Monday, 28 August 2017

Seasonal change in main alkaloids of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth), an economically important species from the Brazilian flora

PLoS One. 2017 Feb 2;12(2):e0170281. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170281. eCollection 2017. Lima DF1,2,3, de Lima LI1, Rocha JA4, de Andrade IM1, Grazina LG1,5, Villa C1,5, Meira L1,5, Véras LM1, Azevedo IF6, Biase AG6, Costa J5, Oliveira MB5, Mafra I5, Leite JR7. Author information Abstract Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth (jaborandi, Rutaceae) is one of the most important Brazilian medicinal species owing to its content of pilocarpine (PIL), an alkaloid used for treating glaucoma and xerostomia. This species contains another alkaloid, epiisopiloturine (EPI), which has demonstrated effectiveness against schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to assess seasonal changes of PIL and EPI in three populations of cultivated P. microphyllus from northeastern Brazil over one year, including the dry and rainy seasons. Alkaloid profiles were correlated to phenotypic and genetic patterns in the morphological and molecular characterizations. PIL was the primary alkaloid and its levels differed among populations in all months except September. The S01 population (green line) showed an especially high PIL content compared to populations S02 and S03 (traditional line), which had similar alkaloid contents. PIL content gradually decreased in the three populations in the rainy season.EPI content was significantly different between the green line (S01) and the traditional line (S02 and S03).S01 had a significantly lower EPI content in all months, demonstrating that it was not the best source for EPI extraction. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and morphological analyses clearly separated S01 from S02 and S03, in agreement with the alkaloid results. This study shows the first correlation between the chemical, morphological, and molecular markers of P. microphyllus and highlights the potential benefits of a multidisciplinary research approach aimed at supporting both industry and conservation of natural resources. PMID: 28151972 PMCID: PMC5289444 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170281 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Google+