Wednesday, 28 November 2018
Demographic histories and genetic diversity across pinnipeds are shaped by human exploitation, ecology and life-history.
Nat Commun. 2018 Nov 16;9(1):4836. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06695-z. Stoffel MA1,2, Humble E1,3, Paijmans AJ1, Acevedo-Whitehouse K4, Chilvers BL5, Dickerson B6, Galimberti F7, Gemmell NJ8, Goldsworthy SD9, Nichols HJ2,10,11, Krüger O1, Negro S12,13, Osborne A14, Pastor T15, Robertson BC16, Sanvito S7, Schultz JK17, Shafer ABA18, Wolf JBW19,20, Hoffman JI21,22. Author information 1 Department of Animal Behaviour, Bielefeld University, Postfach 100131, 33501, Bielefeld, Germany. 2 School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK. 3 British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OET, UK. 4 Unit for Basic and Applied Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, Autonomous University of Queretaro, Avenida de las Ciencias S/N, Queretaro, 76230, Mexico. 5 Wildbase, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Science, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, 4442, New Zealand. 6 National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, 98115, WA, USA. 7 Elephant Seal Research Group, Sea Lion Island, FIQQ 1ZZ, Falkland Islands. 8 Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. 9 South Australian Research and Development Institute, West Beach, SA, 5024, Australia. 10 Department of Animal Behaviour Bielefeld University, Postfach 100131 33501, Bielefeld, Germany. 11 Department of Biosciences, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK. 12 UMR de Génétique Quantitative et Évolution - Le Moulon, INRA, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190, France. 13 GIGA-R, Medical Genomics - BIO3, Université of Liège, Liège, 4000, Belgium. 14 School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand, 8140. 15 EUROPARC Federation, Carretera de l'Església, 92, 08017, Barcelona, Spain. 16 Department of Zoology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. 17 National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD, 20910, USA. 18 Forensic Science & Environmental Life Sciences, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada, K9J 7B8. 19 Division of Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biology, LMU Munich, Planegg-Martinstried, Munich, 82152, Germany. 20 Science of Life Laboratory and Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 752 36, Sweden. 21 Department of Animal Behaviour, Bielefeld University, Postfach 100131, 33501, Bielefeld, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org. 22 British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OET, UK. email@example.com. Abstract A central paradigm in conservation biology is that population bottlenecks reduce genetic diversity and population viability. In an era of biodiversity loss and climate change, understanding the determinants and consequences of bottlenecks is therefore an important challenge. However, as most studies focus on single species, the multitude of potential drivers and the consequences of bottlenecks remain elusive. Here, we combined genetic data from over 11,000 individuals of 30 pinniped species with demographic, ecological and life history data to evaluate the consequences of commercial exploitation by 18th and 19th century sealers. We show that around one third of these species exhibit strong signatures of recent population declines. Bottleneck strength is associated with breeding habitat and mating system variation, and together with global abundance explains much of the variation in genetic diversity across species. Overall, bottleneck intensity is unrelated to IUCN status, although the three most heavily bottlenecked species are endangered. Our study reveals an unforeseen interplay between human exploitation, animal biology, demographic declines and genetic diversity. PMID: 30446730 PMCID: PMC6240053 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06695-z Free PMC Article Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Google+