Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench for prophylaxis of respiratory disease in calves – How to find the right dosage?
Planta Med 2016; 81(S 01): S1-S381 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1596985
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York
H Ayrle1, M Mevissen2, M Melzig3, M Kaske4, M Walkenhorst1
1Department of Livestock Sciences, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse 113, 5070 Frick, Switzerland
Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department Clinical Research
and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern,
Laenggassstrasse 124, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Centre of Plant Sciences, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universität
Berlin, Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 2+4, 14195 Berlin, Germany
4Department of Farm Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
calves stressors like weaning, transportation and a new environment
with unknown antigens, lead to an impairment of the premature immune
system and respiratory diseases. The application of Echinacea purpurea
(L.) Moench (EP) could be a preventive measure, but clinical studies in
calves are missing. The aim of this study is the estimation of oral
dosages of EP (in g drug equivalent (g de)) for calves. Based on a
systematic review , 48 studies were identified for EP. Peer-reviewed in vitro, in vivo
and clinical studies, published in the years 1994 – 2014 in English or
German were considered. In 20 studies no conclusion on used dosage could
be drawn due to a lack of given data. A number of 26 studies could
prove beneficial effects of EP on the immune system, whilst 8 couldn't.
The median used concentration of the 10 in vitro
studies was 0,16 (min:0,002; max 50)mg de EP/ml. To include data from
studies with living mammals, a conversion via metabolic body weight
(MBW) was conducted. For 18 studies with living mammals (humans: 9;
laboratory rodents: 4; horses, dogs, pigs, sheep: 5) the amount of used
de in g/kg MBW per day could be determined. In studies proving evidence,
used dosages range between 0,005 and 53,75 (median: 1,84; 25% quartile:
0,57; 75% quartile: 8,97)g de EP/day estimated for a 60 kg calf
(disproving studies: min: 0,844; median: 1,69; max: 12,47) (fig. 1).
Duration of application ranges between 5 and 60 days in studies proving
evidence for EP, and 10 to 56 days in disproving studies. Dosages from
current studies were compared with standard literature [2 – 5] (fig 1).
For studies of pharmacodynamic and clinical trials we propose to use
dosages of 0,2 – 20 g de EP/day/60 kg calf in pharmaceutical quality and
with known phytochemical composition for a duration of 7 – 30 days. To
conclude, clinical trials in calves are needed to define effective
dosages of EP.