Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. is one of the most popular and beneficial medicinal plants in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This comprehensive review provides latest updates on traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data, clinical efficacy and safety of Terminalia arjuna as well as outlined strategies for future research and development to scientifically validate the therapeutic potential of this plant.
Materials and methods
Information about Terminalia arjuna was collected via a systematic electronic and library search of various indexed and non-indexed journals, some local books and varied articles published on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and traditional uses. Various pre-clinical (2000–2014) and clinical studies (1990–2014) have also been considered regarding efficacy and safety profile of Terminalia arjuna.
Evidence from various in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reveal the pleiotropic effects of Terminalia arjuna such as anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and antioxidant actions for treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. It is clearly documented that this plant has a good safety profile when used in conjunction with other conventional drugs. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the exact molecular mechanism of its action, appropriate form of drug administration, whether whole crude drug or aqueous or alcoholic extract should be used, toxicological studies and its interaction with other drugs.
In conclusion, this review highlights the importance as well as pleiotropic actions and functional aspects of Terminalia arjuna especially in cardiovascular diseases. Though, various pharmacological studies and clinical trials support its benefit in the CVD as per traditional use, new clinical trials using more rigorous state of the art technology and in a larger population setup are warranted to assess the traditional putative efficacy of Terminalia arjuna.
Chemical compounds studied in this article
- Arjunolic Acid (PubChem CID: 73641);
- Arjungenin (PubChem CID: 12444386);
- Luteolin (PubChem CID: 5280445);
- Arjunolone (PubChem CID: 14034821);
- Gallic Acid (PubChem CID: 370);
- Ellagic Acid (PubChem CID: 5281855);
- Arjunic acid (PubChem CID: 15385516);
- Arjunglucoside I (PubChem CID: 49768307);
- Arjunten (PubChem CID: 3052779);
- Cyanidin (PubChem CID: 128861)
- Coronary artery disease;
- Terminalia arjuna;
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