|1429||Joan of Arc leads French forces to victory over English at Orleans.|
|1624||Louis XIII appoints Cardinal Richelieu chief minister of the Royal Council of France.|
|1924||Open revolt breaks out in Santa Clara, Cuba.|
|1927||Construction of the Spirit of St. Louis is completed.|
|1930||The film All Quiet on the Western Front, based on Erich Maria Remarque’s novel Im Western Nichts Neues, premiers.|
Born on April 29
Revealing representations of jazz in the Weimar Republic
While in America and elsewhere jazz made its debut in the middle and late 1910s, the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) remained relatively isolated from jazz until 1920. Touring groups opted for travel in economically and politically stable areas. Until the first live jazz concert in 1924, Germans learned of jazz through sheet music, recordings, and soldiers returning from World War I. Lasting records of jazz culture exist due to the advances in sound recording, photography, and publishing. Jazz images from the Weimar Republic offer a glimpse into the triangular relationship of ethnic African and African-American jazz artists with jazz culture and with German audiences. Many images de-emphasize the African-American jazz artists by using stereotypical tropes, masking the artist, and avoiding physical portrayals of the artist. These techniques reflect the adaptation of jazz culture for audiences within a nation recovering economic and political stability.