Saturday, 22 December 2018

Date: 03-31-2009 Re: A Survey of Botanicals Used in Veterinary Practice in British Columbia

HC# 110484-373 Re: A Survey of Botanicals Used in Veterinary Practice in British Columbia Lans C, Turner N, Khan T, Brauer G. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148: 325-340. The authors identified, documented, and validated (non-experimentally) ethnoveterinary medicines used by pet owners, holistic veterinarians, and farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Reports are divided among several publications. This article focuses on plants used for endoparasites and gastrointestinal (GI) problems in pigs, dogs, and cats. BC veterinary clinic websites list coccidia, giardia (Giardia intestinalis), roundworms, whipworms (Trichuris spp.), and tapeworms as parasites of interest. Hookworms (Anclyostoma spp.) are rare; heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) occur "outside...Vancouver." Cryptosporidium parvum, salmonella (Salmonella typhimurium), and Campylobacter jejuni also cause pet GI problems. Ethnoveterinary information was collected over six months in 2003, with a comprehensive review of literature on livestock farming, ethnomedical plants, and folk medicine in BC. A purposive sample of 60 stock farmers and pet owners was recruited, including organic farmers, specialists in alternative medicine, and holistic veterinarians. Most information on dogs and cats came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainer/breeder/pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians, and 6 organic farmers. Two organic pig farmers participated. Two visits were made to each respondent, except where distances mandated telephone interviews. The first visit was open-ended and unstructured, to elicit information. A draft of each remedy discussed, with symptom(s), cause(s), prevention, instructions, and cautions, was prepared to confirm, correct, and/or clarify in the second visit. A "validation workshop" at the University of Victoria is inadequately described to ascertain its role. While preparing remedy drafts, researchers evaluated safety of plants named, using published sources and Internet searches to identify known compounds and physiological effects. Reported folk uses for each genus or species named and their preparation and administration in North America and/or Europe were reviewed to non-experimentally validate uses in BC. Four "confidence levels" of efficacy were established; however, it is unclear how "mid-level" and "high-level" ratings, given to most named species, differ. Both require documented folk use for a plant or closely-related species in similar conditions (needed for a low-level rating), and phytochemical and/or pharmacological data consistent with the ethnobotanical use. Respondents named 128 plants total, 15 for endoparasites and 14 for GI problems in pets and pigs. Peppermint (Mentha x piperita), used for both, has high-level validity for GI problems; for parasites, it was combined with olive (Olea europaea) oil, wormwood (Artemisia spp.), rue (Ruta graveolens), sage (Salvia officinalis), and mugwort (Artemesia vulgaris).* It inhibits many bacteria. Wormwood, pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds, and black walnut (Juglans nigra) were used in more than one formula. Pumpkin seed is active against canine tapeworm. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is often used in remedies. Animals readily drink it, and it has high validity for GI problems. Specific compounds in named plants, and/or related species, are discussed, but each plant is separately presented and rated, with no attempt to validate combinations. Most treatments involve herbal teas, adding treatments to feed or water, or offering in lieu of feed or water. Wormwood, effective against pinworms and roundworms, was known by informants to be dangerous, as was rue; other toxic plants were warned against. Distinctions among animals treated were recognized. For example, black walnut, used in pigs and dogs, is toxic to cats. [Note: Black walnut can also be toxic to dogs when it contains a certain mold.] Many plant components that have been experimentally studied may contribute to effects, including antibacterial ones. Saponins, alkaloids, non-protein amino acids, phenolic compounds and polyphenols, lignans, glycosides, terpenes, and lactones, all of which are often found in plants with anthelmintic properties, occur in many of those named. The report includes information on plants that repel mosquitoes, noting that they may repel tick nymphs (Ixodes ricinus, not "Isodes ricinus" as given). Some herbs and herb families used in BC have been used in many traditional medicine systems for centuries to treat animals' endoparasites. High efficacy for most remedies discussed, even hazardous ones, is not surprising. — Mariann Garner-Wizard * Artemisia spp. and mugwort are named in this formula, but it is impossible to tell from the discussion and ratings if indeed two species of Artemisia are combined; mugwort is not mentioned again and only sweet wormwood (A. annua) is rated. -- mgw