Impact on chemical profile in apple juice and cider made from unripe, ripe and senescent dessert varieties
- a Post Graduate Program in Food Science and Technology, State University of Ponta Grossa, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti 4748, Uvaranas Campus, CEP 84.030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil
- b Technical Course in Food, Federal Institute of Paraná, R. Durval Ceccon, 664, CEP 83405-030, Colombo, PR, Brazil
- Received 17 November 2014, Revised 3 August 2015, Accepted 16 August 2015, Available online 19 August 2015
- Variety and ripening stage affect the apple beverages composition.
- Fermentation reduced the levels of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanols.
- Cider made with senescent fruits showed 24–52% more volatile compounds.
- Glucose, serine and potassium were outside the limits recommended by the CoP AIJN.
The chemical profile of juices and ciders prepared with three varieties of dessert apples (Gala, Lis Gala and Fuji Suprema) at three different ripening stages (unripe, ripe and senescent) were established. Sixty-five analytical parameters were determined and the data processed using two-way ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA). The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in the juices were different between the cultivars. However, after fermentation phenol content reduced (15%) only in the unripe ciders. The juices prepared with unripe fruit contained 55% less volatile compounds than the juices from ripe and senescent fruit, while the cider made with senescent apples contained 24–52% more volatile (Lis Gala and Gala, respectively) than the cider from unripe apples. Variety, ripening stage and their interaction showed significant effect (p < 0.05) for most of the variables analysed. PCA analysis was used to classify juices and ciders in relationship with the variables analysed. Variety had a higher impact than ripening stage. The choice of variety and the knowledge of the cultivar composition, which increase or decrease along the maturation, allows at the producer to establish the sensory quality of the apple juice.
- Amino acid;
- Malus domestica Borkh
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