Tuesday, 27 December 2016

Holiday joke - chocolate

Q: Is chocolate bad for me? 
A: Are you crazy? HELLO.... Cocoa beans--another vegetable!!! It's the best feel-good food around!

2016 Nov 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents' diet: the HELENA study.

Author information

  • 1Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Saragossa, Spain.
  • 2Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Saragossa, Spain.
  • 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Saragossa, Spain.
  • 4Red de Salud Materno-infantil y del Desarrollo (SAMID), Madrid, Spain.
  • 5Research Institute of Child Nutrition (FKE), Dortmund, Germany.
  • 6Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
  • 7Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
  • 8GALENO Research Group, Department of Physical Education, School of Education, University of Cadiz, Puerto Real, Spain.
  • 9Service d'Epidémiologie et Santé Publique - INSERM U1167 Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France.
  • 10Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
  • 11Dietary Exposure Assessment Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
  • 12Division of Clinical Nutrition and Prevention, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.
  • 13Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
  • 14Inmunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frío, Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
  • 15ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport-INEF, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
  • 16Institut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften - Ernährungphysiologie, Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität, Bonn, Germany.
  • 17Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Madrid, Spain.
  • 18Department of Paediatrics, Medical Faculty, University of Pécs, Pecs, Hungary.
  • 19Lille Inflammation Research International Center (LIRIC) UMR 995 Inserm, University of Lille, CHU Lille, 59000, Lille cedex, France.
  • 20Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Saragossa, Spain.
  • 21Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Saragossa, Spain.
  • 22Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Saragossa, Spain.



To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents.


Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders.


Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was 'carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,' followed by 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey, jam and syrup.' Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from 'cakes, pies and biscuits.' Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey and jam' groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and 'soft drinks,' 'sugar, honey and jam,' 'cakes and pies' and 'breakfast cereals' groups; and with high paternal educational level for 'carbonated and soft drinks' and 'chocolates' group.


The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.


Adolescents; Diet; Europe; Food sources; Free sugars