Friday, 25 May 2018

Ethnomedicobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used for the treatment of reproductive problems in Nalbari district, Assam, India

J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Jan 10;210:386-407. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.07.024. Epub 2017 Jul 19. Adhikari PP1, Talukdar S2, Borah A3. Author information 1 Genoine Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Subhash Nagar, Karimganj, Assam 788710, India. Electronic address: 2 Department of Environmental Science, Arunachal University of Studies, Namsai 792103, Arunachal Pradesh, India. 3 Department of Botany, Birjhora Mahavidyalaya, Bongaigaon 783380, Assam, India. Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Reproductive problems are becoming the most predominant health care problems in many countries. World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012, also exemplified maternal illnesses, for instance, birth asphyxia and post birth difficulties are rising at an alarming rate. In addition, not all abnormalities of the human reproductive system have the same origin; the effects of reproductive problems would likely been affected by both male and female. For easy accessibility and affordability, medicinal plants are playing crucial role in primary healthcare services in India and their use is moreover, an integral part of the cultural heritage. However, our growing understanding of the human reproductive problems are segregated and scanty for herbal medications. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the local name of the medicinal plants used by both male and female from indigenous knowledge for the treatment of reproductive ailments and to explore their biological and pharmacological confirmation and to address the class of secondary metabolites present therein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The results stem in September 2015-April 2016 from an array of informations that were collected by direct interviews of the traditional medicinal practitioners in three villages, viz. Jaha, Niz-Bahjani and Madhupur of the southern Nalbari district, Assam. Both semi-structured and open-ended interview schedule was carried out with purposively selected individuals and focus group discussion (FGD) in the three selected sites for this study. Systematic analysis of fidelity level percentage (FL %), preference ranking percentage (PR %) and formulation scoring (FS) were calculated. Electronic databases such as Google, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were also been used to search existing pharmacological citations. Finally, qualitative chemical profiling were executed for the plants whose PR % scores ≥ 65. RESULTS: A total of 71 plant species belonging to 48 families and 64 genera are reported to be used for the treatment of several reproductive problems such as, infertility in male, impotence, erectile dysfunctioning, retrograde ejaculation and sexual potency in men and in women, aphrodisiac, metrorrhagia, infertility, dysmenorrhea and/or post birth difficulties under mono (57), di (17) and poly (8) herbal formulations. Herbs (40.85%) were reported as the most common lifeform, whereas leaves (22.54%) and the roots (22.54%) were the commonly used plant parts against different ailments. Extracts of Abroma augusta L. (stem) (FL: 66.67%, PR: IM-77.33%, L-65.33, FS: 2), Morinda angustifolia Roxb. (bark) (FL: 64.29%, PR: L-68%, FS: 1), Hodgsonia heteroclita Roxb. (fruit) (FL: 63.64%, PR: IF-65.33, FS: 0.25) and Hibiscus mutabilis L. (stem) (FL: 40%, PR: IM-68%, IIM: 65.33%, IML-68%, FS: 2) were than selected for further phytochemical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Of the 71 plants used for reproductive management system, the highest number of plants were used for the treatment of irregular menstruation (22) followed by infertility (in both men and women) (19), vaginal disorder and leucorrhoea (9) and sexual potency (8). The qualitative chemical profiling have demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phytosterols, in maximum concentrations. Additionally, these data may be the most important resource for the new discovery of many bioactive principles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Bioactive principles; Focus group discussion; Open-ended interview; Photochemical analysis; Reproductive problems; Semi-structured interview