Tuesday, 25 December 2018

Therapeutic potential of Panax ginseng and its constituents, ginsenosides and gintonin, in neurological and neurodegenerative disorders: a patent review.

Rajabian A1, Rameshrad M2, Hosseinzadeh H2,3. Author information 1 a Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Medicine , Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad , Iran. 2 b Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad , Iran . 3 c Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology Department , School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad , Iran. Abstract Ginseng, Panax ginseng, has been used for various diseases and proven its great efficacy in managing central nervous system diseases. Area covered: This article covers the therapeutic potential of patents on ginseng and its active constituents to develop therapies for neurodegenerative and neurological disorders, since 2010. The literature review was provided using multiple search engines including Google Patent, Espacenet and US Patent in the field of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive, and neurological disorders. Expert opinion: The gathered data represented outstanding merits of ginseng in treatment of neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. These effects have been mediated by neurogenesis, anti-apoptotic and antioxidant properties, inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, amyloid beta aggregation, and microglial activation as well as neurotransmitters modulation. However, these compounds have limited clinical application of for the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. This might be due to incomplete data on their clinical pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties, and limited economic investments. There is an increasing trend in use of herbal medicines instead of chemical drugs, so it is time to make more attention to the application of ginseng, the grandfather of medicinal plants, from basic sciences to patients' bed. KEYWORDS: Alzheimer’s disease; Ginsenoside; Neuroprotective; Panax ginseng; Parkinson’s disease; Patent PMID: 30513224 DOI: 10.1080/13543776.2019.1556258