Monday, 31 October 2016

Bisphenol A and its analogs: Do their metabolites have endocrine activity?

2016 Oct;47:182-199. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2016.09.014. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Author information

  • 1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
  • 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:


Structural analogs of bisphenol A are commonly used as its alternatives in industrial and commercial applications. Nevertheless, the question arises whether the use of other bisphenols is justified as replacements for bisphenol A in mass production of plastic materials. To evaluate the influence of metabolic reactions on endocrine activities of bisphenols, we conducted a systematic review of the literature. Knowledge about the metabolic pathways and enzymes involved in metabolic biotransformations is essential for understanding and predicting mechanisms of toxicity. Bisphenols are metabolized predominantly by the glucuronidation reaction, which is considered their most important detoxification pathway, as based on current knowledge, glucuronides do not have activity on endocrine receptors. In contrast, several oxidative metabolites of bisphenols with enhanced endocrine activities are presented, and these findings indicate that oxidative metabolites of bisphenols can still have endocrine activities in humans.


BPA analogs; Bisphenol A; Endocrine toxicity; Glucuronidation; Hormone disruptors; Oxidative metabolism