Saturday, 24 November 2018

Phyto-Therapeutic and Nanomedicinal Approaches to Cure Alzheimer's Disease: Present Status and Future Opportunities

Front Aging Neurosci. 2018 Oct 23;10:284. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2018.00284. eCollection 2018. Ovais M1,2,3, Zia N2,4, Ahmad I5, Khalil AT6, Raza A2, Ayaz M7, Sadiq A7,8, Ullah F7, Shinwari ZK1,6,9. Author information 1 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 2 National Institute of Lasers and Optronics, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan. 3 CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, China. 4 Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan. 5 Department of Life Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. 6 Department of Eastern Medicine and Surgery, Qarshi University, Lahore, Pakistan. 7 Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Pakistan. 8 Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Faculty of Health, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany. 9 Pakistan Academy of Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan. Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive inability manifested due to the accumulation of β-amyloid, formation of hyper phosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles, and a malfunctioned cholinergic system. The degeneration integrity of the neuronal network can appear long after the onset of the disease. Nanotechnology-based interventions have opened an exciting area via theranostics of AD in terms of tailored nanomedicine, which are able to target and deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The exciting interface existing between medicinal plants and nanotechnology is an emerging marvel in medicine, which has delivered promising results in the treatment of AD. In order to assess the potential applications of the medicinal plants, their derived components, and various nanomedicinal approaches, a review of literature was deemed as necessary. In the present review, numerous phytochemicals and various feats in nanomedicine for the treatment of AD have been discussed mechanistically for the first time. Furthermore, recent trends in nanotechnology such as green synthesis of metal nanoparticles with reference to the treatment of AD have been elaborated. Foreseeing the recent progress, we hope that the interface of medicinal plants and nanotechnology will lead to highly effective theranostic strategies for the treatment of AD in the near future. KEYWORDS: Alzheimer’s disease; green synthesis; medicinal plants; nanotechnology; theranostic NPs PMID: 30405389 PMCID: PMC6205985 DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2018.00284 Free PMC Article Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Google+