Sunday, 3 June 2018
The impact of Aloe vera and licorice extracts on selected mechanisms of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in pigeons experimentally infected with PPMV-1.
BMC Vet Res. 2018 May 2;14(1):148. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1467-3. Dziewulska D1, Stenzel T2, Śmiałek M2, Tykałowski B2, Koncicki A2. Author information 1 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Oczapowskiego 13/14, 10-719, Olsztyn, Poland. firstname.lastname@example.org. 2 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Oczapowskiego 13/14, 10-719, Olsztyn, Poland. Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of herbal extracts on selected immunity mechanisms in clinically healthy pigeons and pigeons inoculated with the pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1). For the first 7 days post-inoculation (dpi), an aqueous solution of Aloe vera or licorice extract was administered daily at 300 or 500 mg/kg body weight (BW). The birds were euthanized at 4, 7 and 14 dpi, and spleen samples were collected during necropsy. Mononuclear cells were isolated from spleen samples and divided into two parts: one part was used to determine the percentage of IgM+ B cells in a flow cytometric analysis, and the other was used to evaluate the expression of genes encoding IFN-γ and surface receptors on CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. RESULTS: The expression of the IFN-γ gene increased in all birds inoculated with PPMV-1 and receiving both herbal extracts. The expression of the CD3 gene was lowest at 14 dpi in healthy birds and at 7 dpi in inoculated pigeons. The expression of the CD4 gene was higher in uninoculated pigeons receiving both herbal extracts than in the control group throughout nearly the entire experiment with a peak at 7 dpi. A reverse trend was observed in pigeons inoculated with PPMV-1 and receiving both herbal extracts. In uninoculated birds, increased expression of the CD8 gene was noted in the pigeons receiving a lower dose of the Aloe vera extract and both doses of licorice extracts. No significant differences in the expression of this gene were found between inoculated pigeons receiving both herbal extracts. The percentage of IgM+ B cells did not differ between any of the evaluated groups. CONCLUSIONS: This results indicate that Aloe vera and licorice extracts have immunomodulatory properties and can be used successfully to prevent viral diseases, enhance immunity and as supplementary treatment for viral diseases in pigeons. KEYWORDS: Aloe vera; Flow cytometry; Gene expression; Herbal extracts; Licorice; PPMV-1; Pigeons PMID: 29716604 PMCID: PMC5930501 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-018-1467-3 Free PMC Article https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930501/