1Université de La Réunion, UMR PVBMT, 15 avenue René Cassin, La Réunion, CS 92003-97744, Saint Denis Cedex 9, France
2Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg, Leiden, 72, 2333, BE, The Netherlands
3GIP CYROI, 2 rue Maxime Rivière, La Réunion, 97490, Sainte-Clotilde, France
4Département Systématique et Evolution, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, UMR OSEB 7205, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, Paris, 75231, Cedex 05, France
5Institut des Sciences Analytiques (CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon1), Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs, Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne, 69100, France
6Université de La Réunion, LCSNSA EA 2212, 15 avenue René Cassin, La Réunion, CS 92003-97744, Saint Denis Cedex 9, France
7Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), Station de Ligne-Paradis & Pôle de protection des plantes, 7 chemin de l’IRAT, La Réunion, 97410, Saint-Pierre, France
8UMR PVBMT, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université de La Réunion, 15, Avenue René Cassin, Ile de la Réunion, BP 7151, Saint-Denis Cédex 09, France
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The objective of the work was to characterize fungal endophytes from aerial parts ofVanilla planifolia. Also, to establish their biotransformation abilities of flavor-related metabolites. This was done in order to find a potential role of endophytes on vanilla flavors.
Twenty three MOTUs were obtained, representing 6 fungal classes. Fungi from green pods were cultured on mature green pod based media for 30 days followed by1H NMR and HPLC-DAD analysis. All fungi from pods consumed metabolized vanilla flavor phenolics. ThoughFusarium proliferatumwas recovered more often (37.6 % of the isolates), it isPestalotiopsis microspora(3.0 %) that increased the absolute amounts (quantified by1H NMR in μmol/g DW green pods) of vanillin (37.0 × 10−3), vanillyl alcohol (100.0 × 10−3), vanillic acid (9.2 × 10−3) andp-hydroxybenzoic acid (87.9 × 10−3) by significant amounts.
All plants studied contained endophytic fungi and the isolation of the endophytes was conducted from plant organs at nine sites in Réunion Island including under shade house and undergrowth conditions. Endophytic variation occured between cultivation practices and the type of organ. Given the physical proximity of fungi inside pods, endophytic biotransformation may contribute to the complexity of vanilla flavors.