Monday, 29 June 2015

Fungal endophytes of Vanilla planifolia across Réunion Island: isolation, distribution and biotransformation

Fungal endophytes of Vanilla planifolia across Réunion Island: isolation, distribution and biotransformation

Shahnoo Khoyratty123, Joëlle Dupont4, Sandrine Lacoste4, Tony Lionel Palama135, Young Hae Choi2, Hye Kyong Kim2, Bertrand Payet6, Michel Grisoni7, Mireille Fouillaud6, Robert Verpoorte2 and Hippolyte Kodja18*
1Université de La Réunion, UMR PVBMT, 15 avenue René Cassin, La Réunion, CS 92003-97744, Saint Denis Cedex 9, France
2Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg, Leiden, 72, 2333, BE, The Netherlands
3GIP CYROI, 2 rue Maxime Rivière, La Réunion, 97490, Sainte-Clotilde, France
4Département Systématique et Evolution, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, UMR OSEB 7205, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, Paris, 75231, Cedex 05, France
5Institut des Sciences Analytiques (CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon1), Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs, Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne, 69100, France
6Université de La Réunion, LCSNSA EA 2212, 15 avenue René Cassin, La Réunion, CS 92003-97744, Saint Denis Cedex 9, France
7Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), Station de Ligne-Paradis & Pôle de protection des plantes, 7 chemin de l’IRAT, La Réunion, 97410, Saint-Pierre, France
8UMR PVBMT, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université de La Réunion, 15, Avenue René Cassin, Ile de la Réunion, BP 7151, Saint-Denis Cédex 09, France
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BMC Plant Biology 2015, 15:142  doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0522-5
The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Received:30 January 2015
Accepted:11 May 2015
Published:14 June 2015
© 2015 Khoyratty et al. 
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.



The objective of the work was to characterize fungal endophytes from aerial parts of Vanilla planifolia. Also, to establish their biotransformation abilities of flavor-related metabolites. This was done in order to find a potential role of endophytes on vanilla flavors.


Twenty three MOTUs were obtained, representing 6 fungal classes. Fungi from green pods were cultured on mature green pod based media for 30 days followed by 1H NMR and HPLC-DAD analysis. All fungi from pods consumed metabolized vanilla flavor phenolics. Though Fusarium proliferatum was recovered more often (37.6 % of the isolates), it is Pestalotiopsis microspora(3.0 %) that increased the absolute amounts (quantified by 1H NMR in μmol/g DW green pods) of vanillin (37.0 × 10−3), vanillyl alcohol (100.0 × 10−3), vanillic acid (9.2 × 10−3) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (87.9 × 10−3) by significant amounts.


All plants studied contained endophytic fungi and the isolation of the endophytes was conducted from plant organs at nine sites in Réunion Island including under shade house and undergrowth conditions. Endophytic variation occured between cultivation practices and the type of organ. Given the physical proximity of fungi inside pods, endophytic biotransformation may contribute to the complexity of vanilla flavors.
Endophytes; Distribution; Diversity; Biotransformation; Vanilla; Interaction