Friday, 27 March 2015

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde – Turkey)

Volume 166, 26 May 2015, Pages 53–65

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde – Turkey)


Ethnopharmacological relevance

With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde.

Materials and methods

This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study.


According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%).


The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than medical treatment. This study identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Aladaglar/Nigde, but also the uses and local names of these plants. This paper helps to preserve valuable information that may otherwise be lost to future generations.

Graphical abstract

Chemical compounds studied in this article:

  • Hypericin (PubChem CID: 5281051);
  • Isoquercitrin (PubChem CID: 5280804);
  • Hyperoside (PubChem CID: 5281643);
  • Borneol (PubChem CID: 64685);
  • Menthone (PubChem CID: 6986);
  • Pulegone (PubChem CID: 6988);
  • Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (PubChem CID: 20055286);
  • Berberine (PubChem CID: 2353);
  • Berbamine(PubChem CID: 10170);
  • Magnoflorine (PubChem CID: 73337)


  • Ethnobotany;
  • Medicinal plants;
  • Traditional medicine;
  • Aladaglar;
  • Nigde;
  • Turkey

1. Introduction

Turkey has been distinguished throughout history by a rich inventory of natural medicinal substances. Turkey is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of plant diversity. To date, approximately 10,500 plant species have been identified in Turkey and 30% of this is endemic (Davis, 1965–1985). The ratio of endemism is one of the most important indicators to evaluate the environmental value of an area. In Turkey, the rate of endemism in plant species is relatively high when compared with other European countries (Ugulu et al., 2008).
Documentation of the indigenous knowledge through ethnobotanical studies is important for the conservation and utilization of biological resources. Therefore, establishing the local names and the indigenous uses of plants have significant potential in benefiting society (Bağcı, 2000). By the revealing and recording by the hidden folk medicinal uses of the local plants, ethnobotany has become an important part of our world.
Many of todays drugs have been derived from plant sources. Recent ethnobotanical surveys among tribal populations have brought new information to the forefront, which can be utilized to improve the economy of the tribes by organizing the systematic collection of forest products and locating cottage industries, especially of herbal drugs (Abbasi et al., 2012).
For centuries, Turkish people have been using herbal medicines for the treatment of some minor diseases. This is similar to many neighboring near east countries (Lev and Amar, 2002, Abu-Irmaileh and Afifi, 2003, Ghorbani, 2005, Yeşilada, 2005, Mati and Boer, 2011 and Mosaddegha et al., 2012). Plant species may have different uses in different countries as well as different areas of the same country. In spite of such a rich cultural heritage and relatively rich flora, the number of scientific ethnobotanical field surveys, at least published in the international journals, among the regional communities is very low. Folk medicine in the neighboring provinces of the Taurus Mountains were reported in literature (Bağcı, 2000, Ertuğ, 2000, Sezik et al., 2001, Şimsek et al., 2004, Everest and Öztürk, 2005, Özkan and Koyuncu, 2005, Öztürk and Dinc, 2005, Elci and Erik, 2006, Sarper et al., 2009, Özhatay and Koçak, 2011 and Demirci and Ozhatay, 2012). However, to the best of our knowledge, traditional uses of medicinal plants in Aladaglar/Nigde have not been studied.
The increasing human population in recent years has led to over exploitation of land in many areas, thus reducing the biodiversity of medicinal plants. Meanwhile, worldwide threatening factors on traditional heritages have been valid for the region and this wealth of information has slowly vanished with the influencing factors of modernization; i.e., urbanization, migration, development of roads, communication by the media, easier access to orthodox medicine and drugs, etc. (Yeşilada, 2005). Thus, there is an urgent need to record and utilize the wealth of ethnobotanical knowledge. This study was carried out with the aim of preserving knowledge about the local use and provides preliminary information aimed at a more detailed investigation on bioactive studies.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Study area

The Taurus Mountains constitute a mountain complex in Southern Turkey, dividing the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Egirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east. It is a part of the Alpide belt in Eurasia. Aladaglar is located in the northern part of the Taurus Mountain range and harbors the highest peak of the eastern Taurus Mountain Range. Aladaglar mountain ranges in the Taurus mountains are popular for winter sports, climbing and trekking through the high meadows and mountain villages. The mountains are particularly attractive when the hills are covered with spring flowers. The Aladaglar mountains constitute one of the most popular climbing and trekking venues in Turkey. The Aladaglar mountain range is located in the eastern part of Nigde. It is 65 km. from Camardi town. It is between 37° 47′ north parallel and 35° 11′ east meridian. According to the data obtained from the website of Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism (,35931/nigde-Aladaglar.html), it covers about 1000 km2 of the area between the cities of Kayseri, Nigde and Adana, stretching over 25 km. wide by 40 km. long. There are more than 60 peaks over 3000 m. high, the highest being Demirkazik at 3756 m. The area is usually approached from the Nigde side. This mountain range has a wide variety of plant and animal life and because of this a 54,524 ha area was declared as a national park in 1995 (Byfield et al., 2010). Its plant diversity is very rich because of its location as a meeting point of 2 phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Iran-Turan). There are 1566 taxa in Aladaglar flora, 392 of which are endemic, 26 are endemic for Aladaglar (Tüfekçi et al., 2002). The research area is in the western part of the Aladaglar Mountain Range. The settlements which are located in that area are the villages of Cukurbag, Demirkazik, Pinarbasi, Bademdere, Kavlaktepe, Sulucuova, Orhaniye, and Kocapinar which are connected to the town of Camardi and the towns of Dundarli, Dikilitas, Hacibeyli, and İcmeli which are governed by the Nigde Province (Fig. 1).
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Fig. 1. 
Geographical location of the study area.
The area has been inhabited since the Neolithic period of 8000−5500 BC. The area was later inhabited by the Hittites, who lived there for a thousand years up until 800 BC. The name Nigde first appeared in written sources in the form na-hi-ti-ia in a Luwian inscription of King Saruanis from Andaval as was pointed out by Ignace Gelb (Hittite Hieroglyphs II [1935] pp. 17–18). Then came the Assyrians and the Phrygians, the Greeks, the Persians, Alexander the Great and the Romans, who built the city of Tyana with its palaces and waterwork (
Roman rule persisted from the Eastern capital of Byzantium until the area was occupied by the Seljuk Turks from 1166 onwards. By the early 13th century Nigde was one of the largest cities in Anatolia and a number of impressive mosques and tombs date back from this period. The area was brought to the Ottoman reign in 1471 and thus passed into the territory of the Republic of Turkey in the 1920s (
The bull was the common symbol and depiction of ancient Near Eastern storm gods, hence Taurus the bull, and hence the name of the mountains. The mountains are a place of many ancient storm-god temples (Ravinell, 2003). Torrential thunderstorms in these mountains were deemed by the ancient Syrians to be the work of the storm-god Adad to make the Tigris and Euphrates rivers rise and flood and thereby fertilize their land. The Hurrians were probably the originators of the various storm-gods of the ancient Near East. It was a community for whom modern scholars were defined in the Taurus Mountains at their probable earliest origins (Saggs, 1988).

2.2. Interviews with local people

Semi-structured face to face interviews (Rehecho et al., 2011) have been carried out between 2003 and 2005 with local people in the study area. A total of 170 individuals (95 men, 75 women) were interviewed in 15 settlements (Dundarli, Hacibeyli, Icmeli, Dikilitas, Camardı, Sulucaova, Orhaniye, Kavlaktepe, Eynelli, Bademdere, Pinarbasi, Demirkazik, Cukurbag, Celaller, and Kavakligol). We visited people who have knowledge of plants in order to obtain detailed information. Upon the first interview conducted with randomly selected people, it was determined that 95% of these people were Turkish and 5% of Pomak, Kurdish or Bosnian ethnic origin. Although they belong to different ethnic groups, the interviews were conducted in Turkish. The mean age of the respondents was 55 years (Within a range of 18–88 years). Interviews were made at busy places like bazaars, tea houses, farms, gardens, fields, in a yörük tent etc. in Aladaglar settlements (Fig. 2, Fig.3, Fig.4 and Fig. 5). After explaining the purpose of our study, questions were asked about the medicinal uses of plants. Whenever possible, the interview was recorded on cassette. The people who had knowledge of plants were visited at least two times. During the interviews, the demographic characteristics of the participants in the study, the local names, the utilized parts and preparation methods of the plants were recorded. The people who participated in the study were requested to show the wild plants they used. During the interviews with local people, The International Society of Ethnobiology Code of Ethics was taken into consideration (
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Fig. 2. 
Celaller village tea house- interview.
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A field research with a villager in Demirkazik village.
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Yörük tents in Aladaglar.
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Fig. 5. 
An interview in Cukurbag village.

2.3. Plant materials

This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. During this period, 200 vascular plant specimens were collected, 126 plants of which were deteremined to be used by the local people and 110 of them to be used as medicine. The plants were pressed in the field and prepared for identification.
The collected specimens were identified by using “Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands” (Davis, 1965–1985 and Davis et al., 1988) and were compared with the specimens deposited at ISTE. The collected plant materials were deposited as herbarium samples at ISTE. The names of plant families were listed in alphabetical order. The scientific names of the plant species were identified according to the International Plant Name Index (IPNI: A reference collection was prepared to show every settlement place (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7). This reference collection included small samples of all the plants on small pieces of cardboard. The plant sampling collection was shown to all informants during the interviews. By the help of cardboard, local people could see local plants altogether. It helped to remind them of the usages of plants. During the interview, the usages of the plants were written on the plant cardboard. The plant cardboard was very helpful for the calculations of the informant consensus factor and the use value.
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Fig. 6. 
Bademdere village tea house interview.
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Fig. 7. 
An interview with a healer woman about the reference collection of area plants in Eynelli Village.

2.4. Calculations

The diseases were classified into 9 categories (1) cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, heart disease, hypercholesterolemia), (2) hemorrhoids, (3) urinary diseases (diuretic, dysuria, enuresis nocturna), (4) diabetes, (5) respiratory diseases (cough, asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, sore throat, hoarseness, cold), (6) aphrodisiac, (7) kidney diseases (kidney gravel, kidney stone, nephritis), (8) gastrointestinal diseases (stomachache, diarrhea, flatulence, heartburn, ulcer, reflu, nausea), and (9) dermatological diseases (burns, cuts, eczema, furuncle, rash, wounds). Informant consensus factor (ICF – Trotter and Logan, 1986) was calculated based on the following formula: FIC=(Nur−Nt)/(Nur−1), where Nur refers to the number of citations used in each category and Nt to the number of the species used. This method is used to check homogenity of the information: FIC values are low (close to 0 value) if plants are chosen randomly or if informants do not exchange information about their uses. Values are high (close to 1 value) if there is a well defined selection criterion in the community and/or if information is given between the informants (Afifi and Abu-Irmaileh, 2000). In other words, the medicinal plants that are presumed to be effective in treating a certain disease have higher FIC values (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007).
The use value (UV – Trotter and Logan, 1986), a quantitative method that demonstrates the relative importance of species known locally, was also calculated according to the following formula: UV=U/N, where UV refers to the use value of a species; U to the number of citations per species; and N to the number of informants.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Demographic characteristics of the participants in the study

The demographic characteristics of the respondents were determined and recorded through face-to-face interviews. 170 people above the age of 18 were interviewed. A total of 120 people were living in the villages near to the town of Camardi, 50 were living in the towns of Dundarli, Hacibeyli, Icmeli and Dikilitas. Of the participants who took part in the interviews, 7 were between the ages of 18 and 35, 33 were between the ages of 35 and 40, 49 were between the ages of 41 and 50, 45 were between the ages 51–60 and 36 were over the age of 61. Of the participants, 95 were male and 75 were female. A total of 123 of the participants were primary school graduates, 39 were secondary school – high school graduate and 3 were university graduates, 5 were uneducated. The respondents were Turkish citizens, with various ethnic backgrounds (95% Turkish, 5% Pomaks, Kurdish, Bosnian ethnicity)

3.2. Medicinal plants and literature review

The family, scientific name, local name, the preparation and utilization methods of the medical plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde are given in Table 2.
Table 2. List of wild medicinal plants investigated with their related information.

Botanical name, family, voucher numberLocal name in AladaglarUsed partsPreparationAilments treated, therapeutic effectUse value
1Acanthus hirsutus Boiss.Ayı kulağıSeedCrushed, ext.Healing wounds0.11

Endemic (Acanthaceae) ISTE 81511

2Bifora radians Bieb.Yabani kişnişAerial partDecoction, int.Stomach ailments,0.31

(Apiaceae) E.Ö. 30otu

3Ferulago pachyloba (Fenzl) Boiss.Küçük MelekLeaf,Infusion, int.Increase body0.21

Endemic (Apiaceae) ISTE 81544Otufruit
strenght, sedative
4Heracleum platytaenium Boiss.Tavşancıl otuLeafFresh, cooked, int.Infertility0.17

Endemic (Apiaceae) E.Ö. 31

Infusion, int.

5Pimpinella armena Schischk.AnasonFruitInfusion, int.Carminative,0.13

Endemic (Apiaceae) E.Ö. 32

6Prangos ferulaceae (L.) Lindl.Çağşır, köfteotu,RootMixed with sweets,Aphrodisiac,0.22

(Apiaceae)kürdanotu, melekotu,
int.increase body

ISTE 81491pıtrak

7Prangos meliocarpoides Boiss.Çarşır, hiltilRootGrate and mixedAphrodisiac0.21

var. meliocarpoides Endemic (Apiaceae)sultan teresi,
with sweets and

ISTE 81576yabani korunga
honey, int.

8Smyrnium connatum Boiss.
Leaf,Infusion, int.Sedative, soporofic0.23

et Kotschy (Apiaceae) ISTE 81490

9Vinca herbacea Waldst. et Kit.Küçük cezayirAerial partInfusion, int.High blood pressure,0.11

(Apocynaceae) E.Ö. 12menekşesi

fever, appetizing
10Arum detruncatum (C.A. Meyer ex Schott.)Yılan ekmeği, yılan yastığıLeaf,• Cooked eaten,• Tonsillitis0.34

subsp. detruncatum
bulb(Le) int.


▲ Eaten as a pill,▲ Hemorrhoids

ISTE 81477

(Bu) int.

11Ornithogalum umbellatum L.Tükrük otuBulbCrushed, ext.• Boil0.22

(Asparagaceae) E.Ö. 34

12Achillea aleppica DC. var.Yılan çiçeğiLeaf,• Infusion, int.• Appetizing,0.17

zederbaueri (Hayek) Hub.-Mor.(Asteraceae)

E.Ö. 13

▲ Crushed, ext.▲ Healing wounds,

13Achillea arabica Kotschy.Kurtotu, mayalık otuAerial partInfusion, int.Vermifuge,0.15



ISTE 81485yayla çiçeği

kidney disease, cough
14Achillea grandifolia Friv.Beyaz civanAerial partInfusion, int.Hormonal disorder0.11


for men,

ISTE 81584mideotu

urinary infection, ulcer
15Achillea teretifolia Ledeb.Boz yavşan, civanAerial partInfusion, int.Hormonal disorder,0.17

Endemic (Asteraceae)perçemi beyazı,

abdominal pain

ISTE 81529sırçanotu, yavşan otu

16Anthemis kotschyana Boiss. var.PapatyaAerial part• Infusion, int.• Lung disease, cold,0.31

kotschyana (Asteraceae)

▲ Infusion as bath,prostate cancer

E.Ö. 1

ext.▲ Healing wound
17Artemisia alpina Pall. ex Willd.YavşanAerial partInfusion, int.Cold0.27

(Asteraceae) ISTE 81520

18Centaurea cheiranthifolia Willd. var.Düğmeli ot,Aerial partCrushed, ext.Healing wound0.12

cheiranthifolia (Asteraceae)kökgöz, mavi gökbaş,

ISTE 81527mavi kantaron,

peygamber düğme,

pıtrak, yeşilbaş

19Chondrilla juncea L. var. junceaÇengel sakızı, çıtlık,Latex,• Chewed, (L) int.• Stomach ache0.29

(Asteraceae)sakız otuRoot▲ Crushed, (L) ext.▲ Healing wound

E.Ö. 14

■ Decoction, (R) int.■ Vermifuge
20Cota tinctoria (L.) J. GayBoz yavşan,Flower• Infusion, int.• Fever, lung disease0.13

(Asteraceae)manda gözü,
▲ Infusion as bath,▲ Heart stroke

ISTE 81542papatya

21Gundelia tournefortii L.Boz kangal kökü,Latex,• Chewed, (L) int.• Strengthening gum,0.22

(Asteraceae)kenger sakızıaerial part

E.Ö. 4

▲ Infusion, (A) int.▲ Kidney stones
22Helichrysum arenarium L. Moench.Ölmez çiçekFloweringInfusion, int.Kidney stones,0.39

Endemic (Asteraceae) E.Ö0.15
kidney gravel
23Helycrysum plicatum DC.Amel otu, altın otu,Aerial partInfusion, int.Abdominal pain, diabetes,0.30

(Asteraceae)sarıbaş, yayla çiçeği

kidney stones, diarrhea,

ISTE 81482

stomach ache
24Senecio tauricolus MatthewsBoz andız, yayla çiçeğiLeaf,Infusion, int.Headache, digestive0.06

Endemic (Asteraceae) ISTE 81602
problems, aphrodisiac
25Taraxacum stevenii (Spreng.) DC.Amam otu, çıtlık,Aerial part• Infusion, int.• Toothache, abdominal0.40

(Asteraceae)hindibağ, keklik otu,


ISTE 81475kıl çiçek
▲ Freshly eaten, int.▲ Pain killer
26Tussilago farfara L.Akkız, öksürük otu,Aerial part• Infusion, int.• Cough, upper respiratory0.37

(Asteraceae)pamuklu otu

tract problems,

ISTE 81552

▲ Decoction, ext.▲ Itching
27Xanthium orientale L. subsp. italicumBüyük pıtrakLeaf,Infusion,Increase of urine,0.08

(Moretti) Greuter

(Asteraceae) E.Ö. 38

28Berberis crataegina DC.Kadın tuzluğuLeaf, root,Infusion, int.Pain killer0.41

(Berberidaceae) E.Ö. 3

29Berberis vulgaris L.Amber paris,Root,• Infusion, (CR) int.• Appetizing,0.36

(Berberidaceae)Kadın tuzluğucortex of▲ Crushed and mixed with honey eaten,strengthening, fever,

E.Ö. 37
root(CR, R) int.▲ Cough
30Alkanna orientalis (L.) Boiss.Sarı hava civa köküRoot• Infusion, int.• Diarrhea,0.10


▲ Crushed and mixed▲ Healing wound

ISTE 81590

with olive oil, ext.

31Cynoglossum montanum L.PıtrakAerial partInfusion, int.Bronchitis0.24

(Boraginaceae) E.Ö. 8

32Moltkia caerulea (Willd.) Lehm.Emzik çiçeği, sancı otuFlower,Infusion, int.Diarrhea, abdominal0.18

(Boraginaceae) ISTE 81549sormukroot
33Alyssum sibiricum Willd.Prostat çiçeğiAerial partInfusion, int.Prostate, urinary0.11

(Brassicaceae) ISTE 81501

34Capsella bursa- pastoris (L.) Medik.Çoban çantasıAerial partInfusion, int.Women׳s health0.35

(Brassicaseae) E.Ö. 38

Freshly eaten, int.

35Erysimum diffusum Ehrh.Yayla çiçeğiFlowerInfusion, as bath,Edema0.24

(Brassicaceae) ISTE 81541


36Iberis carnosa Willd.HavazaFlowerInfusion, int.Abdominal pain0.17

(Brassicaceae) ISTE 81565

37Thlaspi perfoliatum L.Eşek gıcılavuk,Aerial partFreshly eaten,Pain killer0.27

(Brassicaceae)kuş kuş ekmeği,

ISTE 81593kuş kuş otu,

tavuk götü,

yabani gıcılavuk,


38Asyneuma michauxioides (Boiss.)Yalancı sütlüAerial part• Infusion, int.• Kidney inflammation,0.17

Damboldt. Endemic

▲ Boiled with waterinfertility connected

(Campanulaceae) ISTE 81594

and affected area iswith urinary infection,

exposed▲ Skin, eye infection,

to the vapors frominfertility connected with

boiling herbs, ext.urinary infection
39Silene chlorifolia Sm.Böcek yiyen yüksük otu,Aerial part,Infusion, int.Inflammation0.16

(Caryophyllaceae) ISTE 81471puşkulluroot

40Silene vulgaris (Moench) GarckeKıcılavukAerial partEaten as a meal,Urinary infection0.23

(Caryophyllaceae) ISTE 81488


41Convolvulus arvensis L.Basırık otu,Aerial part,• Eaten as a meal,• Constipation0.21

(Convolvulaceae) ISTE 81454kuzu sarmaşığıroot(A) int.▲ Inflammation of the

▲ Infusion, (R) int.nose, headache
42Rosularia libanotica (L.) Sam.Kaya koruğuLeafCrushed, ext.Healing wound0.19

(Crassulaceae) ISTE 81561

43Sedum album L.Çiçekli dam koruğuLeafCrushed, ext.Skin diseases,0.21

(Crassulaceae) ISTE 81504

callosity, verruca
44Juniperus oxycedrus L.Katran ardıcıBranchThe tar obtained from the destructiveSkin diseases, eczema0.41


distillation of thescabies, ringworm

ISTE 81555

branches, ext.

45Elaeagnus angustifolia L.İğde çiçeğiFlower,Freshly eaten (Fr),Fever, As a vitamin0.35


E.Ö. 5
fruitInfusion, (Le, Fl) int.

46Ephedra major Host.Deniz üzümüAerial partInfusion, int.Stimulant0.17

(Ephedraceae) ISTE 81513

47Euphorbia denticulata Lam.Acı sütlük, biyurum,LatexLatex applied to theVerruca, fungus0.17

(Euphorbiaceae) ISTE 81560kara sütlük, kızılotu
skin as a lotion, ext.

sütleğen, sütlük

48Euphorbia paralias L.Acı sütlük, sarı sütlük,Latex,• Mixed with• Toothache0.21

(Euphorbiaceae)sütlü, sütlükAerial partstarch, (L) ext.,

ISTE 81480

▲ Infusion as a bath, (A) ext.▲ Malaria
49Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal.Çakıldak kutru,Fruit• Crushed, ext.• Allergy, burn, bleeding,0.22

(Fabaceae)patlak kutru,
▲ Decoction, ext.▲ Allergy, burn,

ISTE 81606yalancı sinameki
■ Put on abdomen, ext.■ Allergy
50Ebenus hirsuta Jaub. et Spach.Çayırotu, üçgül, üçgüllüFlowerInfusion, int.Kidney problems0.12

(Fabaceae) ISTE 81539

51Galega officinalis L.Keçisedef otuAerial partInfusion, int.Diabetes0.10

(Fabaceae) ISTE 81502

52Lathyrus sativus L.Burçak, mürdümükSeed• Infusion, int.• Urinary tract infections, diuretic0.20

(Fabaceae) E.Ö. 17

▲ Crushed and mixed▲ Sexual stamina,

with honey, int.hepatitis
53Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.Kokulu yoncaAerial partAs a spice, int.Sedative0.11

(Fabaceae) E.Ö. 16

54Ononis spinosa L. subsp. leiospermaKayışkıran köküAerial partCrushed and mixedAntiseptic, healing0.15

(Boiss.) Sirj. (Fabaceae) E.Ö0.18

with olive oil, ext.wound, eczema
55Hypericum orientale L.Kırmızı kantaron,Aerial partInfusion, int.Hemorrhoids0.24

(Hypericaceae) ISTE 81553Mayasıl otu

56Hypericum perforatum L.Sancı otuAerial part• Infusion, int.• Diarrhea, colic,0.51


▲ Crushed and mixed▲ Hemorrhoids

ISTE 81492

with olive oil, ext.

57Hypericum scabrum L.Öksürük otu,Aerial partInfusion, int.Sedative, cough,0.31

(Hypericaceae)sarı kantaron,

hemorrhoids, diarrhea,

ISTE 81525yılan misi

58Juglans regia L.CevizEksocarp of fruit• Decoction as a gargle, ext.• Sore throat, mouth ulcer, strengthens the teeth0.37


▲ Decoction, int.▲ Digestive


problems, goiter
59Juncus inflexus L.Kayık kıran, kofa otu,Aerial part,• Decoction, (A) int.• Cough0.26

(Juncaceae)kova, kova otu,root▲ Ash applied,▲ Wound

ISTE 81600peygamber kılıç,
(A) ext.

saban kıran
■ Decoction, (R) int.■ Inflammation, kidney stones
60Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreber. subsp.Yer çamı, yer meşesiFlowerCrushed, ext.Healing wound0.11

chia (Schreber) Arcangeli

(Lamiaceae) E.Ö. 19

61Cyclotrichium origanifolium (Labill.) Manden.Mentol, mentol nane,Aerial partInfusion, (A) int.Abdominal pain,0.31

& Scheng. (Lamiaceae)şalba

intestinal disorders,

E.Ö. 6

urinary tract obstruction
62Marrubium globosum Montbret et AucherAmel otu, beyaz şabla,Aerial partInfusion, int.Diuretic, colic,0.27

ex Bentham Endemic (Lamiaceae)boz kulak, boz şalba,

heart problems,

ISTE 81518it sineği, şalba

diarrhea, abdominal pain
63Mentha longifolia (L.) L.Mentol nane, narpuz,LeafInfusion, int.Digestive problems0.42

(Lamiaceae)su nanesi, tüylü nane,

ISTE 81512yarpuz

64Mentha longifolia (L.) L. subsp. typhoidesYarpızLeafAs a spice, int.Digestive problems0.40

(Briq.) Harley

(Lamiaceae)ISTE 81512

65Nepeta italica L.Nezle otuAerial partInfusion, int.Cold0.21

(Lamiaceae) ISTE 81506

66Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtumYavşanAerial partInfusion, int.Diabetes0.24

(Link) Ietsw. (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81481

67Phlomis armeniaca Willd.Boz kulak, boz şavlak,FlowerInfusion, int.Colic0.18

Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81519sarı şabla

68Salvia cadmica Boiss.Meryemana adaçayıAerial partCrushed, ext.Bleeding0.23

Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81521

69Salvia absconditiflora Greuter & BurdetBoz şabla, kara şabla,Aerial partInfusion, int.Cold0.22

Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81524sarı şabla

70Salvia hypargeia Fisch. & C.A.Mey.Kök çayıRootInfusion, int.Cold0.14

Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81513

71Salvia multicaulis Vahl.Boz kulak,Aerial partInfusion, int.Sedative0.29

(Lamiaceae) ISTE 81602mavi-mor şabla

72Salvia sclarea L.Misk adaçayı, yağlı karaFlowering• As a spice, int.• Digestive,0.23

(Lamiaceae) E.Ö. 20
branches,▲ Infusion, int.▲ Diarrhea, sedative


73Sideritis bilgeriana P.H.DavisBoz şabla, kekik çayı,Aerial part• Infusion, int.• Heartburn, cold0.23

Endemic (Lamiaceae)yayla çayı
▲ Infusion, as a bath▲ Hemorrhoids

ISTE 81535


74Sideritis libanotica Labill.Çay, dağ çayı,Aerial partInfusion, int.Diarrhea, digestive0.19

Endemic (Lamiaceae)toros çayı, yayla çayı


ISTE 81550

stomach problems
75Sideritis montana L.Dağ çayı, yayla çayıLeaf, flowerInfusion, int.Carminative, stomach0.21

(Lamiaceae) E.Ö0.40

pain, stimulant
76Sideritis stricta Benth.Dağ çayıAerial partInfusion, int.Flu, cold0.37

Endemic (Lamiaceae) ISTE 81487

77Stachys cretica L. subsp. anatolicaAslan kuyruğu,Aerial partInfusion, int.Diarrhea,0.24

Rech. fil.beyaz şabla, boz şabla,

urinary system problems,

(Lamiaceae)deliçayı, yağlı kara,


ISTE 81608yavşan

78Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaeaBoncuk şablaAerial partInfusion, int.Hypertension0.40

(Boiss.) Rech. fil. Endemic (Lamiaceae) E.Ö0.21deli çayı, rize çayı

79Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl.Devegülü, tüylü çayFlowerInfusion, int.Headache, throat pain0.21

(Lamiaceae) ISTE 81528

80Teucrium chamaedrys L.Kısa mahmut,Aerial partInfusion, int.Abdominal pain, hemorrhoids,0.31

(Lamiaceae)mayasıl otu,

diabetes, pain killer

ISTE 81507sancı otu

stomach pain
81Teucrium polium L.Boz mayasıl otu,Aerial partInfusion, int.Diabetes0.21

(Lamiaceae) ISTE 81520per yavşan, yavşan

82Thymus leucotrichus HalácsyDeli kekik, kekikAerial partInfusion, int.Abdominal pain, cold,0.43

(Lamiaceae) ISTE 81479

breathing problems, bronchitis
83Thymus sipyleus Boiss.Kekik, yavşanAerial part• Infusion, int.• Abdominal pain, diabetes,0.50

Endemic (Lamiaceae)

▲ Decoction, as aexpectorant, breath problems

ISTE 81483

bath, ext.▲ Sunstroke
84Ziziphora capitata L.Dağ reyhanı, reyhan,Aerial partAs a spice, int.Stomach problems0.12

(Lamiaceae) ISTE 81607üçgül

85Allium rotundum L.İt sarımsağıBulbFreshly eaten, int.Blood pressure0.41

(Liliaceae) ISTE 81510

86Asphodeline taurica (Pall.) Endl.Çiriş, çiviş kökü,FlowerApplied on skin,Burn,0.25

(Liliaceae)hıdrellez kamçısı,
ext.shortness of breath

ISTE 81522koyunotu, yarpız, yılpız

87Eremurus spectabilis M.Bieb.Çiriş köküRootMixed with water,Sedative0.12

(Liliaceae) E.Ö. 33


88Viscum album L. subsp. abietis (Wiesb.)Ökse otuLeafy branch,• Infusion, (Lb, Fr)• Force transmitter,0.41

Abromeit. (Loranthaceae)
fruitint. ▲ Capsicumhypertension

ISTE 81558

plaster, (Fr) ext.▲ Rheumatism
89Malva neglecta Wallr.Ebegümeci, ebelik,Leaf,• Crushed, (Le) ext.• ▲ Wound0.44

(Malvaceae) E.Ö. 23kömeçbranch, root▲ Decoction, (Le)ext.■ Respiratory problems,

■ Infusion, (Le) int.digestion problems

♦ Applied as suppositories, (B, R) int.♦ Abortifacient
90Morina persica L.Boğa dikeniAerial part,• Freshly eaten, int.• Aphrodisiac, increase0.21

body strength

ISTE 81534

▲ Crushed, ext.▲ Snake bites
91Papaver bracteatum Lindl.Gavur haşhaşı,Aerial partDecoction, as aEye problems0.22

(Papaveraceae) ISTE 81468gelin ali, gelin eli
bath for eyes, ext.

92Plantago lanceolata L.Kırkdilim otu, sinir otu,Leaf• Crushed, ext.• ▲ Wound, boil0.33

(Plantaginaceae)sinirli ot, yara otu
▲ Freshly put on

E.Ö. 24

skin, ext.

■ Infusion, int.■ Tuberculosis
93Elymus tauri (Boiss. & Bal.) MelderisAyrık otuAerial partInfusion, int.Inflammation0.25

var. kosaninii (Nábelek) Assadi

(Poaceae) ISTE 81598

94Polygonum bellardii All.Çoban değneğiAerial partInfusion, int.Bronchitis0.15

(Polygonaceae) ISTE 81548

95Rumex scutatus L.Kuşkulağı, oğlak kulağı,Aerial partInfusion, int.Diabetes0.21

(Polygonaceae) ISTE 81476şeker otu

96Consolida orientalis (J.Gay) Schröd.Ekin otuSeedCrushed, ext.Wound0.13

(Ranunculaceae) ISTE 81540

97Reseda lutea L.Eşek gerdanasıAerial partInfusion, int.Hemorrhoids, thyroid0.14

(Resedaceae) ISTE 81500

98Crataegus monogyna Jacq.Alıç, kızlar yemişiAerial part,• Infusion, (A) int.• Heart disease,0.35

circulation problems,

E.Ö. 25

spasm, sedative

▲ Decoction,▲ To take out heel spur,

(R) ext.nail, bullet
99Potentilla recta L.Aslan pençesiAerial partCrushed, ext.Wound0.13

(Rosaceae) ISTE 81493

100Rosa canina L.KuşburnuFruitInfusion, int.Cold0.50

(Rosaceae) E.Ö. 26

101Galium verum L. subsp. glabrescensBeyaz sedef otuAerial part• Infusion, int.• Psoriasis0.35

Ehrend. (Rubiaceae)

▲ Decoction as tea,▲ Easy delivery

ISTE 81508


102Rubia tinctorum L.Kökboya, boyacıköküRoot• Infusion, int.• ▲ Constipation0.22

(Rubiaceae) E.Ö. 27

▲ As powder eaten, int.

103Salix alba L.SöğütRoot,Infusion,Restorative,0.42

(Salicaceae) E.Ö. 28


104Scrophularia xanthoglossa Boiss. var.Biber otu, SerkeleAerial part• Decoction as a• Cleft hand0.10

decipiens ( Boiss. & Kotschy) Boiss.

bath, ext.▲ Wound, abdominal


▲ Infusion, int.pain, stomach ache

ISTE 81575

■ Decoction as a bath, ext.■ Ingrown hair
105Veronica multifida L.İshalotu,Aerial partInfusion, int.Diarrhea0.12

Endemic (Scrophulariaceae)deli kekik, deve sabunu,

ISTE 81532morca, sancı otu

106Hyoscyamus niger L.MakSeedInfusion, int.Sedative0.21

(Solanaceae) E.Ö. 7

107Solanum dulcamara L.Sofur, yaban yasemini,BranchInfusion, int.Sedative, painkiller,0.09

(Solanaceae) E.Ö. 29yasemin

108Daphne oleoides SchreberEzeltereLeaf• Crushed, ext.• Wound0.13

(Thymelaeaceae) ISTE 81554

109Urtica dioica L.IsırganLeaf,• Infusion, (Le, S) int.• Urinary system0.44

seed▲ Mixed with sweetinflammation, cancer,

E.Ö. 39

and eaten, (S) int.ulcer, constipation ▲ Aphrodisiac
110Peganum harmala L.Üzerlik, üzerlik otuSeed,• Freshly eaten, (S)• Vermifuge,0.36

rootint.menstrual diuretic

ISTE 81559

▲ Roasted eaten, (S) int.▲ Hemorrhoids,

■ Infusion, (R) int.■ Sedative
Used parts: A, Aerial part; B, Branch; Bu, Bulb; C, Cortex; CR, Cortex of root; Fb, Flowering branches; Fl, Flower; Fr, Fruit; L, Latex; Lb, Leafy branch; Le, Leaf; R, Root; S, Seed.
Utilization method: Ext, externally; Int., internal.
If a plant has more than one therapeutic effect, the symbols (• ■ ▲ ♦) have been used to match preparation and therapeutic effect of each plant.
ISTE: The Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Istanbul University
E.Ö.: Ebru Özdemir, Some plants have been kept in packed. E.Ö. numbers have been given to these plants.
According to other ethnobotanical studies in Turkey, 47 plants have new local names in Aladaglar/Turkey. New local names of plants are italicized in local name column of Table 2.
Interviews with the local people living in Aladaglar/Nigde indicated that, as a result of this study, 110 medicinal plant species belonging to 40 families were found in the research area. The most common families are: Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7), Fabaceae (6) and Brassicaceae (5) (Table 1). Twenty of the plants are endemic to Turkey. These are; Acanthus hirsutus, Ferulago pachyloba, Heracleum platytaenium, Pimpinella armena, Prangos meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides, Achillea teretifolia, Helichrysum arenarium, Senecio tauricolus, Asyneuma michauxioides, Marrubium globosum, Phlomis armeniaca, Salvia cadmica, Salvia absconditiflora, Salvia hypargeia, Sideritis bilgeriana, Sideritis libanotica, Sideritis stricta, Stachys cretica subsp. mersinaea, T. sipyleus var. sipyleus, and Veronica multifida ( Davis, 1965–1985 and Davis et al., 1988). The preparation methods included decoction, infusion, chewing latex, crushing and mixing with starch or olive oil and crushing of the seeds, leaves or flowers. The most commonly used preparations were decoction and infusion.
Table 1. Most represantative families.
It has been observed that these plants still constitute a primary source of treatment in the mountainous villages, especially those which are far from the town centers. Local people use medicinal plants most frequently for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases: 25% (stomachache, diarrhea, flatulence, heartburn, ulcer, reflu, nausea), respiratory diseases 18% (cough, asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, sore throat, hoarseness, cold), dermatological diseases 15% (burns, cuts, eczema, furuncle, rash, wounds), urinary diseases 9% (diuretic, dysuria, enuresis nocturna), hemorrhoids 8%, diabetes 7%, kidney diseases 7% (kidney gravel, kidney stone, nephritis), as aphrodisiac 6%, cardiovascular diseases 5% (hypertension, heart diseases, high cholesterol).
Hypericum perforatum L. is very commonly used for the treatment of diarrhea, colic and hemorrhoids in Aladaglar/Nigde. These uses are consistent with those in neighboring areas ( Sezik et al., 2001). The major components of H. perforatum are; hypericin, adhyperforin, amentoflavone, hyperoside, isoquercitrin. Anti-inflammatory activity of H. perforatum has been reported ( Sosa et al., 2007). Endemic T. sipyleus Boiss. var. sipyleus was very commonly used for relieving abdominal pain, diabetes, respiratory problems and sunstroke in Aladaglar/Nigde. It was used for respiratory problems in Kayseri province ( Bağcı, 2000). It was used to alleviate abdominal pain in Konya province ( Oral, 2007). The major components of T. sipyleus var. sipyleus oil are; borneol (11.2%), α-muurolol (9.2%), β-caryophyllene (7.6%), geranial (7.3%) and neral (5.4%). Antioxidative activity and antimicrobial activity of T. sipyleus var. sipyleus has been reported ( Kandemir and Yigit, 2002 and Tepe et al., 2005). Urtica dioica L. is very commonly used for urinary system inflammation, cancer, ulcers, constipation and as an aphrodisiac in Aladaglar/Nigde. These uses are consistent with those in neighboring areas ( Bağcı, 2000, Şimsek et al., 2004, Elci and Erik, 2006 and Özhatay and Koçak, 2011). The major components of U. dioica are quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside. ( Akbay et al., 2003). Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of U. dioica have been reported ( Gulcin et al., 2004). Mentha longifolia (L.) L. is very commonly used for relieving digestive problems. This use is consistent with the use in the neighboring province of Karaman ( Özhatay and Koçak, 2011). The major components of M. longifolia were described as cis-piperitone epoxide (18.4%), pulegone (15.5%), piperitenone oxide (14.7%), menthone (7.9%), isomenthone (6.6%), trans-piperitone epoxide (4.1%). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of M. longifolia has been reported ( Gulluce et al., 2007). Berberis crataegina DC. is very commonly used as a pain killer. It was used for treating stomach problems in the province of Kayseri ( Bağcı, 2000). It was used for relieving diarrhea and hemorrhoids in the province of Karaman ( Özhatay and Koçak, 2011). The alkaloid composition and their ratio in the roots of B. crataegina were determined as follows: berberine (1.16%), berbamine (0.70%), magnoflorine (0.42%), oxyacanthine (0.36%), jatrorrhizine (0.25%), palmatine (0.17%), columbamine (0.09%) and aromoline (0.06%). B. crataegina root exhibits potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic and febrifuge effects in mice and rats ( Yeşilada and Küpeli, 2002). Endemic Helichrysum arenarium is very commonly used for the treatment of kidney stones and gravel. This use is consistent with the use in the neighboring province of Kahramanmaras (Demirci and Özhatay, 2012).
In this study it was observed that according to the local law, people use nearly every part of the plants for the preparation of traditional medicines namely, the aerial part, branch, bulb, cortex, flowering branch, flower, fruit, latex, leaf, resin, rhizome, root, seed and stem.
The results of this study, compared to the findings of other studies carried out in other regions of Turkey, show there are some new usages and new local names of plants recorded (Sezik et al., 1991, Tabata et al., 1994, Sezik et al., 1997, Yeşilada et al., 1999, Bağcı, 2000, Ertuğ, 2000, Özgen et al., 2004, Özgokce and Ozcelik, 2004, Şimsek et al., 2004, Uzun et al., 2004, Everest and Öztürk, 2005, Özkan and Koyuncu, 2005, Ezer and Mumcu Arısan, 2006, Kocyiğit and Özhatay, 2006, Kültür, 2007, Kargıoğlu et al., 2008, Kültür, 2008, Ugulu et al., 2008, Koyuncu et al., 2009, Sarper et al., 2009, Yeşil and Akalın, 2009, Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010, Polat and Satıl, 2010, Polat and Satıl, 2012, Tuzlacı et al., 2010, Altundağ and Öztürk, 2011, Cakilcioglu et al., 2011, Güneş and Özhatay, 2011, Özgen et al., 2011, Öztürk and Ölçücü, 2011, Tuzlacı, 2011, Bulut and Tuzlacı, 2013, Gürdal and Kültür, 2013, Polat et al., 2013, Sargın et al., 2013, Hayta et al., 2014 and Kaval et al., 2014). Among the 110 medicinal plants in Aladaglar/Nigde, new usages of 52 plants have been recorded in Turkey. New utilizations for Turkey are given in Table 3. Among these 52 plants, 14 of them are endemic to Turkey. Berberis vulgaris was commonly used as an appetizing plant in Aladaglar/Nigde. It was used against jaundice in the Ilıca district of Erzurum/Turkey ( Özgen et al., 2011). It was used against diabetes in East Anatolia/Turkey ( Altundağ and Öztürk, 2011). Crataegus monogyna was commonly used to take out heel spur in Aladaglar. It was used for the treatment of cardiac disorders in the Elazig province/Turkey ( Hayta et al., 2014). It was used for relieving urinary diseases in Manisa ( Bulut and Tuzlacı, 2013). Galium verum subsp. glabrescens was commonly used for psoriasis in Aladaglar. It was used for the treatment of all cancers in East Anatolia/Turkey ( Özgokce and Ozcelik, 2004). It was used to treat burns in Van and Bitlis provinces/Turkey ( Tabata et al., 1994). Endemic Sideritis stricta was commonly used for alleviating flu and common cold in Aladaglar. There is no record about this plant׳s usage. Endemic Stachys cretica subsp. mersinaea was very commonly used against hypertension. It was used against colds and stomach ailments in East Anatolia/Turkey ( Altundağ and Öztürk, 2011). Taraxacum stevenii was commonly used as a pain killer in Aladaglar. There is no record about this plant׳s usage.
Table 3. Comparison of the utilizations stated in the present study and those obtained from previous reports.

Plant namePart usedNew utilizations for Turkey (Aladaglar)
1Achillea aleppica subsp. zederbaueriLeaf, flowerAppetizing, healing wounds
2Achillea arabicaAerial partDiarrhea, cough
3Achillea grandifoliaAerial partHormonal disorder for men, ulcer
4Achillea teretifoliaAerial partHormonal disorder, abdominal pain
5Alyssum sibiricumAerial partProstate
6Anthemis kotschyana var. kotschyanaAerial partLung disease, cold, prostate cancer
7Artemisia alpinaAerial partCold
8Arum detruncatum subsp. detruncatumLeafTonsillitis
9Asyneuma michauxioidesAerial partKidney inflammation, infertility connected with urinary infection,
10Berberis crataeginaLeaf, root, young branchPain killer
11Berberis vulgarisRootAppetizing
12Centaurea cheiranthifolia var. cheiranthifoliaAerial partHealing wound
13Convolvulus arvensisRootInflammation of the nose, headache
14Cota tinctoriaFlowerFever, lung disease, heat stroke
15Crataegus monogynaRootTo take out heel spur
16Cyclotrichium origanifolium
Intestinal disorders, urinary tract obstruction
17Cynoglossum montanumAerial partBronchitis
18Ebenus hirsutaFlowerKidney problems
19Elymus tauri var. kosaniniiAerial partInflammation
20Eremurus spectabilisRootSedative
21Erysimum diffusumFlowerEdema
22Euphorbia denticulateLatexFungus
23Ferulago pachylobaLeaf, fruitIncrease body strenght, sedative
24Galium verum subsp. glabrescentAerial partPsoriasis
25Helichrysum plicatumAerial partAbdominal pain
26Heracleum platytaeniumLeafInfertility
27Hypericum scabrumAerial partCough
28Iberis carnosaFlowerAbdominal pain
29Juncus inflexusRootInflammation
30Marrubium globosumAerial partDiuretic, diarrhea, heart problems
31Moltkia caeruleaFlower, rootDiarrhea
32Ornithogalum umbellatumOnionBoil
33Pimpinella armenaFruitCarminative, sedative
34Potentilla rectaAerial partWound
35Prangos ferulaceaRootAphrodisiac
36Prangos meliocarpoidesRootAphrodisiac
37Rosularia libanoticaLeafHealing wound
38Salvia cadmicaAerial partBleeding
39Scrophularia xanthoglossa var. decipensAerial partWound, abdominal pain
40Sedum albumLeafVerruca
41Senecio tauricolusLeaf, flowerHeadache, aphrodisiac
42Sideritis bilgerianaAerial partHemorrhoids
43Sideritis libanoticaAerial partDiarrhea
44Sideritis strictaAerial partFlu, cold
45Silene chlorifoliaAerial part, rootInflammation
46Smyrnium connatumLeaf,flowerSoporofic
47Stachys cretica subsp. mersinaeaAerial partHypertension
48Taraxacum steveniiAerial partPain killer
49Thlaspi perfoliatumAerial partPain killer
50Tussilago farfaraAerial partItching
51Veronica multifidaAerial partDiarrhea
52Xanthium orientale subsp. italicumLeaf, fruitIncrease of urine, sedative
The provinces of Adana, Ankara, Kayseri, Konya, Karaman, Malatya and Kahramanmaras are close to our field of study. However, the names of some local plants used in these areas are different. According to other ethnobotanical studies in Turkey, 47 plants have new local names in Aladaglar/Turkey. Among these 47 plants, 9 of them are endemic to Turkey. The local name used in Aladaglar for Endemic A. hirsutus Boiss. is Ayı kulağı, on the other hand the local name of the same plant is Öküz osurtan in the province of Ankara ( Şimsek et al., 2004). The local name used in Aladaglar for Endemik Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaea (Boiss.) Rech. fil. is Boncuk şabla, Deli çayı, Rize çayı however the local names of the same plant are Dağ çayı, Çaya çe in Kürecik/Malatya ( Yeşil and Akalın, 2009).
Collecting plants and selling to tea companies has become a source of income for local people. It was observed that 17 medicinal plant taxa have been extensively collected for commercial purposes. These plants are; Polygonum bellardii (Çoban değneği), Elaeagnus angustifolius (İğde), Cyclotrichium origanifolium (Mentol nane), Endemic Sideritis libanotica (Yayla çayı, dağ çayı), U. dioica (Isırgan), H. perforatum (Sarı kantaron), Prangos ferulacea (Melek otu), Endemic Prangos meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides (Çağşır), Endemic F. pachyloba (Melek otu), Ephedra major (Deniz üzümü), T. stevenii (Spreng.) DC. (Kara hindibağ), Artemisia santonicum (Pelin otu), Wiedemannia orientalis (Ballı baba), Endemic Sideritis stricta (Dağ çayı), Galega officinalis (Keçi sedef otu), Capsella bursa-pastoris (Çoban çantası), and Berberis vulgaris (Kadın tuzluğu, Amber paris).

3.3. Data analysis and literature review

Having a high value of usage indicates that this plant is actively used by local people in Aladaglar/Nigde. The highest values of usage were calculated for H. perforatum L. (0.51), Endemic T. sipyleus Boiss. var. sipyleus (0.50), Rosa canina L. (0.50), U. dioica L. (0.44), Malva neglecta Wallr. (0.44), Thymus leucotrichus Hal. (0.43), Salix alba L. (0.42), M. longifolia (L.) L. (0.42), B. crataegina DC. (0.41), Juniperus oxycedrus L. (0.41), Endemic Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaea (0.40), Endemic Helichrysum arenarium L. Moench. (0.39). Determining the use value of a species would be useful to select a medicinal plant for further chemical and activity studies and also this would help to select plants for commercial purposes plant cultivation.
The reported ailments were grouped into 9 categories based on the information gathered from the interviews. Table 4 indicates FIC values of the categories of ailments. Cardiovascular diseases had the highest FIC value (0.86). High FIC value shows that the plants which were used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are presumed to be the most effective in Nigde/Aladaglar. In other words, high value (close to 1) indicates plants used against cardiovascular diseases and are used by a large proportion of the informants. Vinca herbacea Waldst. et Kit., Cota tinctoria (L.) J. Gay, Marrubium globosum Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham, Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaea (Boiss.) Rech. fil., Allium rotundum L. Viscum album L. subsp. abietis (Wiesb.) Abromeit., Crataegus monogyna Jacq. were reported to be among the plant remedies indicated for this use. The second highest value stood for hemorrhoids (0.79). Arum detruncatum (C.A. Meyer ex Schott.) subsp. detruncatum, Achillea aleppica DC. var. zederbaueri (Hayek) Hub.-Mor., Hypericum orientale L., H. perforatum L., Hypericum scabrum L., Sideritis bilgeriana P.H.Davis, Teucrium chamaedrys L., Reseda lutea L., Peganum harmala L. were reported to be among the plant remedies indicated for hemorrhoids. The urinary diseases have 0.69 FIC value, diabetes have 0.68 FIC value, respiratory diseases have 0.61 FIC value, aphrodisiac effect has 0.58 FIC value. The last citations of this ranking were reported for plants used to treat kidney diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and dermatological diseases with a FIC value of 0.57, 0.56 and 0.48 respectively. It shows that the plants which were used against kidney diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and dermatological diseases are chosen randomly or informants do not exchange information about their uses in Nigde/Aladaglar.
Table 4. FIC values of categories of ailments.
1Cardiovascular diseases0.86
3Urinary diseases0.69
5Respiratory diseases0.61
7Kidney diseases0.57
8Gastrointestinal diseases0.56
9Dermatological diseases0.48
There is no study indicating FIC value in this region so far. The articles in which the informant consensus factor (ICF or FIC) is calculated were examined.
Cakilcioglu examined the diseases in 10 categories. The category rheumatism had the highest 0.58 FIC value, followed by cardiovascular disorders that had 0.51 FIC, hemorrhoids had 0.48 FIC and diabetes had 0.40 FIC (Cakilcioglu et al., 2011). In the study from the west of Turkey by Gürdal and Kültür the category rheumatism had the highest, 0.722 FIC value. Diabetes had 0.571 FIC value. Urinary diseases had 0.555 FIC value, respiratory diseases 0.553 FIC value (Gürdal and Kültür, 2013).

4. Conclusions

This study allowed us to collect information about traditional uses of medicinal plants in Aladaglar/ Nigde for the first time. Although the participants belonged to different ethnic groups the interviews were conducted in Turkish. The mean age of the respondents was 55 years (in 18–88 years range). Herbal treatment has become a tradition for the residents of the study region. In the research area, local people were found to be using 110 medicinal plants from 40 families. Most commonly used plants were Hypericum perforatum L. (Sancı otu), Endemic Thymus sipyleus Boiss. var. sipyleus, (Kekik), Rosa canina L. (Kuşburnu), Urtica dioica L. (Isırgan), Malva neglecta Wallr. (Ebelik), Thymus leucotrichus Hal. (Deli kekik), Salix alba L. (Söğüt), Mentha longifolia (L.) L. (Yarpız), Berberis crataegina DC. (Kadın tuzluğu), Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Katran ardıcı), Endemic Stachys cretica L. subsp. mersinaea (Boiss.) Rech. fil. (Boncuk şabla), Endemic H. arenarium L. Moench. (Ölmez çiçek). It is clear that cultivation is the key factor for the protection of wild medicinal plants of the region. Due to them having a high value of usage, these plants can be selected for commercial purpose and therefore medicinal plant cultivation. Especially the cultivation of endemic plants which is very important for protecting the environment.
The most commonly used parts of the plants were the aerial part (57 of use-reports). Other parts were leaf (19), root (18), flower (15), fruit (7), seed (6), branch (7), latex (4), bulb (3), cortex (2).
The relative importance value of the plant species and the informant consensus factors (FIC) were calculated. The reported ailments were grouped into 9 categories. Cardiovascular diseases had the highest FIC value (0.86). High FIC value shows that the plants which had been used for cardiovascular diseases are presumed to be the most effective in Nigde/Aladaglar.
The same plants may have different local names in different regions or the same name is often used for different plants in different regions. Due to these differences of plant names, it becomes difficult to obtain the correct plant to be used. Therefore recording local names in different areas is very important to recognize the correct plant. On the other hand, local names are an important part of our cultural heritage. In our study there were 47 local names which are not recorded in previous studies in Turkey before.
The flora of Aladaglar is threatened by factors such as overgrazing, extension of intensive agriculture, tourism and recreational activities and the extensive collection of wild plants for the purpose of generating income (e.g. Herbal tea). The area of research requires taking protective measures.
New medicinal uses of 52 plants have been recorded in Aladaglar. Among these 52 plants 14 are endemic to Turkey. New medicinal uses of plants will provide new research topics for chemical and activity studies.
This study was carried out with the aim of preserving knowledge about local use and provides preliminary information aimed at a more detailed investigation on the bioactive studies.


We thank all the people of Aladaglar/Nigde who participated in this survey and shared valuable information. This work was supported by Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University. Project no.: T-488/25062004. Project name: an ethnobotanical investigation in Western Part of Central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar/Nigde, 2003–2005.


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