Monday, 23 July 2018

Comparative occurrence of diabetes in canine, feline, and few wild animals and their association with pancreatic diseases and ketoacidosis with therapeutic approach.

Vet World. 2018 Apr;11(4):410-422. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.410-422. Epub 2018 Apr 5. Niaz K1,2, Maqbool F1,2, Khan F1,2, Hassan FI1,2, Momtaz S1,2, Abdollahi M1,2,3. Author information 1 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 2 The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 3 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which blood glucose level raises that can result in severe complications. However, the incidence increased mostly by obesity, pregnancy, persistent corpus luteum, and diestrus phase in humans and animals. This review has focused on addressing the possible understanding and pathogenesis of spontaneous DM in canine, feline, and few wild animals. Furthermore, pancreatic associated disorders, diabetic ketoacidosis, hormonal and drug interaction with diabetes, and herbal remedies associated with DM are elucidated. Bibliographic search for the present review was done using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles on concurrent DM in small and wild animals. Persistent corpus luteal and pseudopregnancy in female dogs generate gestational DM (GDM). GDM can also be caused by extensive use of drugs/hormones such as glucocorticosteroids. Although many similarities are present between diabetic cats and diabetic humans which present islet amyloidosis, there was a progressive loss of β- and α-cells and the normal number of δ-cells. The most prominent similarity is the occurrence of islet amyloidosis in all cases of diabetic cat and over 90% of human non-insulin dependent DM Type-2. Acute pancreatic necrosis (APN) occurs due to predisposing factors such as insulin antagonism, insulin resistance, alteration in glucose tolerance, obesity, hyperadrenocorticism, and persistent usage of glucocorticoids, as these play a vital role in the progression of APN. To manage such conditions, it is important to deal with the etiological agent, risk factors, diagnosis of diabetes, and hormonal and drug interaction along with its termination with suitable therapy (herbal) protocols. It should be noted that the protocols used for the diagnosis and treatment of human DM are not appropriate for animals. Further investigations regarding diabetic conditions of pets and wild animals are required, which will benefit the health status of all animals health worldwide. KEYWORDS: amyloidosis; diabetes mellitus; gestational diabetes mellitus; hypercortisolism; necrosis; pancreatitis PMID: 29805204 PMCID: PMC5960778 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.410-422 Free PMC Article