Thursday, 19 January 2017

The genus Sida L. – A traditional medicine: Its ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological data for commercial exploitation in herbal drugs industry

Volume 176, 24 December 2015, Pages 135–176

  • a Department of Chemistry, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Agartala 799022, Tripura, India
  • b Department of Chemistry, Netaji Subhas Mahavidyalaya, Udaipur 799114, Gomati Tripura, India
  • c Department of Chemistry, Dasaratha Deb Memorial College, Lalchera, Khowai 799201, Tripura, India
  • d Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, India


Ethnopharmacological relevance

Sida L. (Malvaceae) has been used for centuries in traditional medicines in different countries for the prevention and treatment of different diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, gastrointestinal and urinary infections, malarial and other fevers, childbirth and miscarriage problems, skin ailments, cardiac and neural problems, asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory problems, weight loss aid, rheumatic and other inflammations, tuberculosis, etc.

Aims of this review

To assess the scientific evidence for therapeutic potential of Sida L. and to identify the gaps of future research needs.


The available information on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Sida species was collected via a library and electronic searches in SciFinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar for the period, 1933–2015.


A variety of ethnomedicinal uses of Sida species have been found in India, China, Afrian and American countries. Phytochemical investigation of this genus has resulted in identification of about 142 chemical constituents, among which alkaloids, flavonoids and ecdysteroids are the predominant groups. The crude extracts and isolates have exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects involving antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, abortifacient, neuroprotective, cardiovascular and cardioprotective, antimalarial, antitubercular, antidiabetic and antiobesity, antioxidant and nephroprotective activities among others. Ethnopharmacological preparations containing Sida species as an ingredient in India, African and American countries possess good efficacy in health disorders. From the toxicity perspective, only three Sida species have been assessed and found safe for oral use in rats.


Pharmacological results supported some of the uses of Sida species in the traditional medicine. Alkaloids, flavonoids, other phenolics and ecdysteroids were perhaps responsible for the activities of extracts of the plants of this genus. No clinical study was reported. The detailed study on mechanism of action of isolates and extracts and their clinical study are needed for their use in modern medicine. More attention should be paid to Sida acuta, Sida cordifolia, Sida spinosa, Sida rhombifolia and Sida veronicaefolia in the domain of diarrhea, dysentery, gastrointestinal and urinary infections, skin ailments, asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory problems, malaria, childbirth and miscarriage problems, cardiac and neural problems, weight loss aid, and rheumatic and other inflammations, etc. Furthermore, detailed study on quality and safety assurance data on available ethnopharmacological preparations is needed for their commercial exploitation in local and global markets.

Graphical abstract