Saturday, 28 July 2018

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Mitragyna speciosa FAMILY NAME: Rubiaceae COMMON NAME: kratom Evidence for Efficacy (Human Data) Clinical Trials No Records Observational Studies/Case Reports A case was presented of management of kratom overdose and withdrawal in a young man. Diep 2018 Elevation of serum prolactin, hypogonadism, and low serum testosterone were associated with kratom cessation in a 42-year-old man. LaBryer 2018 Regular kratom users reported moderate pain experiences during kratom cessation, and 46% experienced sleep problems; however, the withdrawal effects were considered negligible, as compared to those reported for opioid analgesics. Singh 2018 Regular kratom consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with impaired testosterone levels, hematological and biochemical parameters. Singh 2018 In a study involving social media status of kratom and cannabis in Thailand, no negative information on kratom was found between April and November 2015. Thaikla 2018 Mitragynine, among other drugs, was identified in antemortem and postmortem specimens from a deceased victim of drug overdose. Walsh 2018 Results of an anonymous online survey of 10,000 kratom users, conducted using resources from the American Kratom Association, are presented. Grundmann 2017 Introducing… Kratom. [No abstract] Pizarro-Osilla 2017 Kratom use was characterized in persons enrolled in a drug rehabilitation program. Among the 500 respondents, 20.8% reported lifetime kratom use, with the majority of kratom-users using it as a substitution for other opioid drugs. Smith 2017 Recent developments in the legal status, pharmacology, and adverse potential of kratom are reviewed. Prozialeck 2016 The observed pattern of Mitragyna speciosa consumption in a northern Malaysian town includes daily use by 88% of the respondents (91% response rate), the mean age of 28.3 years old when starting using, and a reverse association of education level with the ability to "quit." Ahmad 2012 A survey of "legal highs" available at UK-based websites showed kratom as one of the top 5 products. Schmidt 2011 The cross-sectional survey of active users in Malaysia showed that the use of kratom (ketum, krathom) for the management of opioid withdrawal symptoms is more popular than previously acknowledged. Vicknasingam 2010 Mitragynine was detected in the urine of 0.9% of a random selection of Thai drivers. Ingsathit 2009 A case of self-treatment of opioid withdrawal and chronic pain with Mitragyna speciosa is reported, also involving a tonic-clonic seizure when kratom was co-administered with modafinil. Boyer 2008 Kratom (krathom) was one of the most commonly illicit drugs used by high-school students in Thailand in 2002-2004. Assanangkornchai 2007 An increase in the incidence of self-treatment of opioid withdrawal with Mitragyna sp. (kratom) was deduced from the number of mentions of the plant on a website that facilitates online purchase of opioid analgesics. Boyer 2007 Ex-kratom consumption was found to be a significant factor affecting the level of energy drink consumption in Thai Chonburi Province. Pichainarong 2004