Infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic extracts of artichoke leaves were studied.
Infusion extracts presented the highest content of phenolic compounds.
Chlorogenic acid and cynarin were the major phenolic compounds in all extracts.
Artichoke leaf extracts were effective scavengers of ROS and RNS.
The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculusL. subsp.cardunculus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and Americas for its edible young flower heads and as an interesting source of bioactive compounds. The present study was undertaken to evaluate scavenging capacity against the most physiologically relevant reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) of three different extracts from artichoke leaves (infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic) using different solvents, commonly accepted for human consumption (water and a mixture of ethanol/water). Additionally, the phenolic compounds in each extract were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC–DAD–MS/MS). Chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic compound identified in all extracts, followed by 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid (cynarin), luteolin-7-rutinoside and the infusion extract presented the highest phenolic content (108 mg/g extract, dry basis). In general, the extracts of artichoke leaves presented a remarkable capacity to scavenge ROS and RNS with IC50values in a low μg/mL range (3.4–43 μg/mL). These findings suggest that artichoke could be a potential source of natural antioxidants and has an undeniable nutraceutical value.
Reactive oxygen species;
Reactive nitrogen species
Corresponding authors at: REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Tel.: + 351 220428662; fax: + 351 226093483.