Monday, 26 December 2016

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench for prophylaxis of respiratory disease in calves – How to find the right dosage?

Planta Med 2016; 81(S 01): S1-S381
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1596985
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

H Ayrle1, M Mevissen2, M Melzig3, M Kaske4, M Walkenhorst1
  • 1Department of Livestock Sciences, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse 113, 5070 Frick, Switzerland
  • 2Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 124, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
  • 3Dahlem Centre of Plant Sciences, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universität Berlin, Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 2+4, 14195 Berlin, Germany
  • 4Department of Farm Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Further Information

In calves stressors like weaning, transportation and a new environment with unknown antigens, lead to an impairment of the premature immune system and respiratory diseases. The application of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EP) could be a preventive measure, but clinical studies in calves are missing. The aim of this study is the estimation of oral dosages of EP (in g drug equivalent (g de)) for calves. Based on a systematic review [1], 48 studies were identified for EP. Peer-reviewed in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, published in the years 1994 – 2014 in English or German were considered. In 20 studies no conclusion on used dosage could be drawn due to a lack of given data. A number of 26 studies could prove beneficial effects of EP on the immune system, whilst 8 couldn't. The median used concentration of the 10 in vitro studies was 0,16 (min:0,002; max 50)mg de EP/ml. To include data from studies with living mammals, a conversion via metabolic body weight (MBW) was conducted. For 18 studies with living mammals (humans: 9; laboratory rodents: 4; horses, dogs, pigs, sheep: 5) the amount of used de in g/kg MBW per day could be determined. In studies proving evidence, used dosages range between 0,005 and 53,75 (median: 1,84; 25% quartile: 0,57; 75% quartile: 8,97)g de EP/day estimated for a 60 kg calf (disproving studies: min: 0,844; median: 1,69; max: 12,47) (fig. 1). Duration of application ranges between 5 and 60 days in studies proving evidence for EP, and 10 to 56 days in disproving studies. Dosages from current studies were compared with standard literature [2 – 5] (fig 1). For studies of pharmacodynamic and clinical trials we propose to use dosages of 0,2 – 20 g de EP/day/60 kg calf in pharmaceutical quality and with known phytochemical composition for a duration of 7 – 30 days. To conclude, clinical trials in calves are needed to define effective dosages of EP.