An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde – Turkey)
With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde.
Materials and methods
This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study.
According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%).
The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than medical treatment. This study identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Aladaglar/Nigde, but also the uses and local names of these plants. This paper helps to preserve valuable information that may otherwise be lost to future generations.
Chemical compounds studied in this article:
- Hypericin (PubChem CID: 5281051);
- Isoquercitrin (PubChem CID: 5280804);
- Hyperoside (PubChem CID: 5281643);
- Borneol (PubChem CID: 64685);
- Menthone (PubChem CID: 6986);
- Pulegone (PubChem CID: 6988);
- Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (PubChem CID: 20055286);
- Berberine (PubChem CID: 2353);
- Berbamine(PubChem CID: 10170);
- Magnoflorine (PubChem CID: 73337)
- Medicinal plants;
- Traditional medicine;
Turkey has been distinguished throughout history by a rich inventory of natural medicinal substances. Turkey is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of plant diversity. To date, approximately 10,500 plant species have been identified in Turkey and 30% of this is endemic (Davis, 1965–1985). The ratio of endemism is one of the most important indicators to evaluate the environmental value of an area. In Turkey, the rate of endemism in plant species is relatively high when compared with other European countries (Ugulu et al., 2008).
Documentation of the indigenous knowledge through ethnobotanical studies is important for the conservation and utilization of biological resources. Therefore, establishing the local names and the indigenous uses of plants have significant potential in benefiting society (Bağcı, 2000). By the revealing and recording by the hidden folk medicinal uses of the local plants, ethnobotany has become an important part of our world.
Many of todays drugs have been derived from plant sources. Recent ethnobotanical surveys among tribal populations have brought new information to the forefront, which can be utilized to improve the economy of the tribes by organizing the systematic collection of forest products and locating cottage industries, especially of herbal drugs (Abbasi et al., 2012).
For centuries, Turkish people have been using herbal medicines for the treatment of some minor diseases. This is similar to many neighboring near east countries (Lev and Amar, 2002, Abu-Irmaileh and Afifi, 2003, Ghorbani, 2005, Yeşilada, 2005, Mati and Boer, 2011 and Mosaddegha et al., 2012). Plant species may have different uses in different countries as well as different areas of the same country. In spite of such a rich cultural heritage and relatively rich flora, the number of scientific ethnobotanical field surveys, at least published in the international journals, among the regional communities is very low. Folk medicine in the neighboring provinces of the Taurus Mountains were reported in literature (Bağcı, 2000, Ertuğ, 2000, Sezik et al., 2001, Şimsek et al., 2004, Everest and Öztürk, 2005, Özkan and Koyuncu, 2005, Öztürk and Dinc, 2005, Elci and Erik, 2006, Sarper et al., 2009, Özhatay and Koçak, 2011 and Demirci and Ozhatay, 2012). However, to the best of our knowledge, traditional uses of medicinal plants in Aladaglar/Nigde have not been studied.
The increasing human population in recent years has led to over exploitation of land in many areas, thus reducing the biodiversity of medicinal plants. Meanwhile, worldwide threatening factors on traditional heritages have been valid for the region and this wealth of information has slowly vanished with the influencing factors of modernization; i.e., urbanization, migration, development of roads, communication by the media, easier access to orthodox medicine and drugs, etc. (Yeşilada, 2005). Thus, there is an urgent need to record and utilize the wealth of ethnobotanical knowledge. This study was carried out with the aim of preserving knowledge about the local use and provides preliminary information aimed at a more detailed investigation on bioactive studies.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Study area
The Taurus Mountains constitute a mountain complex in Southern Turkey, dividing the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Egirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east. It is a part of the Alpide belt in Eurasia. Aladaglar is located in the northern part of the Taurus Mountain range and harbors the highest peak of the eastern Taurus Mountain Range. Aladaglar mountain ranges in the Taurus mountains are popular for winter sports, climbing and trekking through the high meadows and mountain villages. The mountains are particularly attractive when the hills are covered with spring flowers. The Aladaglar mountains constitute one of the most popular climbing and trekking venues in Turkey. The Aladaglar mountain range is located in the eastern part of Nigde. It is 65 km. from Camardi town. It is between 37° 47′ north parallel and 35° 11′ east meridian. According to the data obtained from the website of Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism (http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN,35931/nigde-Aladaglar.html), it covers about 1000 km2 of the area between the cities of Kayseri, Nigde and Adana, stretching over 25 km. wide by 40 km. long. There are more than 60 peaks over 3000 m. high, the highest being Demirkazik at 3756 m. The area is usually approached from the Nigde side. This mountain range has a wide variety of plant and animal life and because of this a 54,524 ha area was declared as a national park in 1995 (Byfield et al., 2010). Its plant diversity is very rich because of its location as a meeting point of 2 phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Iran-Turan). There are 1566 taxa in Aladaglar flora, 392 of which are endemic, 26 are endemic for Aladaglar (Tüfekçi et al., 2002). The research area is in the western part of the Aladaglar Mountain Range. The settlements which are located in that area are the villages of Cukurbag, Demirkazik, Pinarbasi, Bademdere, Kavlaktepe, Sulucuova, Orhaniye, and Kocapinar which are connected to the town of Camardi and the towns of Dundarli, Dikilitas, Hacibeyli, and İcmeli which are governed by the Nigde Province (Fig. 1).
The area has been inhabited since the Neolithic period of 8000−5500 BC. The area was later inhabited by the Hittites, who lived there for a thousand years up until 800 BC. The name Nigde first appeared in written sources in the form na-hi-ti-ia in a Luwian inscription of King Saruanis from Andaval as was pointed out by Ignace Gelb (Hittite Hieroglyphs II  pp. 17–18). Then came the Assyrians and the Phrygians, the Greeks, the Persians, Alexander the Great and the Romans, who built the city of Tyana with its palaces and waterwork (http://www.nigde.gov.tr).
Roman rule persisted from the Eastern capital of Byzantium until the area was occupied by the Seljuk Turks from 1166 onwards. By the early 13th century Nigde was one of the largest cities in Anatolia and a number of impressive mosques and tombs date back from this period. The area was brought to the Ottoman reign in 1471 and thus passed into the territory of the Republic of Turkey in the 1920s (http://www.nigde.bel.tr).
The bull was the common symbol and depiction of ancient Near Eastern storm gods, hence Taurus the bull, and hence the name of the mountains. The mountains are a place of many ancient storm-god temples (Ravinell, 2003). Torrential thunderstorms in these mountains were deemed by the ancient Syrians to be the work of the storm-god Adad to make the Tigris and Euphrates rivers rise and flood and thereby fertilize their land. The Hurrians were probably the originators of the various storm-gods of the ancient Near East. It was a community for whom modern scholars were defined in the Taurus Mountains at their probable earliest origins (Saggs, 1988).
2.2. Interviews with local people
Semi-structured face to face interviews (Rehecho et al., 2011) have been carried out between 2003 and 2005 with local people in the study area. A total of 170 individuals (95 men, 75 women) were interviewed in 15 settlements (Dundarli, Hacibeyli, Icmeli, Dikilitas, Camardı, Sulucaova, Orhaniye, Kavlaktepe, Eynelli, Bademdere, Pinarbasi, Demirkazik, Cukurbag, Celaller, and Kavakligol). We visited people who have knowledge of plants in order to obtain detailed information. Upon the first interview conducted with randomly selected people, it was determined that 95% of these people were Turkish and 5% of Pomak, Kurdish or Bosnian ethnic origin. Although they belong to different ethnic groups, the interviews were conducted in Turkish. The mean age of the respondents was 55 years (Within a range of 18–88 years). Interviews were made at busy places like bazaars, tea houses, farms, gardens, fields, in a yörük tent etc. in Aladaglar settlements (Fig. 2, Fig.3, Fig.4 and Fig. 5). After explaining the purpose of our study, questions were asked about the medicinal uses of plants. Whenever possible, the interview was recorded on cassette. The people who had knowledge of plants were visited at least two times. During the interviews, the demographic characteristics of the participants in the study, the local names, the utilized parts and preparation methods of the plants were recorded. The people who participated in the study were requested to show the wild plants they used. During the interviews with local people, The International Society of Ethnobiology Code of Ethics was taken into consideration (http://ethnobiology.net/code-of-ethics/).
2.3. Plant materials
This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. During this period, 200 vascular plant specimens were collected, 126 plants of which were deteremined to be used by the local people and 110 of them to be used as medicine. The plants were pressed in the field and prepared for identification.
The collected specimens were identified by using “Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands” (Davis, 1965–1985 and Davis et al., 1988) and were compared with the specimens deposited at ISTE. The collected plant materials were deposited as herbarium samples at ISTE. The names of plant families were listed in alphabetical order. The scientific names of the plant species were identified according to the International Plant Name Index (IPNI:http://www.ipni.org). A reference collection was prepared to show every settlement place (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7). This reference collection included small samples of all the plants on small pieces of cardboard. The plant sampling collection was shown to all informants during the interviews. By the help of cardboard, local people could see local plants altogether. It helped to remind them of the usages of plants. During the interview, the usages of the plants were written on the plant cardboard. The plant cardboard was very helpful for the calculations of the informant consensus factor and the use value.
The diseases were classified into 9 categories (1) cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, heart disease, hypercholesterolemia), (2) hemorrhoids, (3) urinary diseases (diuretic, dysuria, enuresis nocturna), (4) diabetes, (5) respiratory diseases (cough, asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, sore throat, hoarseness, cold), (6) aphrodisiac, (7) kidney diseases (kidney gravel, kidney stone, nephritis), (8) gastrointestinal diseases (stomachache, diarrhea, flatulence, heartburn, ulcer, reflu, nausea), and (9) dermatological diseases (burns, cuts, eczema, furuncle, rash, wounds). Informant consensus factor (ICF – Trotter and Logan, 1986) was calculated based on the following formula: FIC=(Nur−Nt)/(Nur−1), where Nur refers to the number of citations used in each category and Nt to the number of the species used. This method is used to check homogenity of the information: FIC values are low (close to 0 value) if plants are chosen randomly or if informants do not exchange information about their uses. Values are high (close to 1 value) if there is a well defined selection criterion in the community and/or if information is given between the informants (Afifi and Abu-Irmaileh, 2000). In other words, the medicinal plants that are presumed to be effective in treating a certain disease have higher FIC values (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007).
The use value (UV – Trotter and Logan, 1986), a quantitative method that demonstrates the relative importance of species known locally, was also calculated according to the following formula: UV=U/N, where UV refers to the use value of a species; U to the number of citations per species; and N to the number of informants.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Demographic characteristics of the participants in the study
The demographic characteristics of the respondents were determined and recorded through face-to-face interviews. 170 people above the age of 18 were interviewed. A total of 120 people were living in the villages near to the town of Camardi, 50 were living in the towns of Dundarli, Hacibeyli, Icmeli and Dikilitas. Of the participants who took part in the interviews, 7 were between the ages of 18 and 35, 33 were between the ages of 35 and 40, 49 were between the ages of 41 and 50, 45 were between the ages 51–60 and 36 were over the age of 61. Of the participants, 95 were male and 75 were female. A total of 123 of the participants were primary school graduates, 39 were secondary school – high school graduate and 3 were university graduates, 5 were uneducated. The respondents were Turkish citizens, with various ethnic backgrounds (95% Turkish, 5% Pomaks, Kurdish, Bosnian ethnicity)
3.2. Medicinal plants and literature review
The family, scientific name, local name, the preparation and utilization methods of the medical plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde are given in Table 2.
Botanical name, family, voucher number Local name in Aladaglar Used parts Preparation Ailments treated, therapeutic effect Use value 1 Acanthus hirsutus Boiss. Ayı kulağı Seed Crushed, ext. Healing wounds 0.11 Endemic (Acanthaceae) ISTE 81511 2 Bifora radians Bieb. Yabani kişniş Aerial part Decoction, int. Stomach ailments, 0.31 (Apiaceae) E.Ö. 30 otu carminative 3 Ferulago pachyloba (Fenzl) Boiss. Küçük Melek Leaf, Infusion, int. Increase body 0.21 Endemic (Apiaceae) ISTE 81544 Otu fruit strenght, sedative 4 Heracleum platytaenium Boiss. Tavşancıl otu Leaf Fresh, cooked, int. Infertility 0.17 Endemic (Apiaceae) E.Ö. 31 Infusion, int. 5 Pimpinella armena Schischk. Anason Fruit Infusion, int. Carminative, 0.13 Endemic (Apiaceae) E.Ö. 32 sedative 6 Prangos ferulaceae (L.) Lindl. Çağşır, köfteotu, Root Mixed with sweets, Aphrodisiac, 0.22 (Apiaceae) kürdanotu, melekotu, int. increase body ISTE 81491 pıtrak strenght 7 Prangos meliocarpoides Boiss. Çarşır, hiltil Root Grate and mixed Aphrodisiac 0.21 var. meliocarpoides Endemic (Apiaceae) sultan teresi, with sweets and ISTE 81576 yabani korunga honey, int. 8 Smyrnium connatum Boiss. Leaf, Infusion, int. Sedative, soporofic 0.23 et Kotschy (Apiaceae) ISTE 81490 flower 9 Vinca herbacea Waldst. et Kit. Küçük cezayir Aerial part Infusion, int. High blood pressure, 0.11 (Apocynaceae) E.Ö. 12 menekşesi fever, appetizing 10 Arum detruncatum (C.A. Meyer ex Schott.) Yılan ekmeği, yılan yastığı Leaf, • Cooked eaten, • Tonsillitis 0.34 subsp. detruncatum bulb (Le) int. (Araceae) ▲ Eaten as a pill, ▲ Hemorrhoids ISTE 81477 (Bu) int. 11 Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Tükrük otu Bulb Crushed, ext. • Boil 0.22 (Asparagaceae) E.Ö. 34 12 Achillea aleppica DC. var. Yılan çiçeği Leaf, • Infusion, int. • Appetizing, 0.17 zederbaueri (Hayek) Hub.-Mor.(Asteraceae) flower carminative E.Ö. 13 ▲ Crushed, ext. ▲ Healing wounds, hemorrhoids 13 Achillea arabica Kotschy. Kurtotu, mayalık otu Aerial part Infusion, int. Vermifuge, 0.15 (Asteraceae) sırçanotu, diarrhea, ISTE 81485 yayla çiçeği kidney disease, cough 14 Achillea grandifolia Friv. Beyaz civan Aerial part Infusion, int. Hormonal disorder 0.11 (Asteraceae) perçemi, for men, ISTE 81584 mideotu urinary infection, ulcer 15 Achillea teretifolia Ledeb. Boz yavşan, civan Aerial part Infusion, int. Hormonal disorder, 0.17 Endemic (Asteraceae) perçemi beyazı, abdominal pain ISTE 81529 sırçanotu, yavşan otu 16 Anthemis kotschyana Boiss. var. Papatya Aerial part • Infusion, int. • Lung disease, cold, 0.31 kotschyana (Asteraceae) ▲ Infusion as bath, prostate cancer E.Ö. 1 ext. ▲ Healing wound 17 Artemisia alpina Pall. ex Willd. Yavşan Aerial part Infusion, int. Cold 0.27 (Asteraceae) ISTE 81520 18 Centaurea cheiranthifolia Willd. var. Düğmeli ot, Aerial part Crushed, ext. Healing wound 0.12 cheiranthifolia (Asteraceae) kökgöz, mavi gökbaş, ISTE 81527 mavi kantaron, peygamber düğme, pıtrak, yeşilbaş 19 Chondrilla juncea L. var. juncea Çengel sakızı, çıtlık, Latex, • Chewed, (L) int. • Stomach ache 0.29 (Asteraceae) sakız otu Root ▲ Crushed, (L) ext. ▲ Healing wound E.Ö. 14 ■ Decoction, (R) int. ■ Vermifuge 20 Cota tinctoria (L.) J. Gay Boz yavşan, Flower • Infusion, int. • Fever, lung disease 0.13 (Asteraceae) manda gözü, ▲ Infusion as bath, ▲ Heart stroke ISTE 81542 papatya ext. 21 Gundelia tournefortii L. Boz kangal kökü, Latex, • Chewed, (L) int. • Strengthening gum, 0.22 (Asteraceae) kenger sakızı aerial part appetizing E.Ö. 4 ▲ Infusion, (A) int. ▲ Kidney stones 22 Helichrysum arenarium L. Moench. Ölmez çiçek Flowering Infusion, int. Kidney stones, 0.39 Endemic (Asteraceae) E.Ö0.15 branch kidney gravel 23 Helycrysum plicatum DC. Amel otu, altın otu, Aerial part Infusion, int. Abdominal pain, diabetes, 0.30 (Asteraceae) sarıbaş, yayla çiçeği kidney stones, diarrhea, ISTE 81482 stomach ache 24 Senecio tauricolus Matthews Boz andız, yayla çiçeği Leaf, Infusion, int. Headache, digestive 0.06 Endemic (Asteraceae) ISTE 81602 flower problems, aphrodisiac 25 Taraxacum stevenii (Spreng.) DC. Amam otu, çıtlık, Aerial part • Infusion, int. • Toothache, abdominal 0.40 (Asteraceae) hindibağ, keklik otu, spasm ISTE 81475 kıl çiçek ▲ Freshly eaten, int. ▲ Pain killer 26 Tussilago farfara L. Akkız, öksürük otu, Aerial part • Infusion, int. • Cough, upper respiratory 0.37 (Asteraceae) pamuklu otu tract problems, ISTE 81552 ▲ Decoction, ext. ▲ Itching 27 Xanthium orientale L. subsp. italicum Büyük pıtrak Leaf, Infusion, Increase of urine, 0.08 (Moretti) Greuter fruit int. sweating, (Asteraceae) E.Ö. 38 sedative 28 Berberis crataegina DC. Kadın tuzluğu Leaf, root, Infusion, int. Pain killer 0.41 (Berberidaceae) E.Ö. 3 branch 29 Berberis vulgaris L. Amber paris, Root, • Infusion, (CR) int. • Appetizing, 0.36 (Berberidaceae) Kadın tuzluğu cortex of ▲ Crushed and mixed with honey eaten, strengthening, fever, E.Ö. 37 root (CR, R) int. ▲ Cough 30 Alkanna orientalis (L.) Boiss. Sarı hava civa kökü Root • Infusion, int. • Diarrhea, 0.10 (Boraginaceae) ▲ Crushed and mixed ▲ Healing wound ISTE 81590 with olive oil, ext. 31 Cynoglossum montanum L. Pıtrak Aerial part Infusion, int. Bronchitis 0.24 (Boraginaceae) E.Ö. 8 32 Moltkia caerulea (Willd.) Lehm. Emzik çiçeği, sancı otu Flower, Infusion, int. Diarrhea, abdominal 0.18 (Boraginaceae) ISTE 81549 sormuk root pain 33 Alyssum sibiricum Willd. Prostat çiçeği Aerial part Infusion, int. Prostate, urinary 0.11 (Brassicaceae) ISTE 81501 infection 34 Capsella bursa- pastoris (L.) Medik. Çoban çantası Aerial part Infusion, int. Women׳s health 0.35 (Brassicaseae) E.Ö. 38 Freshly eaten, int. 35 Erysimum diffusum Ehrh. Yayla çiçeği Flower Infusion, as bath, Edema 0.24 (Brassicaceae) ISTE 81541 ext. 36 Iberis carnosa Willd. Havaza Flower Infusion, int. Abdominal pain 0.17 (Brassicaceae) ISTE 81565 37 Thlaspi perfoliatum L. Eşek gıcılavuk, Aerial part Freshly eaten, Pain killer 0.27 (Brassicaceae) kuş kuş ekmeği, int. ISTE 81593 kuş kuş otu, tavuk götü, yabani gıcılavuk, yağlıca 38 Asyneuma michauxioides (Boiss.) Yalancı sütlü Aerial part • Infusion, int. • Kidney inflammation, 0.17 Damboldt. Endemic ▲ Boiled with water infertility connected (Campanulaceae) ISTE 81594 and affected area is with urinary infection, exposed ▲ Skin, eye infection, to the vapors from infertility connected with boiling herbs, ext. urinary infection 39 Silene chlorifolia Sm. Böcek yiyen yüksük otu, Aerial part, Infusion, int. Inflammation 0.16 (Caryophyllaceae) ISTE 81471 puşkullu root 40 Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Kıcılavuk Aerial part Eaten as a meal, Urinary infection 0.23 (Caryophyllaceae) ISTE 81488 int. 41 Convolvulus arvensis L. Basırık otu, Aerial part, • Eaten as a meal, • Constipation 0.21 (Convolvulaceae) ISTE 81454 kuzu sarmaşığı root (A) int. ▲ Inflammation of the ▲ Infusion, (R) int. nose, headache 42 Rosularia libanotica (L.) Sam. Kaya koruğu Leaf Crushed, ext. Healing wound 0.19 (Crassulaceae) ISTE 81561 43 Sedum album L. Çiçekli dam koruğu Leaf Crushed, ext. Skin diseases, 0.21 (Crassulaceae) ISTE 81504 callosity, verruca 44 Juniperus oxycedrus L. Katran ardıcı Branch The tar obtained from the destructive Skin diseases, eczema 0.41 (Cupressaceae) distillation of the scabies, ringworm ISTE 81555 branches, ext. 45 Elaeagnus angustifolia L. İğde çiçeği Flower, Freshly eaten (Fr), Fever, As a vitamin 0.35 (Elaeagnaceae) leaf, int. E.Ö. 5 fruit Infusion, (Le, Fl) int. 46 Ephedra major Host. Deniz üzümü Aerial part Infusion, int. Stimulant 0.17 (Ephedraceae) ISTE 81513 47 Euphorbia denticulata Lam. Acı sütlük, biyurum, Latex Latex applied to the Verruca, fungus 0.17 (Euphorbiaceae) ISTE 81560 kara sütlük, kızılotu skin as a lotion, ext. sütleğen, sütlük 48 Euphorbia paralias L. Acı sütlük, sarı sütlük, Latex, • Mixed with • Toothache 0.21 (Euphorbiaceae) sütlü, sütlük Aerial part starch, (L) ext., ISTE 81480 ▲ Infusion as a bath, (A) ext. ▲ Malaria 49 Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. Çakıldak kutru, Fruit • Crushed, ext. • Allergy, burn, bleeding, 0.22 (Fabaceae) patlak kutru, ▲ Decoction, ext. ▲ Allergy, burn, ISTE 81606 yalancı sinameki ■ Put on abdomen, ext. ■ Allergy 50 Ebenus hirsuta Jaub. et Spach. Çayırotu, üçgül, üçgüllü Flower Infusion, int. Kidney problems 0.12 (Fabaceae) ISTE 81539 51 Galega officinalis L. Keçisedef otu Aerial part Infusion, int. Diabetes 0.10 (Fabaceae) ISTE 81502 52 Lathyrus sativus L. Burçak, mürdümük Seed • Infusion, int. • Urinary tract infections, diuretic 0.20 (Fabaceae) E.Ö. 17 ▲ Crushed and mixed ▲ Sexual stamina, with honey, int. hepatitis 53 Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. Kokulu yonca Aerial part As a spice, int. Sedative 0.11 (Fabaceae) E.Ö. 16 54 Ononis spinosa L. subsp. leiosperma Kayışkıran kökü Aerial part Crushed and mixed Antiseptic, healing 0.15 (Boiss.) Sirj. (Fabaceae) E.Ö0.18 with olive oil, ext. wound, eczema 55 Hypericum orientale L. Kırmızı kantaron, Aerial part Infusion, int. Hemorrhoids 0.24 (Hypericaceae) ISTE 81553 Mayasıl otu 56 Hypericum perforatum L. Sancı otu Aerial part • Infusion, int. • Diarrhea, colic, 0.51 (Hypericaceae) ▲ Crushed and mixed ▲ Hemorrhoids ISTE 81492 with olive oil, ext. 57 Hypericum scabrum L. Öksürük otu, Aerial part Infusion, int. Sedative, cough, 0.31 (Hypericaceae) sarı kantaron, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, ISTE 81525 yılan misi colic 58 Juglans regia L. Ceviz Eksocarp of fruit • Decoction as a gargle, ext. • Sore throat, mouth ulcer, strengthens the teeth 0.37 (Juglandaceae) ▲ Decoction, int. ▲ Digestive E.Ö0.37 problems, goiter 59 Juncus inflexus L. Kayık kıran, kofa otu, Aerial part, • Decoction, (A) int. • Cough 0.26 (Juncaceae) kova, kova otu, root ▲ Ash applied, ▲ Wound ISTE 81600 peygamber kılıç, (A) ext. saban kıran ■ Decoction, (R) int. ■ Inflammation, kidney stones 60 Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreber. subsp. Yer çamı, yer meşesi Flower Crushed, ext. Healing wound 0.11 chia (Schreber) Arcangeli (Lamiaceae) E.Ö. 19 61 Cyclotrichium origanifolium (Labill.) Manden. Mentol, mentol nane, Aerial part Infusion, (A) int. Abdominal pain, 0.31 & Scheng. (Lamiaceae) şalba intestinal disorders, E.Ö. 6 urinary tract obstruction 62 Marrubium globosum Montbret et Aucher Amel otu, beyaz şabla, Aerial part Infusion, int. Diuretic, colic, 0.27 ex Bentham Endemic (Lamiaceae) boz kulak, boz şalba, heart problems, ISTE 81518 it sineği, şalba diarrhea, abdominal pain 63 Mentha longifolia (L.) L. Mentol nane, narpuz, Leaf Infusion, int. Digestive problems 0.42 (Lamiaceae) su nanesi, tüylü nane, ISTE 81512 yarpuz 64 Mentha longifolia (L.) L. subsp. typhoides Yarpız Leaf As a spice, int. Digestive problems 0.40 (Briq.) Harley (Lamiaceae)ISTE 81512 65 Nepeta italica L. Nezle otu Aerial part Infusion, int. Cold 0.21 (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81506 66 Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum Yavşan Aerial part Infusion, int. Diabetes 0.24 (Link) Ietsw. (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81481 67 Phlomis armeniaca Willd. Boz kulak, boz şavlak, Flower Infusion, int. Colic 0.18 Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81519 sarı şabla 68 Salvia cadmica Boiss. Meryemana adaçayı Aerial part Crushed, ext. Bleeding 0.23 Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81521 69 Salvia absconditiflora Greuter & Burdet Boz şabla, kara şabla, Aerial part Infusion, int. Cold 0.22 Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81524 sarı şabla 70 Salvia hypargeia Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Kök çayı Root Infusion, int. Cold 0.14 Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81513 71 Salvia multicaulis Vahl. Boz kulak, Aerial part Infusion, int. Sedative 0.29 (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81602 mavi-mor şabla 72 Salvia sclarea L. Misk adaçayı, yağlı kara Flowering • As a spice, int. • Digestive, 0.23 (Lamiaceae) E.Ö. 20 branches, ▲ Infusion, int. ▲ Diarrhea, sedative leaf 73 Sideritis bilgeriana P.H.Davis Boz şabla, kekik çayı, Aerial part • Infusion, int. • Heartburn, cold 0.23 Endemic (Lamiaceae) yayla çayı ▲ Infusion, as a bath ▲ Hemorrhoids ISTE 81535 ext. 74 Sideritis libanotica Labill. Çay, dağ çayı, Aerial part Infusion, int. Diarrhea, digestive 0.19 Endemic (Lamiaceae) toros çayı, yayla çayı problems, ISTE 81550 stomach problems 75 Sideritis montana L. Dağ çayı, yayla çayı Leaf, flower Infusion, int. Carminative, stomach 0.21 (Lamiaceae) E.Ö0.40 pain, stimulant 76 Sideritis stricta Benth. Dağ çayı Aerial part Infusion, int. Flu, cold 0.37 Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81487 77 Stachys cretica L. subsp. anatolica Aslan kuyruğu, Aerial part Infusion, int. Diarrhea, 0.24 Rech. fil. beyaz şabla, boz şabla, urinary system problems, (Lamiaceae) deliçayı, yağlı kara, cough ISTE 81608 yavşan 78 Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaea Boncuk şabla Aerial part Infusion, int. Hypertension 0.40 (Boiss.) Rech. fil. Endemic (Lamiaceae) E.Ö0.21 deli çayı, rize çayı 79 Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. Devegülü, tüylü çay Flower Infusion, int. Headache, throat pain 0.21 (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81528 80 Teucrium chamaedrys L. Kısa mahmut, Aerial part Infusion, int. Abdominal pain, hemorrhoids, 0.31 (Lamiaceae) mayasıl otu, diabetes, pain killer ISTE 81507 sancı otu stomach pain 81 Teucrium polium L. Boz mayasıl otu, Aerial part Infusion, int. Diabetes 0.21 (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81520 per yavşan, yavşan 82 Thymus leucotrichus Halácsy Deli kekik, kekik Aerial part Infusion, int. Abdominal pain, cold, 0.43 (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81479 breathing problems, bronchitis 83 Thymus sipyleus Boiss. Kekik, yavşan Aerial part • Infusion, int. • Abdominal pain, diabetes, 0.50 Endemic (Lamiaceae) ▲ Decoction, as a expectorant, breath problems ISTE 81483 bath, ext. ▲ Sunstroke 84 Ziziphora capitata L. Dağ reyhanı, reyhan, Aerial part As a spice, int. Stomach problems 0.12 (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81607 üçgül 85 Allium rotundum L. İt sarımsağı Bulb Freshly eaten, int. Blood pressure 0.41 (Liliaceae) ISTE 81510 regulator 86 Asphodeline taurica (Pall.) Endl. Çiriş, çiviş kökü, Flower Applied on skin, Burn, 0.25 (Liliaceae) hıdrellez kamçısı, ext. shortness of breath ISTE 81522 koyunotu, yarpız, yılpız 87 Eremurus spectabilis M.Bieb. Çiriş kökü Root Mixed with water, Sedative 0.12 (Liliaceae) E.Ö. 33 int. 88 Viscum album L. subsp. abietis (Wiesb.) Ökse otu Leafy branch, • Infusion, (Lb, Fr) • Force transmitter, 0.41 Abromeit. (Loranthaceae) fruit int. ▲ Capsicum hypertension ISTE 81558 plaster, (Fr) ext. ▲ Rheumatism 89 Malva neglecta Wallr. Ebegümeci, ebelik, Leaf, • Crushed, (Le) ext. • ▲ Wound 0.44 (Malvaceae) E.Ö. 23 kömeç branch, root ▲ Decoction, (Le)ext. ■ Respiratory problems, ■ Infusion, (Le) int. digestion problems ♦ Applied as suppositories, (B, R) int. ♦ Abortifacient 90 Morina persica L. Boğa dikeni Aerial part, • Freshly eaten, int. • Aphrodisiac, increase 0.21 (Morinaceae) root body strength ISTE 81534 ▲ Crushed, ext. ▲ Snake bites 91 Papaver bracteatum Lindl. Gavur haşhaşı, Aerial part Decoction, as a Eye problems 0.22 (Papaveraceae) ISTE 81468 gelin ali, gelin eli bath for eyes, ext. 92 Plantago lanceolata L. Kırkdilim otu, sinir otu, Leaf • Crushed, ext. • ▲ Wound, boil 0.33 (Plantaginaceae) sinirli ot, yara otu ▲ Freshly put on E.Ö. 24 skin, ext. ■ Infusion, int. ■ Tuberculosis 93 Elymus tauri (Boiss. & Bal.) Melderis Ayrık otu Aerial part Infusion, int. Inflammation 0.25 var. kosaninii (Nábelek) Assadi (Poaceae) ISTE 81598 94 Polygonum bellardii All. Çoban değneği Aerial part Infusion, int. Bronchitis 0.15 (Polygonaceae) ISTE 81548 95 Rumex scutatus L. Kuşkulağı, oğlak kulağı, Aerial part Infusion, int. Diabetes 0.21 (Polygonaceae) ISTE 81476 şeker otu 96 Consolida orientalis (J.Gay) Schröd. Ekin otu Seed Crushed, ext. Wound 0.13 (Ranunculaceae) ISTE 81540 97 Reseda lutea L. Eşek gerdanası Aerial part Infusion, int. Hemorrhoids, thyroid 0.14 (Resedaceae) ISTE 81500 98 Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Alıç, kızlar yemişi Aerial part, • Infusion, (A) int. • Heart disease, 0.35 (Rosaceae) root circulation problems, E.Ö. 25 spasm, sedative ▲ Decoction, ▲ To take out heel spur, (R) ext. nail, bullet 99 Potentilla recta L. Aslan pençesi Aerial part Crushed, ext. Wound 0.13 (Rosaceae) ISTE 81493 100 Rosa canina L. Kuşburnu Fruit Infusion, int. Cold 0.50 (Rosaceae) E.Ö. 26 101 Galium verum L. subsp. glabrescens Beyaz sedef otu Aerial part • Infusion, int. • Psoriasis 0.35 Ehrend. (Rubiaceae) ▲ Decoction as tea, ▲ Easy delivery ISTE 81508 int. 102 Rubia tinctorum L. Kökboya, boyacıkökü Root • Infusion, int. • ▲ Constipation 0.22 (Rubiaceae) E.Ö. 27 ▲ As powder eaten, int. 103 Salix alba L. Söğüt Root, Infusion, Restorative, 0.42 (Salicaceae) E.Ö. 28 leaf, int. fever cortex 104 Scrophularia xanthoglossa Boiss. var. Biber otu, Serkele Aerial part • Decoction as a • Cleft hand 0.10 decipiens ( Boiss. & Kotschy) Boiss. bath, ext. ▲ Wound, abdominal (Scrophulariaceae) ▲ Infusion, int. pain, stomach ache ISTE 81575 ■ Decoction as a bath, ext. ■ Ingrown hair 105 Veronica multifida L. İshalotu, Aerial part Infusion, int. Diarrhea 0.12 Endemic (Scrophulariaceae) deli kekik, deve sabunu, ISTE 81532 morca, sancı otu 106 Hyoscyamus niger L. Mak Seed Infusion, int. Sedative 0.21 (Solanaceae) E.Ö. 7 107 Solanum dulcamara L. Sofur, yaban yasemini, Branch Infusion, int. Sedative, painkiller, 0.09 (Solanaceae) E.Ö. 29 yasemin diaphoretic 108 Daphne oleoides Schreber Ezeltere Leaf • Crushed, ext. • Wound 0.13 (Thymelaeaceae) ISTE 81554 109 Urtica dioica L. Isırgan Leaf, • Infusion, (Le, S) int. • Urinary system 0.44 (Urticaceae) seed ▲ Mixed with sweet inflammation, cancer, E.Ö. 39 and eaten, (S) int. ulcer, constipation ▲ Aphrodisiac 110 Peganum harmala L. Üzerlik, üzerlik otu Seed, • Freshly eaten, (S) • Vermifuge, 0.36 (Zygophyllaceae) root int. menstrual diuretic ISTE 81559 ▲ Roasted eaten, (S) int. ▲ Hemorrhoids, ■ Infusion, (R) int. ■ Sedative
- Used parts: A, Aerial part; B, Branch; Bu, Bulb; C, Cortex; CR, Cortex of root; Fb, Flowering branches; Fl, Flower; Fr, Fruit; L, Latex; Lb, Leafy branch; Le, Leaf; R, Root; S, Seed.
- Utilization method: Ext, externally; Int., internal.
- If a plant has more than one therapeutic effect, the symbols (• ■ ▲ ♦) have been used to match preparation and therapeutic effect of each plant.
- ISTE: The Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Istanbul University
- E.Ö.: Ebru Özdemir, Some plants have been kept in packed. E.Ö. numbers have been given to these plants.
- According to other ethnobotanical studies in Turkey, 47 plants have new local names in Aladaglar/Turkey. New local names of plants are italicized in local name column of Table 2.
Interviews with the local people living in Aladaglar/Nigde indicated that, as a result of this study, 110 medicinal plant species belonging to 40 families were found in the research area. The most common families are: Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7), Fabaceae (6) and Brassicaceae (5) (Table 1). Twenty of the plants are endemic to Turkey. These are; Acanthus hirsutus, Ferulago pachyloba, Heracleum platytaenium, Pimpinella armena, Prangos meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides, Achillea teretifolia, Helichrysum arenarium, Senecio tauricolus, Asyneuma michauxioides, Marrubium globosum, Phlomis armeniaca, Salvia cadmica, Salvia absconditiflora, Salvia hypargeia, Sideritis bilgeriana, Sideritis libanotica, Sideritis stricta, Stachys cretica subsp. mersinaea, T. sipyleus var. sipyleus, and Veronica multifida ( Davis, 1965–1985 and Davis et al., 1988). The preparation methods included decoction, infusion, chewing latex, crushing and mixing with starch or olive oil and crushing of the seeds, leaves or flowers. The most commonly used preparations were decoction and infusion.
It has been observed that these plants still constitute a primary source of treatment in the mountainous villages, especially those which are far from the town centers. Local people use medicinal plants most frequently for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases: 25% (stomachache, diarrhea, flatulence, heartburn, ulcer, reflu, nausea), respiratory diseases 18% (cough, asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, sore throat, hoarseness, cold), dermatological diseases 15% (burns, cuts, eczema, furuncle, rash, wounds), urinary diseases 9% (diuretic, dysuria, enuresis nocturna), hemorrhoids 8%, diabetes 7%, kidney diseases 7% (kidney gravel, kidney stone, nephritis), as aphrodisiac 6%, cardiovascular diseases 5% (hypertension, heart diseases, high cholesterol).
Hypericum perforatum L. is very commonly used for the treatment of diarrhea, colic and hemorrhoids in Aladaglar/Nigde. These uses are consistent with those in neighboring areas ( Sezik et al., 2001). The major components of H. perforatum are; hypericin, adhyperforin, amentoflavone, hyperoside, isoquercitrin. Anti-inflammatory activity of H. perforatum has been reported ( Sosa et al., 2007). Endemic T. sipyleus Boiss. var. sipyleus was very commonly used for relieving abdominal pain, diabetes, respiratory problems and sunstroke in Aladaglar/Nigde. It was used for respiratory problems in Kayseri province ( Bağcı, 2000). It was used to alleviate abdominal pain in Konya province ( Oral, 2007). The major components of T. sipyleus var. sipyleus oil are; borneol (11.2%), α-muurolol (9.2%), β-caryophyllene (7.6%), geranial (7.3%) and neral (5.4%). Antioxidative activity and antimicrobial activity of T. sipyleus var. sipyleus has been reported ( Kandemir and Yigit, 2002 and Tepe et al., 2005). Urtica dioica L. is very commonly used for urinary system inflammation, cancer, ulcers, constipation and as an aphrodisiac in Aladaglar/Nigde. These uses are consistent with those in neighboring areas ( Bağcı, 2000, Şimsek et al., 2004, Elci and Erik, 2006 and Özhatay and Koçak, 2011). The major components of U. dioica are quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside. ( Akbay et al., 2003). Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of U. dioica have been reported ( Gulcin et al., 2004). Mentha longifolia (L.) L. is very commonly used for relieving digestive problems. This use is consistent with the use in the neighboring province of Karaman ( Özhatay and Koçak, 2011). The major components of M. longifolia were described as cis-piperitone epoxide (18.4%), pulegone (15.5%), piperitenone oxide (14.7%), menthone (7.9%), isomenthone (6.6%), trans-piperitone epoxide (4.1%). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of M. longifolia has been reported ( Gulluce et al., 2007). Berberis crataegina DC. is very commonly used as a pain killer. It was used for treating stomach problems in the province of Kayseri ( Bağcı, 2000). It was used for relieving diarrhea and hemorrhoids in the province of Karaman ( Özhatay and Koçak, 2011). The alkaloid composition and their ratio in the roots of B. crataegina were determined as follows: berberine (1.16%), berbamine (0.70%), magnoflorine (0.42%), oxyacanthine (0.36%), jatrorrhizine (0.25%), palmatine (0.17%), columbamine (0.09%) and aromoline (0.06%). B. crataegina root exhibits potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic and febrifuge effects in mice and rats ( Yeşilada and Küpeli, 2002). Endemic Helichrysum arenarium is very commonly used for the treatment of kidney stones and gravel. This use is consistent with the use in the neighboring province of Kahramanmaras (Demirci and Özhatay, 2012).
In this study it was observed that according to the local law, people use nearly every part of the plants for the preparation of traditional medicines namely, the aerial part, branch, bulb, cortex, flowering branch, flower, fruit, latex, leaf, resin, rhizome, root, seed and stem.
The results of this study, compared to the findings of other studies carried out in other regions of Turkey, show there are some new usages and new local names of plants recorded (Sezik et al., 1991, Tabata et al., 1994, Sezik et al., 1997, Yeşilada et al., 1999, Bağcı, 2000, Ertuğ, 2000, Özgen et al., 2004, Özgokce and Ozcelik, 2004, Şimsek et al., 2004, Uzun et al., 2004, Everest and Öztürk, 2005, Özkan and Koyuncu, 2005, Ezer and Mumcu Arısan, 2006, Kocyiğit and Özhatay, 2006, Kültür, 2007, Kargıoğlu et al., 2008, Kültür, 2008, Ugulu et al., 2008, Koyuncu et al., 2009, Sarper et al., 2009, Yeşil and Akalın, 2009, Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010, Polat and Satıl, 2010, Polat and Satıl, 2012, Tuzlacı et al., 2010, Altundağ and Öztürk, 2011, Cakilcioglu et al., 2011, Güneş and Özhatay, 2011, Özgen et al., 2011, Öztürk and Ölçücü, 2011, Tuzlacı, 2011, Bulut and Tuzlacı, 2013, Gürdal and Kültür, 2013, Polat et al., 2013, Sargın et al., 2013, Hayta et al., 2014 and Kaval et al., 2014). Among the 110 medicinal plants in Aladaglar/Nigde, new usages of 52 plants have been recorded in Turkey. New utilizations for Turkey are given in Table 3. Among these 52 plants, 14 of them are endemic to Turkey. Berberis vulgaris was commonly used as an appetizing plant in Aladaglar/Nigde. It was used against jaundice in the Ilıca district of Erzurum/Turkey ( Özgen et al., 2011). It was used against diabetes in East Anatolia/Turkey ( Altundağ and Öztürk, 2011). Crataegus monogyna was commonly used to take out heel spur in Aladaglar. It was used for the treatment of cardiac disorders in the Elazig province/Turkey ( Hayta et al., 2014). It was used for relieving urinary diseases in Manisa ( Bulut and Tuzlacı, 2013). Galium verum subsp. glabrescens was commonly used for psoriasis in Aladaglar. It was used for the treatment of all cancers in East Anatolia/Turkey ( Özgokce and Ozcelik, 2004). It was used to treat burns in Van and Bitlis provinces/Turkey ( Tabata et al., 1994). Endemic Sideritis stricta was commonly used for alleviating flu and common cold in Aladaglar. There is no record about this plant׳s usage. Endemic Stachys cretica subsp. mersinaea was very commonly used against hypertension. It was used against colds and stomach ailments in East Anatolia/Turkey ( Altundağ and Öztürk, 2011). Taraxacum stevenii was commonly used as a pain killer in Aladaglar. There is no record about this plant׳s usage.
Plant name Part used New utilizations for Turkey (Aladaglar) 1 Achillea aleppica subsp. zederbaueri Leaf, flower Appetizing, healing wounds 2 Achillea arabica Aerial part Diarrhea, cough 3 Achillea grandifolia Aerial part Hormonal disorder for men, ulcer 4 Achillea teretifolia Aerial part Hormonal disorder, abdominal pain 5 Alyssum sibiricum Aerial part Prostate 6 Anthemis kotschyana var. kotschyana Aerial part Lung disease, cold, prostate cancer 7 Artemisia alpina Aerial part Cold 8 Arum detruncatum subsp. detruncatum Leaf Tonsillitis 9 Asyneuma michauxioides Aerial part Kidney inflammation, infertility connected with urinary infection, 10 Berberis crataegina Leaf, root, young branch Pain killer 11 Berberis vulgaris Root Appetizing 12 Centaurea cheiranthifolia var. cheiranthifolia Aerial part Healing wound 13 Convolvulus arvensis Root Inflammation of the nose, headache 14 Cota tinctoria Flower Fever, lung disease, heat stroke 15 Crataegus monogyna Root To take out heel spur 16 Cyclotrichium origanifolium Intestinal disorders, urinary tract obstruction 17 Cynoglossum montanum Aerial part Bronchitis 18 Ebenus hirsuta Flower Kidney problems 19 Elymus tauri var. kosaninii Aerial part Inflammation 20 Eremurus spectabilis Root Sedative 21 Erysimum diffusum Flower Edema 22 Euphorbia denticulate Latex Fungus 23 Ferulago pachyloba Leaf, fruit Increase body strenght, sedative 24 Galium verum subsp. glabrescent Aerial part Psoriasis 25 Helichrysum plicatum Aerial part Abdominal pain 26 Heracleum platytaenium Leaf Infertility 27 Hypericum scabrum Aerial part Cough 28 Iberis carnosa Flower Abdominal pain 29 Juncus inflexus Root Inflammation 30 Marrubium globosum Aerial part Diuretic, diarrhea, heart problems 31 Moltkia caerulea Flower, root Diarrhea 32 Ornithogalum umbellatum Onion Boil 33 Pimpinella armena Fruit Carminative, sedative 34 Potentilla recta Aerial part Wound 35 Prangos ferulacea Root Aphrodisiac 36 Prangos meliocarpoides Root Aphrodisiac 37 Rosularia libanotica Leaf Healing wound 38 Salvia cadmica Aerial part Bleeding 39 Scrophularia xanthoglossa var. decipens Aerial part Wound, abdominal pain 40 Sedum album Leaf Verruca 41 Senecio tauricolus Leaf, flower Headache, aphrodisiac 42 Sideritis bilgeriana Aerial part Hemorrhoids 43 Sideritis libanotica Aerial part Diarrhea 44 Sideritis stricta Aerial part Flu, cold 45 Silene chlorifolia Aerial part, root Inflammation 46 Smyrnium connatum Leaf,flower Soporofic 47 Stachys cretica subsp. mersinaea Aerial part Hypertension 48 Taraxacum stevenii Aerial part Pain killer 49 Thlaspi perfoliatum Aerial part Pain killer 50 Tussilago farfara Aerial part Itching 51 Veronica multifida Aerial part Diarrhea 52 Xanthium orientale subsp. italicum Leaf, fruit Increase of urine, sedative
The provinces of Adana, Ankara, Kayseri, Konya, Karaman, Malatya and Kahramanmaras are close to our field of study. However, the names of some local plants used in these areas are different. According to other ethnobotanical studies in Turkey, 47 plants have new local names in Aladaglar/Turkey. Among these 47 plants, 9 of them are endemic to Turkey. The local name used in Aladaglar for Endemic A. hirsutus Boiss. is Ayı kulağı, on the other hand the local name of the same plant is Öküz osurtan in the province of Ankara ( Şimsek et al., 2004). The local name used in Aladaglar for Endemik Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaea (Boiss.) Rech. fil. is Boncuk şabla, Deli çayı, Rize çayı however the local names of the same plant are Dağ çayı, Çaya çe in Kürecik/Malatya ( Yeşil and Akalın, 2009).
Collecting plants and selling to tea companies has become a source of income for local people. It was observed that 17 medicinal plant taxa have been extensively collected for commercial purposes. These plants are; Polygonum bellardii (Çoban değneği), Elaeagnus angustifolius (İğde), Cyclotrichium origanifolium (Mentol nane), Endemic Sideritis libanotica (Yayla çayı, dağ çayı), U. dioica (Isırgan), H. perforatum (Sarı kantaron), Prangos ferulacea (Melek otu), Endemic Prangos meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides (Çağşır), Endemic F. pachyloba (Melek otu), Ephedra major (Deniz üzümü), T. stevenii (Spreng.) DC. (Kara hindibağ), Artemisia santonicum (Pelin otu), Wiedemannia orientalis (Ballı baba), Endemic Sideritis stricta (Dağ çayı), Galega officinalis (Keçi sedef otu), Capsella bursa-pastoris (Çoban çantası), and Berberis vulgaris (Kadın tuzluğu, Amber paris).
3.3. Data analysis and literature review
Having a high value of usage indicates that this plant is actively used by local people in Aladaglar/Nigde. The highest values of usage were calculated for H. perforatum L. (0.51), Endemic T. sipyleus Boiss. var. sipyleus (0.50), Rosa canina L. (0.50), U. dioica L. (0.44), Malva neglecta Wallr. (0.44), Thymus leucotrichus Hal. (0.43), Salix alba L. (0.42), M. longifolia (L.) L. (0.42), B. crataegina DC. (0.41), Juniperus oxycedrus L. (0.41), Endemic Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaea (0.40), Endemic Helichrysum arenarium L. Moench. (0.39). Determining the use value of a species would be useful to select a medicinal plant for further chemical and activity studies and also this would help to select plants for commercial purposes plant cultivation.
The reported ailments were grouped into 9 categories based on the information gathered from the interviews. Table 4 indicates FIC values of the categories of ailments. Cardiovascular diseases had the highest FIC value (0.86). High FIC value shows that the plants which were used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are presumed to be the most effective in Nigde/Aladaglar. In other words, high value (close to 1) indicates plants used against cardiovascular diseases and are used by a large proportion of the informants. Vinca herbacea Waldst. et Kit., Cota tinctoria (L.) J. Gay, Marrubium globosum Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham, Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaea (Boiss.) Rech. fil., Allium rotundum L. Viscum album L. subsp. abietis (Wiesb.) Abromeit., Crataegus monogyna Jacq. were reported to be among the plant remedies indicated for this use. The second highest value stood for hemorrhoids (0.79). Arum detruncatum (C.A. Meyer ex Schott.) subsp. detruncatum, Achillea aleppica DC. var. zederbaueri (Hayek) Hub.-Mor., Hypericum orientale L., H. perforatum L., Hypericum scabrum L., Sideritis bilgeriana P.H.Davis, Teucrium chamaedrys L., Reseda lutea L., Peganum harmala L. were reported to be among the plant remedies indicated for hemorrhoids. The urinary diseases have 0.69 FIC value, diabetes have 0.68 FIC value, respiratory diseases have 0.61 FIC value, aphrodisiac effect has 0.58 FIC value. The last citations of this ranking were reported for plants used to treat kidney diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and dermatological diseases with a FIC value of 0.57, 0.56 and 0.48 respectively. It shows that the plants which were used against kidney diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and dermatological diseases are chosen randomly or informants do not exchange information about their uses in Nigde/Aladaglar.
1 Cardiovascular diseases 0.86 2 Hemorrhoids 0.79 3 Urinary diseases 0.69 4 Diabetes 0.68 5 Respiratory diseases 0.61 6 Aphrodisiac 0.58 7 Kidney diseases 0.57 8 Gastrointestinal diseases 0.56 9 Dermatological diseases 0.48
There is no study indicating FIC value in this region so far. The articles in which the informant consensus factor (ICF or FIC) is calculated were examined.
Cakilcioglu examined the diseases in 10 categories. The category rheumatism had the highest 0.58 FIC value, followed by cardiovascular disorders that had 0.51 FIC, hemorrhoids had 0.48 FIC and diabetes had 0.40 FIC (Cakilcioglu et al., 2011). In the study from the west of Turkey by Gürdal and Kültür the category rheumatism had the highest, 0.722 FIC value. Diabetes had 0.571 FIC value. Urinary diseases had 0.555 FIC value, respiratory diseases 0.553 FIC value (Gürdal and Kültür, 2013).
This study allowed us to collect information about traditional uses of medicinal plants in Aladaglar/ Nigde for the first time. Although the participants belonged to different ethnic groups the interviews were conducted in Turkish. The mean age of the respondents was 55 years (in 18–88 years range). Herbal treatment has become a tradition for the residents of the study region. In the research area, local people were found to be using 110 medicinal plants from 40 families. Most commonly used plants were Hypericum perforatum L. (Sancı otu), Endemic Thymus sipyleus Boiss. var. sipyleus, (Kekik), Rosa canina L. (Kuşburnu), Urtica dioica L. (Isırgan), Malva neglecta Wallr. (Ebelik), Thymus leucotrichus Hal. (Deli kekik), Salix alba L. (Söğüt), Mentha longifolia (L.) L. (Yarpız), Berberis crataegina DC. (Kadın tuzluğu), Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Katran ardıcı), Endemic Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaea (Boiss.) Rech. fil. (Boncuk şabla), Endemic H. arenarium L. Moench. (Ölmez çiçek). It is clear that cultivation is the key factor for the protection of wild medicinal plants of the region. Due to them having a high value of usage, these plants can be selected for commercial purpose and therefore medicinal plant cultivation. Especially the cultivation of endemic plants which is very important for protecting the environment.
The most commonly used parts of the plants were the aerial part (57 of use-reports). Other parts were leaf (19), root (18), flower (15), fruit (7), seed (6), branch (7), latex (4), bulb (3), cortex (2).
The relative importance value of the plant species and the informant consensus factors (FIC) were calculated. The reported ailments were grouped into 9 categories. Cardiovascular diseases had the highest FIC value (0.86). High FIC value shows that the plants which had been used for cardiovascular diseases are presumed to be the most effective in Nigde/Aladaglar.
The same plants may have different local names in different regions or the same name is often used for different plants in different regions. Due to these differences of plant names, it becomes difficult to obtain the correct plant to be used. Therefore recording local names in different areas is very important to recognize the correct plant. On the other hand, local names are an important part of our cultural heritage. In our study there were 47 local names which are not recorded in previous studies in Turkey before.
The flora of Aladaglar is threatened by factors such as overgrazing, extension of intensive agriculture, tourism and recreational activities and the extensive collection of wild plants for the purpose of generating income (e.g. Herbal tea). The area of research requires taking protective measures.
New medicinal uses of 52 plants have been recorded in Aladaglar. Among these 52 plants 14 are endemic to Turkey. New medicinal uses of plants will provide new research topics for chemical and activity studies.
This study was carried out with the aim of preserving knowledge about local use and provides preliminary information aimed at a more detailed investigation on the bioactive studies.
We thank all the people of Aladaglar/Nigde who participated in this survey and shared valuable information. This work was supported by Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University. Project no.: T-488/25062004. Project name: an ethnobotanical investigation in Western Part of Central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar/Nigde, 2003–2005.
- Abbasi et al., 2012
- Ethnobotanical Aspects
- Med. Plant Biodivers. Lesser Himal.-Pak., 13 (2012), p. 220
- Abu-Irmaileh and Afifi, 2003
- Herbal medicine in Jordan with special emphasis on commonly used herbs
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 89 (2003), pp. 193–197
- Afifi and Abu-Irmaileh, 2000
- Herbal medicine in Jordan with emphasis on less commonly used medicinal herbs
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 72 (2000), pp. 101–110
- Akbay et al., 2003
- In vitro immunomodulatory activity flavonoid glycosides from Urtica dioica
- Phytother. Res., 17 (2003), pp. 34–37
- Altundağ and Öztürk, 2011
- Ethnomedicinal studies on the plant resources of east Anatolia, Turkey
- Proced. Soc. Behav. Sci., 19 (2011), pp. 756–777
- Bağcı, 2000
- Ethnobotanical features of Aladaglar (Yahyalı Kayseri) and its vicinity
- Herb J. Syst. Bot., 7 (2000), pp. 89–94
- Bulut and Tuzlacı, 2013
- An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Turgutlu (Manisa Turkey)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 149 (2013), pp. 633–647
- Cakilcioglu et al., 2011
- Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Maden (Elazig-Turkey)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 137 (2011), pp. 469–486
- Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010
- An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Sivrice (Elazığ, Turkey)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 132 (2010), pp. 165–175
- Davis, 1965–1985
- P.H. Davis (Ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vols. 1–9Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh (1965–1985)
- Davis et al., 1988
- P.H. Davis, R.R. Mill, K. Tan (Eds.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 10Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh (1988)
- Demirci and Ozhatay, 2012
- An ethnobotanical study in Kahramanmaraş (Turkey); wild plants used for medicinal purpose in Andırın, Kahramanmaraş
- Turk. J. Pharm. Sci, 9 (1) (2012), pp. 75–92
- Elci and Erik, 2006
- An ethnobotanical study in Güdül (Ankara)
- J. Fac. Pharm. Hacet.e Univ., 26 (2) (2006), pp. 57–64
- Ertuğ, 2000
- An ethnobotanical study in Central Anatolia (Turkey)
- J. Econ. Bot., 54 (2000), pp. 155–182
- Ezer and Mumcu Arısan, 2006
- Folk Medicines in Merzifon (Amasya, Turkey)
- Turk. J. Bot., 30 (2006), pp. 223–230
- Everest and Öztürk, 2005
- Focusing on the ethnobotanical uses of plants in Mersin and Adana Provinces (Turkey)
- J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 1 (2005), p. 6
- Ghorbani, 2005
- Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turkmen Sahra, north of Iran (part 1): general results
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 102 (2005), pp. 58–68
- Gulcin et al., 2004
- Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 90 (2004), pp. 205–215
- Gulluce et al., 2007
- Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oils and methanol extract from Mentha longifolia L. ssp. Longifolia
- Food. Chem., 103/4 (2007), pp. 1449–1456
- Güneş and Özhatay, 2011
- An Ethnobotanical study from Kars (Eastern)Turkey
- Biol. Divers. Conserv., 4/1 (2011), pp. 30–41
- Gürdal and Kültür, 2013
- An Ethnobotanical Study of medicinal plants in Marmaris (Muğla, Turkey)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 146 (2013), pp. 113–126
- Hayta et al., 2014
- Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Elazığ (Turkey)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 154 (2014), pp. 613–623
- Kandemir and Yigit, 2002
- Antimicrobial activity of some endemic plants (Salvia cryptantha, Origanum acutidens, Thymus sipyleus ssp. sipyleus)
- Erzincan Educ. Fac., 4-2 (2002), pp. 77–81
- Kargıoğlu et al., 2008
- An ethnobotanical survey of inner-West Anatolia,Turkey
- Hum. Ecol., 36 (2008), pp. 763–777
- Kaval et al., 2014
- Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Geçitli and its surrounding (Hakkari-Turkey)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 155 (1) (2014), pp. 171–184
- Kocyiğit and Özhatay, 2006
- Wild plants used as medicinal purpose in Yalova (Northwest Turkey)
- Turk. J. Pharm. Sci., 3 (2) (2006), pp. 91–103
- Koyuncu et al., 2009
- A study on Geyve (Sakarya) and its environs in terms of ethnobotanical aspects
- Herb J. Syst. Bot., 16 (2009), pp. 123–142
- Kültür, 2007
- Medicinal plants used in Kırklareli Province (Turkey)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 111 (2) (2007), pp. 341–364
- Kültür, 2008
- An Ethnobotanical study of Kırklareli (Turkey)
- Phytol. Balc., 14 (2008), pp. 279–289
- Lev and Amar, 2002
- Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional drugs sold in the Kingdom of Jordan
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 82 (2002), pp. 131–145
- Mati and Boer, 2011
- Ethnobotany and trade of medicinal plants in the Qaysari Market, Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 133 (2011), pp. 490–510
- Mosaddegha et al., 2012
- Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 141 (2012), pp. 80–95
- Oral, 2007
- Ethnobotany of Konya
- Gazi University Institute of health, Turkey (2007) M.Sc.Thesis
- Özgen et al., 2004
- Ethnobotanical studies in the villages of the district of Ilıca (Province Erzurum). Turkey
- Econ. Bot., 58 (2004), pp. 691–696
- Özgen et al., 2011
- Folk medicines in the villages of Ilıca district (Erzurum, Turkey)
- Turk. J. Biol., 35 (2011), pp. 124–140
- Özgokce and Ozcelik, 2004
- Ethnobotanical aspects of some taxa in East Anatolia (Turkey)
- Econ. Bot., 58 (2004), pp. 697–704
- Özhatay and Koçak, 2011
- Plants used for medicinal purpose in Karaman province (Southern Turkey)
- J. Fac. Pharm. Istanb., 41 (2011), pp. 75–88
- Özkan and Koyuncu, 2005
- Traditional medicinal plants used in Pınarbaşı¸ Area (Kayseri–Turkey)
- Turk. J. Pharm. Sci., 2 (2005), pp. 63–82
- Öztürk and Dinc, 2005
- An ethnobotanical study in Nizip (Aksaray)
- Ot Syst. Bot. J., 12 (1) (2005), pp. 93–102
- Öztürk and Ölçücü, 2011
- Ethnobotanical features of some plants in the district of Şemdinli (Hakkari – Turkey)
- I. J. Acad. Res., 3 (2011), pp. 120–125
- Polat and Satıl, 2010
- Havran ve Burhaniye (Balikesir) Yörelerinde Etnobotanik Araştırmaları
- TUBA Kültür Envanter Dergisi, 8 (2010), pp. 65–100
- Polat and Satıl, 2012
- An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Edremit Gulf (Balıkesir—Turkey)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 139 (2012), pp. 626–641
- Polat et al., 2013
- Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Solhan (Bingöl-Turkey)
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 148 (2013), pp. 951–963
- Rehecho et al., 2011
- Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Nor-Yauyos, apart of the Landscape Reserve Nor-Yauyos-Cochas, Peru
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 133 (2011), pp. 75–85
- Saggs, 1988
- The greatness that was Babylon: a survey of the ancient civilization of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley
- (2nd Revised ed.)Sidgwick & Jackson, London (1988), p. 380
- Sargın et al., 2013
- An Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 150 (2013), pp. 860–874
- Sarper et al., 2009
- An Ethnobotanical Field Survey in the Haymana District of Ankara Province in Turkey
- Turk. J. Biol., 33 (2009), pp. 79–88
- Sezik et al., 1991
- Traditional medicine in Turkey I Folk medicine in North-East Anatolia
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 35 (1991), pp. 191–196
- Sezik et al., 1997
- Traditional medicine in Turkey VIII. Folk medicine in East Anatolia; Erzurum, Erzincan, Ağrı, Kars, Iğdır provinces
- Econ. Bot., 51 (3) (1997), pp. 195–211
- Sezik et al., 2001
- Traditional medicine in Turkey X. Folk medicine in Central Anatolia
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 75 (2001), pp. 95–115
- Sosa et al., 2007
- Topical anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and compounds from Hypericum perforatum L.
- J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 59 (5) (2007), pp. 703–709
- Şimsek et al., 2004
- An ethnobotanical survey of the Beypazarı, Ayas, and Güdül district towns of Ankara province (Turkey)
- Econ. Bot., 58 (2004), pp. 705–720
- Tabata et al., 1994
- Traditional medicine in Turkey III. Folk medicine in East Anatoli, Van and Bitlis provinces
- Int. J. Pharmacogn., 32/1 (1994), pp. 3–12
- Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007
- Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia
- J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 3 (2007), p. 12
- Tepe et al., 2005
- Antioxidative activity of the essential oils of Thymus sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. sipyleus and Thymus sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. rosulans
- J. Food Eng., 66 (2005), pp. 447–454
- Trotter and Logan, 1986
- Informant consensus: a new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants
- N.L. Etkin (Ed.), Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet, Behavioural Approaches, Redgrave Publishing Company, Bredford Hills, New York (1986)
- Tuzlacı et al., 2010
- Turkish folk medicinal plants, VIII: Lalapaşa (Edirne)
- Marmara Pharm. J., 14 (2010), pp. 47–52
- Tuzlacı, 2011
- A Dictionary of Turkish Plants
- Alfa publishing, Istanbul (2011)
- Tüfekçi et al., 2002
- The Flora of Aladağ National Park
- Ministry of Forest publication, Niğde/Turkey (2002), p. 206
- Ugulu et al., 2008
- The impact of endemism concept on environmental attitudes of secondary school students
- Nat. Montenegrina, 7 (2008), pp. 165–173
- Uzun et al., 2004
- Traditional medicine in Sakarya province (Turkey) and antimicrobial activities of selected species
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 95 (2004), pp. 287–296
- Yeşil and Akalın, 2009
- Folk medicinal plants in Kürecik area (Akçadağ/MalatyaTurkey)
- Turk. J. Pharm. Sci., 6 (2009), pp. 207–220
- Yeşilada, 2005
- Past and future contributions to traditional medicine in the health care system of the Middle-East
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 100 (2005), pp. 135–137
- Yeşilada and Küpeli, 2002
- Berberis crataegina DC. root exhibits potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic and febrifuge effects in mice and rats
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 79 (2002), pp. 237–248
- Yeşilada et al., 1999
- Traditional medicine in Turkey IX. Folk medicine in North West Anatolia
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 64 (1999), pp. 195–210
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.