Friday, 29 May 2015

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves: A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

Volume 163, 2 April 2015, Pages 229–240

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves: A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties


Ethnopharmacological relevance

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves, known as Shi Ye (in Chinese), have a long history as a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of ischemia stroke, angina, internal hemorrhage, hypertension, atherosclerosis and some infectious diseases, etc. Additionally, persimmon leaves could be used as healthy products, cosmetics and so on, which have become increasingly popular in Asia, such as Japan, Korea and China etc.

Aim of the review

The present paper reviewed the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, analytical methods, biological activities and toxicology of persimmon leaves in order to assess the ethnopharmacological use and to explore therapeutic potentials and future opportunities for research.

Materials and methods

Information on persimmon leaves were gathered via the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Pudmed, Web of Science, CNKI and EMBASE) and libraries. Additionally, information was also obtained from some local books.


Persimmon leaves have played an important role in Chinese system of medicines. The main compositions of persimmon leaves were flavonoids, terpenoids, etc. Scientific studies on extracts and formulations revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as, antioxidative, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, hemostasis activities and effects on cardiovascular system. Based on the pharmacological activities, persimmon leaves were widely used in clinic including treatment of cardiovascular disease, hemostasis, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and beauty treatment.


Persimmon leaves probably have therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment for cerebral arteriosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension. It showed significant neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, it can regulate immune function and inhibite inflammation. Further investigations are needed to explore individual bioactive compounds responsible for these pharmacological effects in vitro and in vivo and the mode of actions. Further safety assessments and clinical trials should be performed before it can be integrated into medicinal practices.

Graphical abstract

Full-size image (42 K)


  • ACAT, acyl coenzyme a-cholesterol acyltransferase;
  • AGEs, advanced glycation endproducts;
  • AHA, alpha hydroxy acids;
  • Ang, angiotensin;
  • AOPPs, advanced oxidation protein products;
  • APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time;
  • ASK 1, apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1;
  • AST, aspartic transaminase;
  • BP, blood pressure;
  • CI, cardiac index;
  • CK, creatine kinase;
  • CO, cardiac output;
  • CPIP, common peak isovolumetric intra-ventricular pressure;
  • CVP, central venous pressure;
  • DHU, 19, 24-dihydroxy ursolic acid;
  • DOX, doxorubicin;
  • ET, endothefin;
  • GSH-Px, glutathione peroxidase;
  • GVH, graft-versus-host;
  • HDL, high density lipoprotein;
  • HK, hexokinase;
  • HR, heart rate;
  • I/R, ischemic reperfusion;
  • LDH, lactate dehydrogenase;
  • LDL, low density lipoprotein;
  • LVEDP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure;
  • LVP, left ventricular pressure;
  • LVSP, left ventricular systolic pressure;
  • LVWI, left ventricular work index;
  • MACO, middle cerebral artery occlusion;
  • MAP, mean arterial pressure;
  • MBC, minimum bacterial concentrations;
  • MDA, malondialdehyde;
  • MIC, minimum inhibition concentration;
  • 2-NBDG, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa- 1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose;
  • NO, nitric oxide;
  • NOS, nitric oxide synthase;
  • OA, oleanolic acid;
  • PA, proanthocyanidin;
  • PAf, proanthocyanidin fraction;
  • PLE, persimmon leaf extract;
  • PLEg, persimmon leaf extract 2′′-galloly moiety;
  • PLF, persimmon leaves flavonoids;
  • PT, prothrombin time;
  • RA, rotungenic acid;
  • SCF, sinus coronary flow;
  • SOD, superoxide dismutase;
  • SRBC, sheep red blood cell;
  • STZ, streptozotocin;
  • TC, total cholesterol;
  • TCM, traditional Chinese medicine;
  • TG, triglyceride;
  • TPVR, total peripheral vascular resistance;
  • TT, thrombin time;
  • TTI, tension time index;
  • UA, ursolic acid;
  • VCMCs, vascular smooth muscle cells;
  • 4-VO, 4-vessel occlusion

Chemical compounds studied in this article

  • Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343);
  • Kaempferol (PubChem CID: 5280863);
  • Isoquercetin (PubChem CID: 5280804);
  • Myricitrin (PubChem CID: 5281673);
  • Oleanolic acid (PubChem CID: 10494);
  • Ursolic acid (PubChem CID: 64945)


  • Diospyros kaki L.;
  • Persimmon leaves;
  • Flavonoids;
  • Terpenoids;
  • Cardiovascular effects

Corresponding author. Postal address: The School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan Rd. East, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006, PR China. Tel.: +86 13924061779, +86 20 39943041; fax: +86 20 39943000.