Monday, 26 November 2018

Possible Prevention of Diabetes with a Gluten-Free Diet

Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1746; Martin Haupt-Jorgensen * OrcID, Laurits J. HolmOrcID, Knud Josefsen † and Karsten Buschard † The Bartholin Institute, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, Rigshospitalet, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark † These authors shared senior authorship. * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018 (This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet) Full-Text | PDF [1545 KB, uploaded 16 November 2018] | Figures | Review Reports Abstract Gluten seems a potentially important determinant in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Intake of gluten, a major component of wheat, rye, and barley, affects the microbiota and increases the intestinal permeability. Moreover, studies have demonstrated that gluten peptides, after crossing the intestinal barrier, lead to a more inflammatory milieu. Gluten peptides enter the pancreas where they affect the morphology and might induce beta-cell stress by enhancing glucose- and palmitate-stimulated insulin secretion. Interestingly, animal studies and a human study have demonstrated that a gluten-free (GF) diet during pregnancy reduces the risk of T1D. Evidence regarding the role of a GF diet in T2D is less clear. Some studies have linked intake of a GF diet to reduced obesity and T2D and suggested a role in reducing leptin- and insulin-resistance and increasing beta-cell volume. The current knowledge indicates that gluten, among many environmental factors, may be an aetiopathogenic factors for development of T1D and T2D. However, human intervention trials are needed to confirm this and the proposed mechanisms. View Full-Text Keywords: beta cell; beta-cell stress; celiac disease; gluten-free diet; high-fat diet-induced obesity; intestinal permeability; islet of Langerhans; NOD mouse; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes ▼ Figures Figure 1 This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0). SciFeed Share & Cite This Article MDPI and ACS Style Haupt-Jorgensen, M.; Holm, L.J.; Josefsen, K.; Buschard, K. Possible Prevention of Diabetes with a Gluten-Free Diet. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1746. Show more citation formats Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.