Free Rad. Antiox. Basic Research Article
Dnyaneshwar M. Nagmoti,1 Dharmendra K. Khatri,2 Parikshit R. Juvekar,3 Archana R. Juvekar4* Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology (DPST), Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Matunga, Mumbai - 400 019, India Submission Date: 28-12-2011; Revised Date: 5-2-2012; Accepted Date: 22-4-2012
Free radicals may be generated by living cells as a result of pathophysiological and biochemical processes as well as due to environmental pollutants, radiation, chemicals and toxins.[1,2] Oxidative stress results from imbalance between formation and neutralization of prooxidants and also initiated by free radicals, which seek stability
through electron pairing with biological macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and DNA, which leads to protein and DNA damage along with lipid peroxidation in healthy human cells. Eventually these changes lead to many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, aging, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases and other degenerative diseases in human.[3,4] All human cells protect themselves by multiple mechanisms especially enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant systems against free radical damage. However these protective mechanisms may not be enough for severe or continued oxidative stress. Hence certain amounts of antioxidant supplements are constantly required to maintain an adequate level of antioxidants in order to balance the reactive oxygen species in human body. Plants are affluent source of free radical scavenging molecules, such as vitamins, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, lignins, tannins,
*Corresponding address: Prof. (Mrs.) Archana R. Juvekar, Professor in Pharmacology and Physiology, Pharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology (DPST), Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Matunga, Mumbai- 400 019, India. Phone number: (022) 3361 2215 E-mail: email@example.com
Introduction: Oxidative stress resulted from free radicals and reactive oxygen species are associated with many diseases. Several studies are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plant origin. Plants containing phenolic compounds have been reported to possess strong antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to screen phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of Pithecellobium dulce Benth. aqueous and methanolic seed extracts. Methods and Materials: The aqueous (AEPD) and methanolic extract (MEPD) of Pithecellobium dulce seeds were studied for antioxidant potential by using different in vitro assays such as inhibition of DPPH, nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide anions and lipid peroxidation. The total phenolic contents and reducing power of the extracts were also determined by using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), ascorbic acid and mannitol were taken as standards. Results: The aqueous and methanolic extract of P. dulce seeds showed good dose dependant free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The total phenolic content of the aqueous and methanolic extract was found to be 1.31 ± 0.006 and 1.74 ± 0.003 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of extract powder respectively. Reducing power was also found to increase with increase in extracts concentrations. Conclusion: All the results of the in vitro antioxidant assays revealed antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of P. dulce seeds, compared with standard antioxidants. This antioxidant activity may be endorsed to its high phenolic contents. Thus, our findings provide evidence that P. dulce is a potential source of natural antioxidants.
Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Pithecellobium dulce, Free radicals, Reducing power