions for ethnoveterinary practices including Acacia modesta Wall, Allium cepa L, Allium sativum L., B. rapa, Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. Cannabis sativa L., Chenopodium album L. Curcuma longa, Foeniculum vulgare, Juglans regia L., Nicotiana tabacum L., Peganum harmala L., Quercus oblongata D.Don, Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague, and Visnaga daucoides Gaertn. Certain differences in the utilization of these plants and their parts were observed in both areas. For instance, bulb of Allium cepa is used as galactagogue by Waziristanian communities while in Bajaur it is used to treat digestive problems. Allium sativum is utilized for genital prolapsed while the same plant is used as sexual tonic for animals in Bajaur Agency. Seeds of Brassica rapa is widely used as appetizer, tonic, for cough, seasonal allergies, stomach disorders, skin infections in South Waziristan Agency, while in the other region it is used only against gastro-intestinal disorders. The indigenous communities at South Waziristan Agency consider leaves of Calotropis procera useful in joint pain while on the other side the residents of Bajaur Agency used the latex against skin problems Chenopodium album is used for wound healing and flatulence at Waziristan while as stomachic at Bajaur Agency. Juglans regia is given for the retention of placenta at Waziristan while gastric problems in Bajaur. Peganum harmala is extensively used for gastrointestinal problems, antiparasitic, skin diseases by Waziristanian communities, while it is used only for the riddance of external parasites in Bajaur. The possible reason for low consensus of the two regions in ethnoveterinary medicinal plants may be due to unique vegetation and distinct socio-cultural values. Family Apiaceae has been reported at first rank from while Zingiberaceae as the least utilized family recorded from both the regions (Table 2). Similarly, other studies have also reported family Apiaceae with high ethnomedicinal uses (Pieroni et al., 2006; Sindhu et al., 2010). Rationale behind the high ethnoveterinary use of Apiaceae members, although based on empirical evidence, but may be attributed to their chemical constituents such as alkaloids, lectins polypeptides, phenolics and polyphenolics, terpenoids and essential oils that are carrying several biological activities (Cowan, 1999). Other important ethnoveterinary plant families in South Waziristan Agency included Solanaceae with three species, and Arecaceae, Brassicaceae, Labiatae, Liliaceae and Poaceae with two species each. On the other hand in Bajaur Agency, Fabaceae (five species), Lamiaceae (four species), Amaryllidaceae (three species), Asteraceae (three species) and Myrtaceae (three species) belong to the highly used ethnoveterinary plant families (Table 2). Members of all these plant families worth to investigated phytochemically and pharmacologically for the discovery of new ethnoveterinary drugs. Table 2. Plant families used by indigenous communities of South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency. South Waziristan Agency Bajaur Agency Plant family (No. of species) Plant family (No. of species) Amaranthaceae (1), Amaryllidaceae (1), Anacardiaceae (1), Apiaceae (4), Apocynaceae (1), Arecaceae (2), Brassicaceae (2), Caesalpinaceae (1), Cannabaceae (1), Capparaceae (1), Chenopodiaceae (1), Euphorbiaceae (1), Fabaceae (1), Fagaceae (1), Juglandaceae (1), Labiatae (2), Liliaceae (2), Lythraceae (1), Nitrariaceae (1), Oleaceae (1), Pinaceae (1), Poaceae (2), Rutaceae (1), Sapotaceae (1), Solanaceae (3), Thymelaeaceae (1), Zingiberaceae (1) Amaranthaceae (1), Amaryllidaceae (3), Apiaceae (7), Apocynaceae (2), Asteraceae (3), Berberidaceae (1), Brassicaceae (1), Cactaceae (1), Cannabaceae (1), Cannabinaceae (1), Chenopodiaceae (1), Convolvulaceae (1), Cupressaceae (1), Cuscutaceae (1), Euphorbiaceae (1), Fabaceae (5), Fagaceae (1), Juglandaceae (1), Lamiaceae (4), Malvaceae (2), Meliaceae (1), Moraceae (2), Myrtaceae (3), Nyctaginaceae (1), Oleaceae (1), Paeoniaceae (1), Papaveraceae (1), Pedaliaceae (1), Pinaceae (2), Platanaceae (1), Poaceae (2), Polygonaceae (1), Primulaceae (1), Ranunculaceae (1), Rhamnaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), Rutaceae (1), Salicaceae (1), Simaroubaceae (1), Solanaceae (3), Thymelaeaceae (2), Zingiberaceae (1), Zygophyllaceae (2) Studied ethnoveterinary plants were only confined to sheep, goats, cows and donkeys due to the predominance of these four domestic animals in the study areas. There is no local veterinary doctor available in South Waziristan to address animal health problems, while in Bajaur only one veterinary hospital present, to which the access of the residents is not possible due to the remote nature and topographically harsh conditions. Mostly the elder family members knew sufficient ethnoveterinary knowledge, which they have received orally from their earlier generations and or by experiences (Ahmad et al., 2015). The advancement of modern pharmaceuticals has triggered the tendency of local people toward the utilization of allopathic drugs instead of homemade ethnoveterinary practices, however the case is somewhat different in the study areas due to its remote nature. 3.2. Medicinal plant uses Most widely used plants in veterinary practices from both study areas were Brassica rapa, Punica granatum, C. desidua, Mentha longifolia, Withania coagulans Curcuma longa, V. daucoides Foeniculum vulgare, Solanum virginianum, Withania somnifera and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Brassica rapa is used to treat dermal infections, improve general health conditions, used as appetizer, used for cough and treat seasonal allergies of nose and eyes and flatulence. Punica granatum is used in the treatment of diarrhea. Capparis desidua is used against flatulence, ticks infestation, and external parasites. Similarly, Mentha longifolia is effective in diarrheal treatment, retention of placenta, and improving general health conditions after delivery. Seeds of Withania coagulans are used as febrifuge and antidiarrheal agent. Rhizome of Curcuma longa is an effective ethnomedicine against jaundice in animals, skeleto-muscular diseases, and external and internal body infections. Literature survey showed same or different ethnoveterinary uses of the reported medicinal plants by other indigenous communities. Abbasi et al. (2013) reported the efficacy of Brassica rapa against gastro, ophthalmic and dermal infections. Similarly, Brassica oil is used topically for sores and genital prolepses and retention of fetal membranes (Dilshad et al., 2008). This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis and placental retention (Mussarat et al., 2014); removal of external blood feeding parasites (Tariq et al., 2014); myiasis, tick and lice infestation, mange helminthiasis (Farooq et al., 2008); and flatulence agent (Ul Hassan et al., 2014). Punica granatum is used for intestinal worms, gastric problems, diarrhea, jaundice, general body weakness and cough (Ahmad et al., 2015); diarrhea (Deeba et al., 2009); anthelmintic (Tariq et al., 2014); dysentery (Abbasi et al., 2013); haemorrhagic diarrhea (Mussarat et al., 2014); and digestive disorders (Muhammad et al., 2005). Previous studies reporting the uses of Capparis deciduas in healing and fracture of bones (Khattak et al., 2015; Ahmad et al., 2015); used as astringents (Khattak et al., 2015); used for dermal infections (Raziq et al., 2010); myiasis and lice infestation (Farooq et al., 2008); used for stomach gripe and indigestion (Abbasi et al., 2013; Muhammad et al., 2005); and diarrhea, anorexia, indigestion and rheumatism (Khan, 2009). Mentha longifolia used for abdominal pain, refrigerant (Ahmad et al., 2015); and diarrhea, low body temperature (charmaikh) (Deeba et al., 2009; Ul Hassan et al., 2014). Withania coagulans used as carminative, remove flatulence (Khattak et al., 2015); used for abdominal pain, body coolness, against sunstroke, digestion, jaundice, external wounds, skeleto-muscular ailments (Ahmad et al., 2015); for diarrhea (Mussarat et al., 2014); used for trypanosomiasis (Raziq et al., 2010); digestive disorders (Islam and Kashem, 1999; Muhammad et al., 2005); and used for diarrhea and anorexia (Deeba et al., 2009). Dried rhizome of Curcuma longa is given for skeleto-muscular ailments, jaundice (Ahmad et al., 2015); mastitis (Mussarat et al., 2014); wound healing (Abbasi et al., 2013; Tariq et al., 2014); and used for bloat (Deeba et al., 2009). Visnaga daucoides is utilized for treatment of abdominal pain and to increase the body temperature (charmaikh) (Abbasi et al., 2013). Root paste of Withania somnifera is topically applied to treat bovine mastitis (Abbasi et al., 2013), whereas the crushed roots of the same species are used against an evil spirit (Wan laffa) in animals in Ethiopia (Carla et al., 1997). Withania somnifera used as carminative, remove flatulence (Khattak et al., 2015); used for abdominal pain, body coolness, against sunstroke, digestion, jaundice, external wounds, skeleto-muscular ailments (Ahmad et al., 2015); for diarrhea (Mussarat et al., 2014); used for trypanosomiasis (Raziq et al., 2010); digestive disorders (Islam and Kashem, 1999; Muhammad et al., 2005); and used for diarrhea and anorexia (Deeba et al., 2009). Similarly, the Foeniculum vulgare is used in indigestion and diarrhea by mixing with other medicinal plants such as Trachyspermum ammi, Camelia sinensis, brown sugar and ghee (Abbasi et al., 2013). Its seeds are also utilized for the treatment of pneumonia (Sindhu et al., 2010) digestive system disorders of animals (Ul Hassan et al., 2014) as galactagogue and ruminative (Cowan, 1999). The comparison of present findings with previous studies shows that same medicinal plants are used in different parts of the country with different uses. Moreover, people also use different parts of the same plant for the similar or different diseases. Previous published literature and other bibliographic data bases were thoroughly searched to find out the novelty of the current study (Akhtar et al., 2000; Muhammad et al., 2005; Jabbar et al., 2006; Hussain et al., 2008; Dilshad et al., 2008, 2010; Farooq et al., 2008; Deeba et al., 2009; Khan, 2009; Sindhu et al., 2010, 2012; Raziq et al., 2010; Khan et al., 2012; Abbasi et al., 2013; Raza et al., 2014; Ul Hassan et al., 2014; Tariq et al., 2014; Mussarat et al., 2014; Khattak et al., 2015; Ahmad et al., 2015; Khateeb et al., 2015; Tariq et al., 2016). Hence, there are certain uses of the studied plants that were not reported or scarcely reported earlier in ethnoveterinary documentations across or outside the country. Plants carrying new ethnoveterinary uses from Waziristan Agency are Sideroxylon mascatense (A.DC.) T.D.Penn., Raphanus sativus L., Salix babylonica L., Solanum nigrum L., Sophora mollis (Royle) Graham ex Baker in J.D.Hooker, Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund and Tulipa stellata HK. F. For instance the endocarp of the fruit of Sideroxylon mascatense is given to the animal as general body tonic while its leaves are fed to animal to retain the taste of the milk. Seeds of Raphanus sativus are used in flatulence relief, Salix babylonica is used for dermal infections, Solanum nigrum is used for skin disease, and Taraxacum campylodes is used as galactogague. Smoke of Sophora mollis is used to fumigate the testicles of male goat in order to treat the in vivo infections of broken nerves after castrations (Table 1). Similarly, certain medicinal plants from Bajaur Agency including Boerhavia erecta L. Celtis australis L., Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl., Eryngium biehersteinianum (M. Bieb.) Nevski, Gossypium arboreum L., Narcissus tazetta L., Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.), Streblus asper Lour, have new ethnoveterinary uses that are being documented. For instances powder of Boerhavia erecta is made from the whole plant and is used as anti-inflammation. The bark of Celtis australis is grounded and mixed with ghee, which is then applied topically for the treatment of wounds. Chamaecyparis obtusa increases sexual potency in animals, used as sexual tonic. Eryngium biehersteinianum is used to treat the hepatic disorders in animals. Gossypium arboreum is used for the milk production. Narcissus tazetta is used for the removal of placenta after giving the crushed leaves orally to the animal. Similarly, the plant powder of Opuntia littoralis is used as anti-inflammatory and also useful for dermal problems. The fruit of Streblus asper is used as refrigerant for the production of cooling effect (Table 1). 3.3. Ethnoveterinary use category The efficacy of medicinal plants can be perceived by determining the Fic values. Higher Fic values indicate the consent of informants on the specific use of a plant in traditional medicines (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007). According to Sharma et al. (2012), when Fic becomes 1 then it does mean that the local communities exchange their information and there is well-defined criterion. On the other hand, zero Fic means that the plants have been selected randomly or it may be possible that the participants of the survey do not exchange the information about the use of the reported plants. In our surveys, various ailments were categorized into groups such gastrointestinal, reproductive, dermatological, parasitic, respiratory disorders, fever, wound healing and miscellaneous. The miscellaneous category included those ailments, which were not well defined by the interviewees, such as weakness, eye problems and all those abnormal conditions, which were related to various organ systems of animal bodies, for which categorization was not possible. The recorded Fic values in the current study ranged from 0.85 to 0.97 in both of the regions (Table 3). In comparison, maximum Fic value was found for gastrointestinal problems (0.93) in Waziristan Agency in contrast to the highest Fic value (0.97) recorded for dermatological ailments in Bajaur Agency. The minimum Fic value of 0.85 was recorded for wound healing in Bajaur Agency. Comparing the findings of our study with the previous findings, high consensus has been noticed in veterinary studies elsewhere across the globe. These include gastrointestinal disorders [Fic: 0.90, 0.70, 0.92, 0.95, 0.94 (Lulekal et al., 2014; Ahmad et al., 2015; Parthiban et al., 2015; Sharma and Manhas, 2015; Ali-Shtayeh et al., 2016)]; dermatological problems [Fic: 0.93, 0.93, 0.82, (Ahmad et al., 2015; Sharma and Manhas, 2015; Ali-Shtayeh et al., 2016)]; reproductive disorders [Fic:1.00, 0.89 (Parthiban et al., 2015; Ali-Shtayeh et al., 2016)]; galactagogue [Fic: 0.83, 0.50 (Abbasi et al., 2013; Ali-Shtayeh et al., 2016)]; and wound healing [Fic: 0.40, 0.45 (Abbasi et al., 2013; Lulekal et al., 2014)]. Table 3. Comparative description of Fic values recorded from the two areas. Medical categories South Waziristan Agency Bajaur Agency No. of species FC Fic No. of species FC Fic Tonic 9 91 0.91 5 38 0.89 Dermatological 7 44 0.86 4 120 0.97 Gastrointestinal 16 218 0.93 32 433 0.92 Galactagogue 5 46 0.91 8 86 0.91 Reproductive 6 44 0.88 11 155 0.93 Miscellaneousa 11 99 0.89 22 201 0.89 Parasitic 4 32 0.90 – – – Respiratory disorders – – – 4 37 0.91 Fever – – – 5 41 0.90 Wound healing – – – 7 41 0.85 a Miscellaneous category included not well-defined diseases such as weakness, eye problems and abnormal conditions. Fic also assesses the ethnopharmacological importance of the collected plant species (Heinrich et al., 1998). Apart from these there are other studies reporting the maximum consensus factor for various livestock ailments (Ritter et al., 2012). As it has been early described in the comparative analysis that utmost category of disease with respect to Fic was gastric problems in Waziristan while for Bajaur, the highest Fic value was recorded for dermatological problems. Furthermore, it should be noted that maximum URs reports were recorded for gastric problems in both regions as compared to other disease categories. In Waziristan, total URs for gastric problems were 218 while at Bajuar, total number of URs were 433. Both of these figures from the two areas are highest as compared to other ailments in the regions. The difference of the Fic value may refer to the fact that the people in Bajaur used more plants in veterinary medications as compared to Waziristanian communities, consequently affecting the Fic values. The observed high informants’ consensus on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used to treat various diseases mentioned in various studies including this one is an indicator of the popularity of curative nature of plants. Moreover, high Fic values are indicative of selecting target plants for the search of bioactive compounds (Heinrich et al., 1998). It was observed that maximum number of URs and maximum number of plants were used in treating gastrointestinal disorders in both the study regions. Gastrointestinal diseases are considered the most encountered health problems in animals across the globe (Martinez and Lujan, 2011; Benitez et al., 2012). In our study, gastrointestinal diseases are commonly being represented by diarrhea, abdominal pain and digestive problems. These types of illnesses and clinical signs are common in domestic animals, and can be more easily identified by the interviewees, which may explain why gastrointestinal category exhibited the largest Fic values. In most ethnoveterinary surveys, the main indications for the use of medicinal plants involve less severe diseases and or injuries (Alawa et al., 2002; Tabuti et al., 2003). In these cases, ethnoveterinary medicinal plants can be an effective and low cost alternative to treat animals (Mathias, 2001). In general, ethnoveterinary medicines have both strengths and weaknesses at the same time. It is not possible for all ethnoveterinary medicines to provide effective and ideal treatment for animals’ diseases, which otherwise can do by the allopathic medicines (Mathias-Mundy and McCorkle, 1989). However, it is also an irrefutable fact that many of the traditional practices used in veterinary medicines have sound effects in recovering animal health and many of the modern allopathic drugs are based on these folk practices (Mathias-Mundy and McCorkle, 1989; Mathias, 2004). It is very possible to take benefits of ethnoveterinary medicines from a holistic viewpoint. Moreover, equally important is to respect the social attitude and considerations of nomadic grazers about traditional livestock health care system (Abbas et al., 2002). Mostly, the diseases in the study areas were seasonal and epidemic because the cattle are exposed to different environmental changes and fodder. Mussarat et al. (2014) also found the highest occurrence of gastro-intestinal problems in the D.I.Khan region of Pakistan. Tariq et al. (2014) found gastrointestinal problems with highest informant consensus factor (Fic) in the Sulaiman Range of Pakistan. Deeba et al. (2009) reported highest number of plant species used for the treatment of abdominal and stomach disorders. Certain plants such as Brassica rapa is solely used for curing more than one diseases including cough, seasonal allergies, stomach disorders and skin infections. The use of a certain taxa for multiple diseases is a common practice in ethnoveterinary medications. Other plants are being used in combination with plants making ethnoveterinary polyherbal formulations. The use of more than one plant at a time reflects the idea of synergism by producing a potent biological effect. Some plants are used in combination with another ingredient such as milk, whey and flour by giving astringent taste to the specific remedies. It is believed that the utilization of such vehicles may dilute or reduce the relative potent activity of the remedy (Jabbar et al., 2006). As many of the ailments are seasonal in the area, therefore, the concept of hot and cold food is also prevailing. With the change in the season, local people change the relative fodder material to counteract with the environmental changes and minimize the chances of diseases. For instance, the infusion of Cannabis sativa L. is given to cattle in summer season while fruits of Quercus oblongata D.Don are given in winter season in order to keep the animals energetic. The idea about the cold and hot food in ethnoveterinary medications has also been reported in previous literature (Quinlan, 2010; Raziq et al., 2010). Oral use (70%) was reported as the main method of administering the ethnoveterinary medication, which is being followed by 30% of topical administration. Veterinarian has always criticized the non-standardized and imprecise dosages of traditional medications (Bakhiet and Adam, 1995; Longuefosse and Nossin, 1996). Standardize and precise dosages can benefit the traditional medical system by reducing the risks of toxicities and costs. Medical geography is facing an intellectual challenge from postmodernism and social theory (Kearns, 1995), and veterinary medicine is no exception. This challenge has focused on the recognition of variations in animal health beliefs, practices and experiences of different social groups. Such variations in the animal health practices for different diseases have clear evidences in the literature (Bowman, 2006). These variations indicate diversity of the traditional animal health practices, which need to be validated and transferred to other livestock raisers within a country and abroad. Moving the validated practices beyond their ethnocentric foundations may serve not only the people in developing countries (Gesler, 1991) but also the developed world (Farooq et al., 2008). Informants during the survey did not mention standardized dosing, recovery time, method of use and recipe formulations. Similar results were also observed in other ethnoveterinary documentations (Hussain et al., 2008; Giday et al., 2009; Monteiro et al., 2011). Lack of accuracy is a common phenomenon in ethnoveterinary practices, which is a barrier for the veterinarian and therefore they use modern allopathic drugs for livestock health maintenance (Farooq et al., 2008; Ritter et al., 2012). However such accusation on ethnopractices does not mean that these practices lack efficacy but it means that such practices require standardization in term of their dosage. Following section describe the validation of the used medicinal plants. 3.4. Biological efficacy of the reported plants Most infectious diseases in livestock are being caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses and other external sources. The phytochemical and pharmacological validations of some of the reported plants are being discussed here in this section. Peganum harmala L. is traditionally uses for gastrointestinal problems, antiparasitic and skin diseases. Studies related to the pharmaceutical utilization of the P. harmala have proved that the plant have insecticidal activity (Goel et al., 2009). Moreover, this plant has shown antibacterial activities (Darabpour et al., 2011); insecticidal activity (Goel et al., 2009) wound healing (Zaker et al., 2007); anti-leishmanial potential (Mirzaie et al., 2007). The plant contain quinazoline alkaloids (vasicine and vasicinone), which are responsible for abortificient activity (Shapira et al., 1989). Certain pharmacological effects of the plant extracts can be referred to the β-carboline alkaloids, mostly harmine, as well as harmaline, harmalol, harman, peganine, isopeganine, dipeganine, deoxypeganine and quinazolin derivatives such as vasicine, vasicinone and deoxyvasicinone (Madadkar et al., 2002; Fathizad et al., 2007). Alkaloids of the plant have significant effects on the central nervous system (Herraiz et al., 2010) and resulted in vasorelaxant activity in modal animals (Berrougui et al., 2006). The presence of alkaloids and other secondary metabolites in different parts of the plants could explain the toxic effects of the plants when ingested in extra doses by living organism including animals (Han et al., 2006). Study has shown that the intravenous injection of harmaline and harmine (9 mg/kg) has toxic effects in cattle such as increase breathing rate and chronic muscular spasms (Puzii et al., 1980). Severe intoxication in horses, donkeys, sheep and other cattle has also been reported (Bailey, 1979). The ingestion of this plant in dry season leads to frequent abortion (El-Bahri and Chemli, 1991). All these toxic effects must be used as evidence based reports in traditional ethnoveterinary system. Calotropis procera is being used to treat joint pains and skin problems in the ethnoveterinary practices of the in the two regions. Extensive work has been done on it and have shown that it consists phytochemicals including calotropin, trypsin, calotoxin, calactin, voruscherin, syriagenin, uzarigenin, benzoylisolineolone, proceroside, benzoyllineolone, and cyaniding-3-rhamnoglucoside (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1993). Latex of the plant has proven efficacy against inflammation (Kumar and Roy, 2007). The plant has been validated experimentally against dermal problems snake bite (Jain et al., 1996). Latex causing skin and mucous membrane irritation, blindness, and its dose comprising of 4–5 mL may causes mortality by rupturing the muscles of colon and intestine (Duke, 1986). Similarly, Nicotiana tabacum is used topically for the treatment skin infections and used as anti-parasitic. The leaves infusion is administrated through nostrils for the infestation of leech in cattle. Nicotiana tabacum L. contain nicotine and other known alkaloids such as nicotyrine, nornicotine, anabasine, myosmine, anatabine, nicotelline and isonicoteine, which are considered to be responsible for the acaricidal, antibacterial, antifungal and inhibitory potential of the plants’ extracts (Suresh et al., 2008; Yildirim et al., 2001; Lopez et al., 2001; Sindhu et al., 2012; Malik et al., 2015). Moreover, neurological effects have been observed both in human and experimental animals including alteration in locomotory activities, loss in brain weight and distorted neurohistoarchitecture (Adeniyi and Musa, 2011). The exposure to any source of the tobacco nicotine has been mentioned to cause alteration of normal function of brain and nervous system (NIDA, 2009). Withania coagulans is another important medicinal plant traditionally used to treat diarrhea and as febrifuge in livestock. Phytochemically, this plant showed the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, steroids, tannins, saponins, proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids and other organic acids (Mathur and Agrawal, 2011), withanolides (steroidal lactones) such as coagulin F, coagulin G, coagulanolide and withacoagulin (Ramaiah et al., 1984; Rahman et al., 1998, 1999, 2003). Volatile oil of the plant has antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera, and also having anthelmintic activity (Khan et al., 1993). Alkaloids are considered to be the most toxic group of phytochemicals abundantly found in family solanaceae, which may cause deaths of the organisms (Chowanski et al., 2014). Traditionally, fresh leaves of Juglans regia are eaten by the animal for relieving the gastric problems and for the retention of placenta. Studies have proven positively the biological efficacy of Juglans regia against various species of Staphylococcus. Important compound extracted from the bark of Juglans regia were juglone, regiolane, certain ketones, sterol, and flavonoid (Sharma et al., 2012). Various biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities have been also proved in earlier studies (Amaral et al., 2003; Isanga and Zhang, 2007; Miraliakbari and Shahidi, 2008). Punica granatum is an important fruit plant with ethnoveterinary uses and proven biological activities. The phenolics and flavonoids of this plant carries antibacterial potential (Al-Zoreky, 2009; Fawole et al., 2012). Tayel and El-Tras (2009) described that punicalagin extracted from the peel of Punica granatum has strong anti-Candida activity. Main isolated phytochemicals of Punica granatum include quercetin, rutin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and punicalagin as a major ellagitannin (Middha et al., 2013). There are certain medicinal plants, which have not/less biologically verified for ethnoveterinary uses viz Daphne gnidium L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Nannorrhops ritchiana (Griff.) Aitch., Olea ferruginea Wall. ex Aitch., Pinus gerardiana, Quercus oblongata, Sophora mollis, Tulipa stellata, Boerhavia erecta, Celtis australis, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Eryngium biehersteinianum, Gossypium arboreum, Narcissus tazetta, Opuntia littoralis, Streblus asper. Therefore, it is needed to biologically and phytochemically screen out such plants at compounds level against different ethnoveterinary activities. 4. Conclusions and future recommendations Current investigation reports the cross-cultural values of medicinal plants used in ethnoveterinary practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency. Indigenous communities of both the regions usually rely on local flora for their ethnoveterinary practices and the traditional knowledge is in the custody of elder people and nomadic grazers. The study highlights that due to modernization, the younger generation does not take interest in the utilization of traditional remedies. The areas were hit by the “War on Terror” for the last two decades, which has greatly affected the life style of the indigenous communities especially in South Waziristan Agency. A total of 94 medicinal plants recorded in this cross-cultural and comparative analysis, in which most of the plants species (72 species) were being used by the indigenous communities at Bajaur Agency as compared to Waziristan Agency (37 species). Cross-cultural consensus showed that only 15 medicinal plants were used in common by both the communities while the rest of the plant uses showed no consensus between the two areas. The low interregional consensus and high variation between medicinal plants used in both of the areas may be due to both cultural divergence as well as biological distinctness. Moreover, the current investigation reported new uses for some of the medicinal plants from South Waziristan Agency, which were S. mascatense, R. sativus, S. babylonica, S. nigrum, S. mollis, T. officinale and T. stellata while form Bajaur Agency B. erecta, C. australis, C. obtusa, E. biehersteinianum, G. arboreum, N. tazetta, O. littoralis, S. asper were recorded with new uses. It was also found that the plants with new ethnoveterinary uses have not been subjected to any phytochemical or biological studies with respect to ethnoveterinary uses. Based on study findings, certain scientific steps should be taken into consideration in order to validate experimentally the existing traditional knowledge and to ensure the sustainability of the respective flora. The study stresses the need of phytochemical, toxicological and clinical studies on the documented flora to make a better understanding about the safety and efficacy of the recommended dosage. Apart from this, plants have the capacity to uptake certain heavy metals, therefore it is necessary to undertake elemental quantification analysis of certain remedies. This is because the ingestion of such plants material may produce toxic consequences in animal bodies. In order to preserve the traditional knowledge, it is necessary to aware the local people about the importance of traditional herbal knowledge and motivate them regarding the sustainable use of the local flora. Competing interest There are no competing interests among the authors. Author's contributions Muhammad Abdul Aziz designed the research study. Muhammad Abdul Aziz and Muhammad Sufyan carried out the field work and prepared the draft manuscript. Amir Hasan Khan helped in data compilation. Muhammad Adnan and Shahid Niaz Khan supervised all the stages of this study and provided comments on the draft manuscript. All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript. Acknowledgments Thanks to informants and local community for providing logical supports and contributed in the documentation of the indigenous knowledge. Special thanks to the departmental colleagues at the Department of Botany, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Pakistan. Appendix A. 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