Sunday, 24 April 2016

March 9

1796 Napoleon Bonaparte marries Josephine de Beauharnais in Paris, France.

1839 The French Academy of Science announces the Daguerreotype photo process.
1841 The rebel slaves who seized a Spanish slave ship, the Amistad, in 1839 are freed by the Supreme Court despite Spanish demands for extradition.
1959 The Barbie doll is unveiled at a toy fair in New York City.

Born on March 9
1451 Amerigo Vespucci, Italian navigator.
1824 Leland Stanford, railroad builder, founder of Stanford University.

1890 Vyacheslav Molotov, former Soviet Prime Minister.
1892 Vita Sackville-West, writer.

1910 Samuel Barber, American composer (“Adagio for Strings,” Vanessa).
1918 Frank Morrison Spillane [Mickey Spillane], crime writer (Kiss Me, Deadly, The Erection Set).
1930 Ornette Coleman, jazz saxophonist.
1934 Yuri Gagarin, Russian cosmonaut, the first man to orbit the Earth.
1943 Bobby Fischer, first American world chess champion.
1947 Keri Hulme, New Zealand novelist (The Bone People).

Volume 204, 1 August 2016, Pages 141–149


First study to explore antioxidant potentials of New Zealand surf clam species.
Identified differences in antioxidant activity in three NZ surf clam species.
Bioactive compounds with high antioxidant effects may exist in NZ clams.
NZ clams have far superior antioxidant level compared with other shellfish.
NZ clams’ antioxidant level is surprisingly higher than many herbs and plants.


The antioxidant action of three New Zealand surf clams was evaluated for the first time. Aqueous (cd) and ethanolic extracts from Diamond shell – Crassula aequilatera, Storm shell – Mactra murchisoni, and Tua tua – Paphies donacina were studied for their antioxidant potentials using two in vitro assays. The ethanolic extracts were further fractioned into four parts; petroleum ether (pe), ethyl acetate (ea), n-butanol (nb), and the final aqueous fraction (w). Comparing among all fractions tested, the ea fraction of P. donacina showed the strongest free radical scavenging power, with a radical scavenging activity of 76.14% at 20 μg/mL. The ea fraction of C. aequilatera had the highest copper reducing activity with an absorbance of 1.596 at 20 μg/mL. Results from this study suggest that some bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant effects may exist in the New Zealand surf clams, and could potentially reduce oxidative stress to deliver health benefits or to produce functional foods.


  • New Zealand;
  • Surf clam;
  • Fraction;
  • Antioxidant
Corresponding author at: School of Applied Sciences and Institute for Applied Ecology New Zealand, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.