Wednesday, 22 August 2018

Exploration of environmental contaminants in honeybees using GC-TOF-MS and GC-Orbitrap-MS

Volume 647, 10 January 2019, Pages 232-244 Science of The Total Environment Author links open overlay panelM.M.Gómez-RamosbS.UclesbC.FerrerbA.R.Fernández-AlbabM.D.Hernandoa a National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, 28040 Madrid, Spain b Chemistry and Physics Department, University of Almeria, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3), 04120 Almería, Spain Received 19 June 2018, Revised 1 August 2018, Accepted 1 August 2018, Available online 2 August 2018. Editor: Yolanda Picó crossmark-logo Get rights and content Under a Creative Commons license open access Highlights • This study explores whether environmental contaminants reach the honeybees. • The approach involves generic extraction and GC-HRMS analysis with TOF and Orbitrap. • The findings evidence the presence of contaminants from different chemical groups. • Galaxolide, a ubiquitous pollutant in waters, was detected in forager honeybees. • This study denotes water as a route of exposure for honeybees. Abstract This study reports an analytical approach by gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) intended to be used for investigation of non-targeted environmental contaminants in honeybees. The approach involves a generic extraction and analysis with two GC-HRMS systems: time-of-flight and Orbitrap analyzers, GC-TOF-MS, and GC-Orbitrap-MS operated in electron-impact ionization (EI) mode. The workflow for screening of non-targeted contaminants consisted of initial peak detection by deconvolution and matching the first-stage mass spectra EI-MS with a nominal mass spectral library. To gain further confidence in the structural characterization of the contaminants under investigation, molecular formula of representative ions (molecular and fragment ions) was provided for those with an accurate mass scoring (error < 5 ppm). This methology was applied for screening environmental contaminants in 75 samples of adult honeybee. This approach has provided the tentative identification of environmental contaminants belonging to different chemical groups, among them, PAHs, phthalates and synthetic musks. Residues of veterinary treatments used in apiculture were also detected in the honeybee samples. Graphical abstract Unlabelled Image Download high-res image (221KB)Download full-size image Keywords Honeybee Environmental contaminants GC-EI-TOF-MS GC-Orbitrap-MS Non-targeted screening