Volume 178, 1 July 2015, Pages 149–155

Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins and their dietary intake through beer consumption by the European population


A multi-mycotoxin method based on QuEChERS and GC–MS/MS was validated in beer.
The occurrence of fourteen mycotoxins in 154 beer samples was topic of investigation.
Deoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin were found in 59.7% and 9.1% of total samples.
Average consumers showed a probable daily intake lower than tolerable daily intake.


Since cereals are raw materials for production of beer and beer-based drinks, the occurrence mycotoxins in 154 beer samples was topic of investigation in this study. The analyses were conducted using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry determination. The analytical method showed recoveries for vast majority of analytes ranged from 70% to 110%, relative standard deviations lower than 15% and limits of detection from 0.05 to 8 μg/L. A significant incidence of HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were found in 9.1% and 59.7% of total samples, respectively. The exposure of European population to mycotoxins through beer consumption was assessed. No toxicological concern was associated to mycotoxins exposure for average beer consumers. Despite that, for heavy beer drinkers, the contribution of this commodity to the daily intake is not negligible, approaching or even exceeding the safety levels.


  • Mycotoxins; 
  • Beer; 
  • Exposure assessment; 
  • GC–MS/MS

Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 963544117; fax: +34 963544954.