Wednesday, 15 March 2017

Withania somnifera







Clinical Trials

Treatment with a standardized extract of ashwagandha root (300 mg twice daily for 8 weeks) resulted in significant improvements in perceived stress, food cravings, happiness level, eating habits, serum cortisol levels, body weight, and body mass index in adults under chronic stress. Choudhary 2016

In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with a Withania somnifera extract (120 mg/day for 6 weeks) had less severe symptoms compared to those treated with a placebo. Jahanbakhsh 2016

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, an aqueous extract of Withania somnifera roots and leaves (125-250 mg, b.i.d., for 4-12 weeks) reduced arthritis index, knee swelling, pain, stiffness and disability in patients with knee joint pain and discomfort.Ramakanth 2016

Treatment consisting of the combination of Brahmyadi Churna (an Ayurvedic preparation containing ashwagandha and five other herbs), Shilajatu tablet, and milk as anupana, was associated with marked reduction in blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Ali 2015

A Withania somnifera root extract (KSM-66) improved cardiorespiratory endurance and quality of life scores in healthy athletic adults. Choudhary 2015

A high-concentration Withania somnifera root extract (300 mg twice daily for 8 weeks) improved sexual function in women, assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index. Dongre 2015

In a pilot prospective study, an Ayurvedic treatment consisting of ashwagandha powder followed by Sidh Makardhwaj decreased RA factor in Indian patients. American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response was observed in 56.4 per cent and there was improvements in secondary end points as well. Kumar 2015

Withania somnifera root extract (300 mg twice daily for 8 weeks), combined with resistance training, significantly increased muscle strength and size, testosterone levels, and decreased muscle damage and body fat, compared to the training alone, in young human males. Wankhede 2015

Subtle laboratory changes noted in thyroid indices in an 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled study of an extract of Withania somnifera (ASW) in persons with bipolar disorder suggested that ASW may increase thyroxine levels. Gannon 2014

In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, ashwagandha (W. somnifera) increased the superoxide dismutase levels and decreased malnodialdehyde levels in healthy humans (n=30). Kuchewar 2014

A systematic review identified 5 randomized controlled human clinical trials with Withania somnifera preparations used for the treatment of anxiety or stress, all of which reported improvements (4 out of 5 significant) in the treatment arms, although unclear or high risk of bias was also present. Pratte 2014

An extract of Withania somnifera root (675 mg/day for 90 days) increased sperm count by 167%, semen volume by 53%, sperm motility by 57%, and improved serum hormone levels and regulation, in oligospermic males. Ambiye 2013

In an open-label prospective nonrandomized comparative trial with breast cancer patients (n=100), those receiving W. somnifera root extract (2 g every 8 hrs during the chemotherapy course) reported significantly lower estimated marginal means of fatigue score than control & improved quality of life. Biswal 2013

A controlled study showed that treatment with W. somnifera root powder 5g/d for a 3-months not only reboots enzymatic activity of metabolic pathways and energy metabolism but also invigorates the harmonic balance of seminal plasma metabolites and reproductive hormones in infertile men. Gupta 2013

A review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence on plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders revealed support for efficacy when used greater than one day of 13 herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials including Withania somniferum. Sarris 2013

In a prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects with a history of chronic stress receiving high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract (300 mg) exhibited a significant reduction on all stress-assessment scores & serum cortisol levels compared to placebo. Chandrasekhar 2012

The symptoms abated, body weight improved, ESR values normalized, IgA and IgM patterns changed appreciably& bioavailability of isoniazid & pyrazinamide increased significantly in 99 pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated with anti-tubercular drugs as an adjunct with W. somnifera & Chyawanprash. Debnath 2012

Encapsulated W. somnifera aqueous extract was well tolerated at varying doses in healthy volunteers in a prospective, open-labeled, study. Volunteers showed significant reduction in total- and LDL- cholesterol and increase of strength in muscle activity. Raut 2012

Clinical evaluation of a Rasayana compound containing 9 herbs including W. somnifera as an adjuvant therapy with anti-Koch's treatment revealed that the Rasayana compound was found to decrease cough (83%), fever (93%), dyspnea (71.3%),hemoptysis (87%) & increase in body weight (7.7%). Vyas 2012

12.6% of men given W. somnifera for 60 days showed improvement in psychogenic erectile dysfunction compared to 19.11% in the placebo group. There was no significant difference between the groups and neither group provided relief based on the IIEF scoring.Mamidi 2011

Treatment with W. somnifera significantly reduced apoptosis in normozoospermic and oligozoospermic men and ROS concentrations in oligozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men (all P<0.05). Treatment also significantly improved metal ion concentrations in infertile men (P<0.01) Shukla 2011

In a prospective study, treatment with W. somnifera reduced oxidative stress, as assessed by decreased levels of various oxidants and improved level of diverse antioxidants in healthy men. In infertile subjects, treatment reversed levels of T, LH, FSH & PRL, good indicators of semen quality. Ahmad 2010

Both a pilot study (n=32) and a crossover study (n-110) showed that regular consumption of the tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs including W. somnifera enhanced natural killer cell activity, which is an important aspect of the (early) innate immune response to infections.Bhat 2010

W. somnifera increased velocity, power & maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) whereas Terminalia arjuna increased VO2 max & lowered resting systolic blood pressure in healthy young adults in a controlled trial. Given in combination, all parameters improved except balance & diastolic blood pressure. Sandhu 2010

In a randomized, controlled trial, naturopathic care showed greater clinical benefit for subjects with moderate to severe anxiety of >6wks duration compared to psychotherapy. Naturopathic care included W. somnifera (300 mg b.i.d. standardized to 1.5% with anolides, prepared from root). Cooley 2009

A significiant number of normozoospermic but infertile males given root powder of W. somnifera (5 g/day for 3 mos) showed a decrease in stress, improved the level of antioxidants and improved overall semen quality. The treatment resulted in pregnancy in the partners of 14% of the patients. Mahdi 2009

At 96 hours of use, mean values of receptor expression for CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56 & CD69 increased over baseline in 5 participants who consumed 6 mL of an Ashwagandha root extract 2x daily. Expression of CD4 on CD3+ T cells and CD69 on CD56+ NK cells increased significantly. Mikolai 2009

Different modalities of Ayurvedic therapy including Ashwagandha tablet 500 mg one tablet thrice daily was found to be safe and, showed improvement in the overall and anteroposterior balance in ten patients with progressive degenerative cerebellar ataxia. Sriranjini 2009

The effect of RA-11, an Ayurvedic formula (Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale, and Curcuma longa) in 358 patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knees was evaluated which revealed the efficacy and safety of RA- 11 in the symptomatic treatment of OA knees. Chopra 2004

A new polyherbal drug Immu-25, produced good symptomatic improvement within 6 months in 36 patients with a mean age of 35 +/-10 years, with confirmed HIV infection and the herbal drug have a good immunomodulatory effect. Usha 2003

Increase in urine sodium, urine volume, decrease in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDLand VLDL cholesterol observed in 6 NIDDM and 6 hypercholesterolemic subjects treated with Ashvagandha, indicate that its is a potential source of hypoglycemic, diuretic & hypocholesterolemic agents. Andallu 2000

The necessity of cleansing therapy in Ayurveda medication (a concoction in cow's milk of 4 drugs including powdered Withania somnifera and Sida cordifolia roots) prior to palliative therapy was established in 18 clinically diagnosed parkinsonian patients.Nagashayana 2000

Observational Studies/Case Reports

The mean SARA score of a patient with spinocerebellar ataxia-2 was reduced from 35 to 15 after treatment, which included W. somnifera taken orally, along with other Ayurvedic herbs, and other Ayurvedic interventions. Good relief in several symptoms was observed. Singh 2016

Substantial clinical improvement was reported in existing neurological deficits and in quality of life after 2 months of an Ayurvedic treatment, which included W. somnifera powder, in a spinal cord injury case.Singh 2015

Review herbal supplements, including, among others, Rhodiola rosea, W. somnifera, Schisandra chinensis & Tribulus terrestris, used as adaptogenic & ergogenic aids in sport includes available data on their effects and active ingredients, as well as possible adverse effects. Koncic 2013

A woman (57 yo) with adrenal hyperplasia due to 3-β-ol dehydrogenase and aldosterone synthase deficiency self-treated with Ashwagandha for 6 mos resulting in decrease of serum corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 18-OH-hydroxy-corticoserone, & 17-OH-pregnenolone by 31%, 66%, 69% and 55%, respectively. Kalani 2012

Reviews the intracellular effects of Withaferin A and characterizes its target proteins. Vanden Berghe 2012

Reviews scientific studies which demonstrated Withania somnifera's adaptogenic / anti-stress activities, anti-tumor effect, cognition-promoting effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects & its usefulness in neurodegenerative diseases. Singh 2011

Review of the scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants, including ashwaganda, in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Ven Murthy 2010

Summary of hypotheses regarding cell dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and discussion of the effectiveness of, and problems with, different therapies, including W. somnifera. Wollen 2010

Comment on the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders - first revision, which includes Ashwagandha for anxiety disorders.Andrade 2009

A literature review of the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of drug addiction found that, among other herbal remedies, Withania somnifera and Salvia miltiorrhiza have no efficacy data, but can reduce morphine tolerance and alcohol intake, respectively, in animal models. Lu 2009

World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry guidelines for the Pharmacological Treatment of Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive & PTSDs, based on 510 published randomized, placebo- or comparator-controlled clinical studies & 130 open studies/case reports includes Ashwaganda. WFSBP 2008

A 32-year-old healthy woman developed thyrotoxicosis while taking capsules that contained ashwagandha herbal extract for symptoms of chronic fatigue. [Article in Dutch] van der Hooft 2005

Traditional and Folk Use

Reported use of Withania somnifera for cleansing and/or toning of the uterus (with a purpose either to induce pregnancy or to get rid of the placenta) in Lesotho. Moteetee 2016

Withania somnifera was among the most commonly used plant species for the management of candidiasis and related fungal infections by traditional healers in the Venda area, South Africa.Masevhe 2015

Among 67 medicinal plant species reported to be used in an unexplored area of Pakistan, Withania somnifera was one of 3 species with 100% Fidelity Level. Khan 2014

Reviews the recent scientific validation on traditionally used herbal plants, such as W. somnifera, as aphrodisiac herbs for the management of sexual disorder erectile dysfunction. Malviya 2011

A prospective pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of Gujarat region showed Bacopa monniera, Evolvulus alsinoides, W. somnifera, Nardostychos jatamansi, Acorus calamus and Phyllanthus emblica were the common ingredients in memory and vitality-enhancing medicines used in that region. Shah 2010

An ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Showbak, Jordan identified 79 wild medicinal plant species and their relative importance value as well as calculated the informant consensus factor. Al-Qura'n 2009

The review discusses the pharmacological basis of the use of Ashwagandha in epilepsy, stress and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disorders, tardive dyskinesia, cerebral ischemia, and even the management of drug addiction.Kulkarni 2008

The popular Medhya Rasayanas which retard brain aging and help in regeneration of neural tissues besides producing antistress, adaptogenic and memory enhancing effect are Ashwagandha, Brahmi, Mandukaparni and Sankhapuspi. Singh 2008

The medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes include Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. Modak 2007

A survey conducted in southern Punjab, Pakistan, to document existing ethnobotanical knowledge by the herdsmen/key respondents about anthelmintics in ruminants shows that 29 plants including Withania somnifera were used to treat helminthosis in ruminants.Jabbar 2006

Withania somnifera reduces tumor cell proliferation while increasing overall animal survival time. It enhances the effectiveness of radiation therapy while potentially mitigating undesirable side effects. Winters 2006

Monograph. Withania somnifera. [No authors listed] 2004

A HPLC method developed for the determination of withaferin A & withanolide D was successfully used to investigate the presence of the markers in different W. somnifera plant parts as well as to analyze their contents in market products. Ganzera 2003

The review of therapeutic use of Withania somnifera indicates that it possesses anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antistress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hemopoietic, and rejuvenating properties. Mishra 2000

A review of Indian traditional medicines with antioxidant activity includes 7 medicinal plants including Momordica charantia, Santalum album, Swertia chirata Buch-Ham, and Withania somnifera.Scartezzini 2000

Withania somnifera, widely used for many clinical conditions in India, improved rat swimming tests Archana 1999

106 Israeli healers indicate that of the Solanaceae family, only Lycium europeaum, Solanum nigrum, Hyoscyamus are much used and that Datura, Mandragora & Withania have been largely abandoned Dafni 1994

20 plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include Aristolochia indica, Azadirachta indica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, and Withania somnifera. Farnsworth 1982


Adverse Effects & Toxicity

A study of acute and sub-acute (28-day) toxicity of a Withania somnifera extract (500-2000 mg/kg/day), standardized for withaferin A, concluded that the no-observed-adverse-effect-level of the extract was 2000 mg/kg in rats. Patel 2016

A combination of Withania somnifera, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens, and Argyreia speciosa (27-81 mg/kg for 60 days) produced no significant toxicity in rabbits, with some biochemical changes in the kidney and liver observed. Ahmed 2015

A proprietary formulation of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale, and Curcuma longa did not show any significant toxicity in rats and inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro, except for very high acute doses. Dey 2015

A 6-wk investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial found that despite higher doses, standardized Ayurvedic formulations (some of which include W. somnifera) used to treat osteoarthritic knees demonstrated a good safety profile. Chopra 2012

Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats showed no observed adverse effects up to 2000 mg/kg body weight per day and hence may be considered as non-toxic. Prabu 2012

A 28 yo man taking ashwagandha (5g) experienced a burning and/or itching sensation as well as discoloration of the skin/mucous membrane confined to the penis. He had a similar eruption 6 mos prior. After treatment, provocation with 1 g of ashwagandha powder confirmed the causality. Sehgal 2012

Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Withania somnifera tested. Rao 2011

Heavy metal bioaccumulation in medicinal plants collected from Khetri copper mines & compared with those collected from fertile soil in Haridwar, India showed that copper levels in herbs from Khetri were 3-4 folds higher & Withania somnifera showed high metal bioaccumulation. Maharia 2010

The result of acute oral toxicity for a herbal combination of W. somnifera, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna Pruriens & Argyreia speciosa reveals it is safe up to 5000 mg/kg. The effects of study related to reproductive capability on both sex reveals increase in reproduction rate up to two generations. Riaz 2010

10 plant extracts including Withania somnifera, were tested for brine shrimp lethality & in vitro activity against chloroquine-sensitive & resistant strains of P. falciparum which revealed that 40% of methanol extracts were toxic to brine shrimp while 50% had anti-plasmodial activity. Kirira 2006

In a review of natural phospholipase A(2) (PLA2S) myotoxin inhibitor proteins from snakes, mammals and plants, it is shown that in plants, a new anti-toxic-PLA2 glycoprotein isolated from Withania somnifera has been found to neutralize the PLA2 activity of the Naja naja venom. Lizano 2003

Oral administration of methanolic extract of Withania somnifera at for 7 days in male rats induced impairment in libido, sexual performance, sexual vigour, and penile erectile dysfunction and detrimental to male sexual competence. Ilayperuma 2002

Subacute toxicity study in rats with 90 days oral administration using three doses of Panax ginseng and W. somnifera did not reveal any toxicity. Aphale 1998

Acute LD50 for withaferin A in Swiss mice is around 80 mg/kg Sharad 1996


"Priming" of the HT-29 colon cells with a Withania somnifera root extract increased the potency of the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin towards the cells. This effect was not seen in non-cancerous cells.Henley 2017

Withania somnifera chemotype NMITLI 101R (30mg/kg for 15 days) increased the efficacy of antileishmanial drugs, achieving nearly complete inhibition of parasite multiplication, in Leishmania donovani-infected hamsters, via augmentation of the immune response. Tripathi 2017

Withaferin A augmented the antitumor activity of oxaliplatin against human pancreatic cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Li 2015

Crude extracts and phytoconstituents of W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes in human liver microsomes. Savai 2015

A crude extract of Withania somnifera did not significantly affect the function of cytochrome P450 1A2 and 2C9 isoforms in human liver microsomes, in vitro. Savai 2015

Potential interference of 3 herbal supplements including Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and Indian Ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha on serum digoxin measurement by Digoxin III assay in vitro was studied and the results were compared with the values obtained by Tina-quant assay. Dasgupta 2008

Components of Ashwagandha interfered with serum digoxin measurements using immunoassays. Digibind neutralized free digoxin-like immunoreactive components of Ashwagandha. Dasgupta 2007


No Records


Animal Studies

Investigated the effects of Withania somnifera in a Drosophila melanogaster model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. De Rose 2017

A water extract of W. somnifera leaf, containing triethylene glycol as a major component, induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep in mice. The alcoholic extract, containing high amount of active withanolides, was ineffective. Kaushik 2017

A nanopreparation of Withania somnifera extract and gadolinium (III) oxide (227 mg/kg body weight, i.p., for 3 weeks) in conjunction with irradiation suppressed tumor weight, size, DNA content, while ameliorating hepatic lipid peroxidation, in mice with solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Abdallah 2016

Withanolide A increased lifespan and stress resistance via insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway and showed neuroprotective and anti-amyloidogenic effects via modulation of neural mediators like acetylcholine in Caenorhabiditis elegans.Akhoon 2016

Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of a Withania somnifera root extract (200-400 mg/kg) decreased a measure of behavioral despair in mice, the higher dose being similar in efficacy with i.p. fluoxetine (20 mg/kg). Attari 2016

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) powder reduced alcohol withdrawal anxiety, alcohol intake, and increased GABA and serotonin levels in mice. Bansal 2016

An extract from Withania somnifera (AshwaMAX, 4.3% withaferin A) inhibited the growth of glioblastoma cells in vitro, and, at 40 mg/kg per day, transiently reduced the bioluminescence signal in orthotopic mouse models, with evidence of resistance occurring after 30 days of treatment. Chang 2016

A methanolic extract of Withania somnifera root, administered through diet (1%) to adult flies, improved locomotor activity, muscle electrophysiological response to stimuli, and protected against mitochondria degeneration, in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Parkinson's disease. De Rose 2016

Pretreatment with a withanolide-rich fraction of a methanolic extract of Withania somnifera roots (50-200mg/kg) decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, attenuated the increases in TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-II, and iNOS expression, and restored liver histology in acetaminophen-treated rats. Devkar 2016

A Withania somnifera root extract even at the low dose of 10 mg/kg/day (for ~11-12 days) induced alterations in body weight and basal core temperatures, indicative of an adaptogenic (anti-stress) effect, in stressed mice. Dey 2016

A Withania somnifera root extract, administered p.o. for 8 weeks, improved the motor performance and cognitive function of mice expressing a mutant form of human DNA binding protein 43 (TARDBP or TDP-43), a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Dutta 2016

An alcoholic extract of ashwagandha leaves attenuated scopolamine-induced detrimental alterations in scopolamine-induced mouse model of amnesia, thus demonstrating cholinergic effects. Gautam 2016

An aqueous extract of Withania somnifera leaves suppressed anxiogenic, pro-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic effects of sleep deprivation in rats. Kaur 2016

An aqueous extract of Withania somnifera leaf (140 mg/kg or 1 ml/250 g of body weight for 15 days) decreased neuronal stress and apoptosis induced by sleep deprivation and improved performance in sleep-deprived rats. Manchanda 2016

An extract of Withania somnifera leaves ameliorated benzo[a]pyrene-induced behavioral and neuromorphological alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Mohanty 2016

Withaferin A protected wild-type mice from acetaminophen-induced liver injury via a Nrf2-dependent mechanism. The induction of Nrf2 was at least in part via a non-canonical (vs. sulforaphane), Keap1-independent, Pten/Pi3k/Akt-dependent pathway. Palliyaguru 2016

Withania somnifera ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in the hypothalamus of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Parihar 2016

Withania somnifera considerably increased gonadotropin and sex hormone levels in morphine-addicted rats, while inducing only a slight increase in the non-addicted control group. Rahmati 2016

A Withania somnifera extract (300 mg/kg b.w., p.o., for 8 weeks) enhanced the sexual function, increasing serum testosterone levels, reducing the levels of NF-κB and increasing those of Nrf2 and HO-1, in male rats. Sahin 2016

Withania somnifera root induced analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, and improved insulin resistance in rats receiving fructose in the drinking water. Shahraki 2016

A standardized extract of a Withania somnifera chemotype, administered in liposomes, possess significant neuroprotective activity in cerebral stroke model in rats. Ahmad 2015

Withania somnifera ameliorated the liver and kidney toxicities of silver nanoparticles in rats. Anwar 2015

Withaferin A, derived from the leaf extract of Withania somnifera, inhibited the proliferation and migration of human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells in vitro, and reduced the volume and weight of the tumors in mouse xenografts. Choi 2015

A systematic review and meta-analysis concluded that W. somnifera was able to inhibit oxidative stress-induced neurological abnormalities, produced by different physical & chemical stimuli, & significantly restored the altered oxidative & other stress markers in different parts of rodent brain. Durg 2015

Withaferin A attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in neonatal rats. Gao 2015

Arc helped in polymerization of F-actin and subsequent changes in the morphology of dendritic spines after pre-treatment with an alcoholic W. somnifera leaf extract in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Gautam 2015

Osteotomized rats treated with Cissus quadrangularis drastically enhanced alkaline phosphatase and cartilage tissue formation as compared to untreated, W. somnifera only, or the combination of both herbals. Kanwar 2015

An aqueous extract of Withania somnifera suppressed intracranial growth of allografted glioma cells in rats. Kataria 2015

Withania somnifera root powder reduced right ventricular pressure and all markers of right ventricular hypertrophy, as well as inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension. Kaur 2015

A Withania somnifera leaf extract ameliorated isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Khalil 2015

An aqueous extract of Withania somnifera roots, administered for 20 days, decreased arthritic indices in rats with an experimentally induced arthritis. Khan 2015

Withaferin A ameliorated ovariectomy-induced increases in osteocalcin, a bone turnover marker, and TNF-α levels; increased new bone formation, and improved the microarchitecture and biomechanical strength of the bones in mice. These effects were comparable to 17 β-estradiol (E2) administration. Khedgikar 2015

An ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera roots ameliorated arsenic toxicity to the reproductive system of male rats. Kumar 2015

Withaferin A suppressed the up-regulation of acetyl-coA carboxylase 1 and skin tumor formation in a skin carcinogenesis mouse model. Li 2015

A standardized extract of Withania somnifera improved the survival and locomotion in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Parkinson's disease. Manjunath 2015

Withania somnifera arabinogalactan suppressed cough reflex, via mu-opioid receptor pathways, in mice. Nosálová 2015

A Withania somnifera root extract showed antinociceptive activity, possibly involving the opioidergic system, in mice. Orrù 2015

A fermented extract containing W. somnifera, Emblica officinalis and Bacopa monnieri was shown to be free of any toxicity. Compared with control, the fermented extract reduced chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane vascularization, suggesting its antiangiogenic potency.Rabhi 2015

Withania somnifera: a pre-clinical study on neuroregenerative therapy for stroke. [No abstract] Raghavan 2015

Dietary administration of Withania somnifera root for 8 weeks inhibited the increases in blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R), and IL-6 and TNF-α levels in fructose-fed rats. Samadi Noshahr 2015

Pre-supplementation with Withania somnifera (300 mg/kg body weight for 30 days) prevented oxidative stress and decreases in acetylcholinesterase activity, reduced cerebral infarct volume, and attenuated behavioral deficits, in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Sood 2015

A standardized Withania somnifera root extract inhibited the formation of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and aversion, without affecting spatial memory, in mice. Spina 2015

A methanolic extract of Withania somnifera aerial parts significantly reduced egg hatching of Culex pipens. Abdel-Sattar 2014

An aqueous extract of Withania somnifera ameliorated the hepatotoxicity of dimethoate (an organophosphorus pesticide) in guinea pigs. Al-Awthan 2014

Withanolide A ameliorated the oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, induced by hypoxia in rats. Baitharu 2014

Ambrex, a formulation containing Withania somnifera and 4 other botanicals, reduced total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and augmented the antioxidant defense system, in hyperlipidemic rats.Devi 2014

A combination of withanone and withaferin A showed selective cancer cell-killing activity, as well as anti-migratory, anti-invasive, and antiangiogenic activities, in vitro and in vivo (mice). Gao 2014

Withania somnifera did not produce any notable effects in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Parkinson's disease. Jansen 2014

Treatment of nude mice bearing orthotopic ovarian tumors with withaferin A, alone or in combination with cisplatin, resulted in a 70 to 80% reduction in tumor growth and complete inhibition of metastasis to other organs compared to untreated controls. Kakar 2014

Treatment of infected mice with A. racemosus and W. somnifera in combination at the higher dose not only resulted in a successful reduction in parasite load but also generated protective Th1-type immune responses with normalization of biochemical and hematological parameters, Kaur 2014

An extract of Withania somnifera roots, administered in the diet for 10 months, decreased the average number and weight of mammary carcinomas in transgenic female mice. Khazal 2014

W. somnifera aqueous leaf extract significantly protected lead-induced altered antioxidant defense in rats. It also provided significant protection to lipid peroxidation levels, catalase & superoxide dismutase but not reduced glutathione contents in brain tissue & peripheral organs, liver & kidney. Kumar 2014

An extract of W. somnifera roots (WSE) reduced the acquisition, maintenance and breakpoint of ethanol self-administration in rats. WSE also reduced the deprivation effect, reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behaviours and saccharin reinforcement. Peana 2014

An ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera root ameliorated Parkinson's disease, induced by paraquat and maneb, in mice.Prakash 2014

An aqueous extract of Withania somnifera reduced the infarct volume in a mouse model of ischemic stroke, via antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. Raghavan 2014

When given to L. donovani-infected hamsters at different doses, a root extract of W. somnifera chemotype NMITL1-101 showed moderate therapeutic efficacy, followed by chemotype NMITLI-118and pure withanolide-withaferin A. Tripathi 2014

Withania somnifera ameliorated bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity and renal mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Vedi 2014

Pretreatment with W. somnifera extract attenuated behavioral, biochemical, and histological alterations significantly in dose-dependent manner in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of ICV-STZ-infused rats. Ahmed 2013

Withania somnifera root extract ameliorated hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration in rat hippocampus through nitric oxide-mediated modulation of corticosterone levels. Baitharu 2013

Oral treatment with W. somnifera ethanol extract (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) caused significant benefit in E. coli-infected guinea pig as evidenced by the correction of some hematological and biochemical parameters, as well as suppressed inflammatory cytokine response in TNF- α . El-Boshy Mel 2013

Compared to control, labeling indices for Ki67 & proliferating cell nuclear antigen markers in cancers of mice receiving W. somnifera extract (150 mg/kg BW by gavage) after injection of mammary carcinogen methylnitrosourea were 42% and 38% lower, respectively. Treated mice had fewer, smaller tumors. Khazal 2013

W. somnifera root powder (400mg/ kg b.w/ d, 4wks) modulated rotenone-induced oxidative damages & mitochondrial dysfunctions in cerebellum & striatum of prepubertal mice brain. This effect may be wholly or in part due to its ability to enhance glutathione, thiols & antioxidant defenses. Manjunath 2013

After oral administration of arabinogalacatan samples extracted from W. somnifera, Adhatoda vasica, & Glycyrrhiza glabra (50mg/kg), citric acid-induced cough in awake guinea pigs was reduced 61%, 67%, and 81%, respectively. This antitussive activity was comparable to that of codeine (62%). Nosalova 2013

W. somnifera root extract protected against MB-PQ induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration and markedly improved behavioral, anatomical and the biochemical deformities in Parkinsonian mice. Prakash 2013

Withania somnifera prevents acquisition and expression of morphine-elicited conditioned place preference in CD-1 mice and has a higher affinity for γ-aminobutyric acid B than for µ-opioid receptors. Ruiu 2013

W. somnifera (350 mg/kg b.wt.) given orally along with cisplatin in Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice enhanced the antileishmanial efficacy of the drug, & significantly reversed the damage in liver and kidney caused by the drug. On its own, W. somnifera showed less antileishmanial potential. Sachdeva 2013

Treatment with W. somnifera root extract (WS) & Withanolide A (WA) significantly reversed the motor learning deficit in rats with temporal lobe epilepsy compared with control rats. Treatment with WS & WA resulted in physiological expression of AMPA receptors & reversed the GAD & GLAST expression. Soman 2013

W. somnifera root extracts have been shown to induce skin darkening in wall lizard melanophores via stimulation of cholinergic receptors of muscarinic nature. The melanin dispersal effects leading to skin darkening were antagonized by atropine & hyoscine, & highly potentiated by neostigmine. Ali 2012

Withania somnifera showed protective effect against oxidative stress and pancreatic beta-cell damage in type 2 diabetic rats due to its strong free radical scavenging activity & by improving the non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. Anwer 2012

W. somnifera root extract (100mg/kg, by gavage) protected against gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress & DNA damage in rat hepatic tissue via enhancing antioxidant activity & induction of HO-1.Hosny Mansour 2012

Aqueous extracts W. somnifera (AEWS) and methanolic extracts (MEWS, 50 mg/kg) successively decreased the marble burying behavior activity without affecting motor activity in mice. This effect of AEWS and MEWS was comparable to standard fluoxetine, ritanserin and parachlorophenylalanine. Kaurav 2012

Administration of aqueous ethanol extracts (10 mg/kg) and Withaferin A (0.3 mg/kg), 7 days before and after challenge with human filarial parasite Brugia malayi offer differential protection in Mastomys coucha with chemotype 101R offering best protection. Kushwaha 2012

Ethanol root extracts of 3 Withania somnifera chemotypes - NMITLI 101R, NMITLI 118R & NMITLI 128R - showed differentially modulated immune response in BALB/c mice. NMITLI 101R appeared to possess a better immunostimulatory activity than the other chemotypes at lower doses. Kushwaha 2012

Withaferin A protects vascular barrier integrity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells & in mice by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of cell adhesion molecules, adhesion & migration of leukocytes induced by high mobility group box 1 protein & associated signaling pathways. Lee 2012

Withania somnifera was found to have potent inhibitory effect on proteinuria, nephritis and other inflammatory markers in pristane-induced Balb/c mouse model of lupus. Humoral response, however, was found to be impervious. Minhas 2012

W. somnifera reverses Alzheimer's disease pathology by enhancing low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) in mice livers. W. somnifera mediated effects through up-regulation of liver LPR indicates that targeting the periphery offers a mechanism for β-amyloid peptide clearance. Sehgal 2012

Concurrent daily administration of hydro-methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera protected against the adverse hematoserological effects of lead nitrate-induced toxicity in mice. Sharma 2012

Treatment with W. somnifera root extract and Withanolide A ameliorated spatial memory deficits by inhibiting oxidative stress induced alteration in glutamergic neurotransmission and restoring altered NMDA receptor density in epileptic rats. Soman 2012

Administration of herbal adaptogens like Withania somnifera shade-dried powder at the rate of 0.1% in feed significantly prevented the bioaccumulation of cadmium in broiler chicken and reversed the cadium-induced oxidative tissue damage. Bharavi 2011

Scopolamine-induced cytotoxicity in IMR32 neuronal & C6 glioma cells was attenuated by treatment with alcoholic Ashwaganda leaf extract or its purified component, withanone. Similarly, downregulated expression of BDNF and GFAP was attenuated in Ashwaganda-treated mice. Konar 2011

Withaferin A protected vascular barrier integrity in high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)-induced inflammatory responses in mice by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of CAMs, adhesion and migration of leukocytes. Lee 2011

Prophylactic administration of W. somnifera root powder (500 mg and 1,000 mg per kg body weight) potently inhibits the proinflammatory cytokines, NO and ROS, in the ascetic fluid as well as in serum of female Balb/c mice in a model of a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) like disease. Minhas 2011

Single & repeated dose administration of NR-ANX-C, a standardized polyherbal formula containing W. somnifera, reduced ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats in a dose-dependent manner. At the highest tested dose (40 mg/kg) the anxiolytic activity was comparable to the standard drug alprazolam. Mohan 2011

A rectal gel formulation containing an aqueous extract of W. somnifera (WSRE) applied at 1000mg WSRE per kg rat weight showed significant muco-restorative efficacy in IBD-induced rats, validated by histo-pathological studies. Pawar 2011

Perment, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation containing W. somnifera, exhibited synergistic activity, and a significant antidepressant and anxiolytic activity, which may be mediated through adrenergic and serotonergic system activation, in a stress-induced depressive rat model. Ramanathan 2011

A polyherbal formulation (500 mg / kg, p.o.) produced significant improvement in passive avoidance acquisition and memory retrieval in rats. Shah 2011

A polysaccharide fraction, pectic arabinogalactan from water extracted W. somnifera containing arabinosyl, galactosyl & galacturonosyl residues (50 mg kg(-1) body weight) decreased the number of cough efforts induced by citric acid in guinea pigs similar to codeine. Sinha 2011

In a breast cancer metastasis mouse model, Withaferin A purified from W. somnifera showed dose-dependent inhibition of metastatic lung nodules and induced vimentin ser56 phosphorylation, with minimal toxicity to lung tissue. Thaiparambil 2011

The roots of ayurvedic medicinal Plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Withania somnifera, Asparagus racemosus, and Chlorophytum borivilianum and seeds of Sesamum indicum in three different combinations showed ameliorative effects in hyperlipidemia in hypercholesterolemic rats. Visavadiya 2011

Herbal remedies based on Echinacea, Brahmi, or Ashwagandha enhanced immune function by increasing immunoglobulin production in rats. Brahmi diet stimulated more secretion of IgA and IgG in the serum compared to Echinacea or Ashwagandha. Yamada 2011

Withania somnifera root and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder (0.1% through feed) reversed the antioxidant enzyme of RBC, i.e., CAT and SOD, nonenzymatic antioxidants GSH and lipid peroxidation marker TBARS of liver and kidney in cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chickens. Bharavi 2010

The methanolic extract of Withania somnifera acts on GABAA receptors in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in juvenile mice and affects the neuronal activities by possible GABAmimetic activity. Bhattarai 2010

After 25 days of oral aqueous root extract of W. somnifera (50 mg/100 gm body weight/day), the dehydrated rats significantly gained weight. Low levels of serum urea & creatinine indicated protection against renal injury. Stabilized super-oxide dismutase & catalase indicated antioxidant activity. Das 2010

W. somnifera root powder ameliorated the severity of GEN-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by improving antioxidant status and significantly reversing the levels, and protecting the cellular integrity of kidney and liver tissues. Jayanthi 2010

Withaferin A increased treatment response to both radiotherapy and local hyperthermia in 57BL mice with B16F1 melanoma. Fractionated Withaferin A + radiotherapy + local hyperthermia for 3 weeks produced a higher growth delay and survival than all other treatments. Kalthur 2010

Withania somnifera significantly altered the level of leucocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, immune complexes and immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G and M in the azoxymethane induced colon cancer in Swiss albino mice and immune dyssfunction was better controlled.Muralikrishnan 2010

W. somnifera administration normalized tricarboxylic acid cycle key enzymes, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer bearing Swiss albino mice. Muralikrishnan 2010a

Polyherbal formulation NR-ANX-C, containing W. somnifera, caused reduction in ulcer index, decrease in gastric juice volume & total acidity, increase in gastric pH & total adherent gastric mucus and reduced extent of lipid peroxidation in aspirin & pyloric ligature induced gastric ulcers in rats. Nair 2010

Tuberous root extract of Pueraria tuberose & W. somnifera rhizome extract (as a reference drug) each showed significant anxiolytic activity, protected the gastric mucosa, lowered plasma corticosterone level & negated the hypertrophy of adrenals and spleen of male rats with chronic foot shock stress. Pramanik 2010

Daily oral administration of extracts of W. somnifera root and leaf, restored the levels of urine sugar, blood glucose, liver glycogen, and antioxidantsnto normal in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Udayakumar 2010

Withania somnifera exerted protective effects on the prolongation of the acquisition as well as retention transfer latency observed in propoxur-treated rats and attenuates AChE inhibition and cognitive impairment caused by sub-chronic exposure to propoxur. Yadav 2010

The dose of ashwaganda required to increase the PTZ seizure threshold for tonic extensor by 50% in mice was 50-200 mg/kg p.o.. Compared to other antiepileptic drugs, it was one of the least potent, only stronger than ethanol. Akula 2009

Adult mice treated with W. somnifera extract for 30 days during stress, significantly reversed the stress induced NADPH-d activation. Neuroprotective effects of withania can be attributed to its role in the down regulation of nNOS and neurochemical alterations of specific neurotransmitter systems. Bhatnagar 2009

Either Withania somnifera (1.4 g/kg) or Bauhinia purpurea (2.5 mg/kg) extract given orally along with dexamethasone & metformin elevated concentrations of circulating T3 & T4 to euthyroid level in Type 2 diabetic mice. The extracts also corrected relative risk ratio & serum concentration of lipids. Jatwa 2009

Root extract of W. somnifera (500 mg/kg) significantly reversed changes in kidney weight, urea, creatinine, urinary protein, glucose, body weight and potassium in rats caused by gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Jayanthy 2009

Tumor growth delay increased with increase in time gap between two hyperthermia treatments and was significantly higher (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in Withaferin treated C57BL mice at all the respective time gaps (except at 0h and 120h) compared to hyperthermia alone group.Kalthur 2009

In addition to reducing severity of withdrawal syndrome, W. somnifera methanolic extract fully prevented spine density reduction in the nucleus accumbens shell in spontaneous and pharmacologically precipitated morphine withdrawal in rats when given during chronic morphine treatment. Kasture 2009

Single administration of W. somnifera (WS, 30 or 100 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and caffeine, used either alone or in combination, significantly inhibited catalepsy. Mice withdrawn from caffeine significantly inhibited haloperidol-induced catalepsy; mice withdrawn from WS showed increased catalepsy. Kasture 2009a

Oral administration of Withanolide A, isolated from W. somnifera root extract, once daily at the graded doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg p.o. caused significant recovery of stress-induced altered T cell function and corresponding cytokines patterns in Swiss albino mice.Kour 2009

Chronic treatment with W. somnifera root extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) for a period of 2 weeks dose-dependently improved 3-nitropropionic acid-induced behavioral, biochemical, and enzymatic changes in a rat model of model of Huntington's disease. Kumar 2009

W. somnifera formulation inhibited expression of pStat-3 & selective stimulation of Th1 immunity in tumour-bearing mice as evidenced by enhanced secretion of IFN-gamma & IL-2. It enhanced proliferation of CD4(+)/CD8(+) & NK cells along with an increased expression of CD40, 40L & 80. Malik 2009

Composite methanolic extract of roots of Withania somnifera, leaves of Ocimum sanctum, and rhizomes of Zingiber officials by garage had a therapeutic protective effect on forced swimming-induced oxidative stress in vital organs of male rats. Misra 2009

Both fibrin network & platelet stability are impaired in asthmatic BLAB/c mice. W. somnifera improved fibrin network stability but not platelet stability. Selenium stabilized activiated platelets but not fibrin networks. Thus, best results are obtained using both anti-inflammatory & an antioxidant. Pretorius 2009

Withania somnifera root extract improves catecholamines DA, DOPAC, HVA, GSH and GPx and normalized thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level and physiological abnormalities seen in a Parkinson's disease mouse model. RajaSankar 2009

Ashwagandha leaf extract (100mg/kg for 7 days) normalized enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, malondialdehyde, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase compared to control in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Rajasankar 2009a

Withania somnifera root & leaf extracts restored the levels of urine sugar,blood glucose, HbA1C, G6P, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, serum lipids except high density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol & tissues like liver, kidney and heart lipids to normal after 8 wks of treatment in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Udayakumar 2009

The aqueous extract of Withania somnifera normalizes hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rats by improving insulin sensitivity. Anwer 2008

[Retraction. Nootropic-like effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice.] Dhuley 2008

The protective role of Withania somnifera (WS) in acute ethanol and withdrawal from chronic ethanol consumption using elevated plus maze paradigm in rats was investigated and showed that ethanol withdrawal anxiety was markedly antagonized in dose dependent manner by WS. Gupta 2008

Purified extract of Withania somnifera has been shown to be protective against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats hence might be a useful adjuvant therapy where doxorubicin is the cancer-treating drug. Hamza 2008

It is shown that the anticonvulsant effect of Withania somnifera against pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold paradigm involved the GABAAergic modulation. Kulkarni 2008

A study undertaken with LAD coronary artery occlusion for 45 min followed by 1hr reperfusion in Wistar rats showed that the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of Withania somnifera may contribute to its cardioprotective effects. Mohanty 2008

Withania somnifera was found to be more efficacious than scopolamine in reversing haloperidol induced catalepsy in albino mice. Nair 2008

The antigenotoxic effect of withaferin-A, a steroidal lactone obtained from the roots and leaves of Withania somnifera, in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene -induced genotoxicity in the bone marrow of golden Syrian hamsters was investigated and confirmed.Panjamurthy 2008

The tumors from Withaferin A (WA) -treated mice exhibited reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis compared with tumors from control mice which point toward an important role of FOXO3a and Bim in regulation of WA-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Stan 2008

In vivo, oral withanolide A, withanoside IV, and withanoside VI (10 micromol/kg/day for 12 days) improved Abeta(25-35)-induced memory impairment, neurite atrophy, and synaptic loss in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice. Tohda 2008c

The protective effect of Withania somnifera Dunal root extract and diazepam in social isolation induced behavior such as anxiety and depression in rats was investigated and confirmed. Gupta 2007

Pretreatment with Withania somnifera root extract (100. 200 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) significantly protected reduction in body weight, improved the reduced locomotor activity and anxiety levels in animals. Kumar 2007

The effects of graded doses of a chemically standardized aqueous alcoholic (1:1) root extract (AGB) of Withania somnifera on the immune system of SRBC immunized BALB/c mice were investigated and showed that AGB supports predominantly Th1 immunity with increase in macrophage functions. Malik 2007

Hot water extracts from 8 medicinal plants including Withania somnifera, used for malaria treatment in Kenya were screened for their in vivo antimalarial activity in mice against a chloroquine (CQ) resistant Plasmodium berghei NK65, either alone or in combination with CQ. Muregi 2007

Methanolic extracts from 15 medicinal plants including Withania somnifera, used traditionally for malaria treatment in Kenya were screened for their in vivo antimalarial activity in mice against a chloroquine (CQ)-tolerant Plasmodium berghei NK65, either alone or in combination with CQ. Muregi 2007a

The anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal formulation containing bioactives of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Camellia sinensis, triphala and shilajit in haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice was evaluated. Nair 2007

The anti-arthritic effect of Withania somnifera root powder was assessed by measuring changes in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, and glycoprotein levels in plasma and spleen of arthritic animals. Rasool 2007

Withaferin A, a major constituent of the dietary compound Withania somnifera, induced Par-4-dependent apoptosis in androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells and regression of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice.Srinivasan 2007

Hypocholesteremic and antioxidant effects of Withania somnifera Dunal were investigated in hypercholesteremic male albino rats and confirmed. Visavadiya 2007

The aqueous extract of Withania somnifera at 100 mg/kg in immunesuppressed mice resulted significant selective up-regulation of T helper 1 response. Bani 2006

Extracts of the leaves and root barks of Withania somnifera showed parasite suppressive effect and a protective effect on packed cell volume drop (at higher doses), both in dose-related fashions in Swiss albino mice. Dikasso 2006

Administration of an aqueous extract of fruits of Withania coagulans (1 g/kg; p.o.) to high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats for 7 weeks, significantly reduced elevated serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels. Hemalatha 2006

Oral administration of chemically standardized and identified aqueous fraction of Withania somnifera root at graded doses caused significant increase in stress-induced depleted T-cell population and increased expression of Th1 cytokines in chronically stressed mice. Khan 2006

Oral administration of withanoside IV (a constituent of Ashwagandha; the root of Withania somnifera) 10 micromol/kg/day significantly improved memory deficits in Abeta(25-35)-injected (25 nmol, i.c.v.) mice and prevented loss of axons, dendrites, and synapses.Kuboyama 2006

BR-16A or ashwagandha has protective effect against haloperidol or reserpine-induced catalepsy in mice and could be used in preventing the drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects and offer a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Kumar 2006

The effect of Withania somnifera (WS) root extract (ethanolic), which contains oestrogen-like withanolides was studied for anti-osteoporotic activity in female Sprague-Dawley rats and showed that WS improves bone calcification in calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats. Nagareddy 2006

Chronic treatment with Withania somnifera root extract for a period of 4 weeks to reserpine treated animals significantly and dose dependently (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the reserpine-induced vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions in rats. Naidu 2006

The suppressive effect of Withania somnifera root powder, by retarding amplification and propagation of the inflammatory response without causing any gastric damage, was proved in experimental rats.Rasool 2006

The aqueous suspension of Withania somnifera root powder was investigated for their in vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory properties and it showed potent inhibitory activity towards the complement system, mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in rats. Rasool 2006

The modulatory effect of Ashwagandha along with paclitaxel on tricarboxylic acid cycle key enzymes & electron transport chain complexes were investigated against lung cancer induced by benzo(a)pyrene in Swiss albino mice revealing decreased activities of TCA cycle key enzymes in lung cancer. Senthilnathan 2006

Benzo(a)pyrene induced cancer animals treated with 400mg/kg bodyweight of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal extract for 30 days significantly alters the levels of immunocompetent cells, immune complexes and immunoglobulins. Senthilnathan 2006

Withania somnifera along with paclitaxel provide stabilization of membrane bound enzyme profiles and decreased lipid peroxidation against benzo(a)pyrene induced lung cancer in mice. Senthilnathan 2006

The combination of paclitaxel with W. somnifera could effectively treat benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung cancer in male Swiss albino mice by affording protection from reactive oxygen species damage and also by suppressing cell proliferation. Senthilnathan 2006

In a study on forced swimming test induced immobility in mice Withania somnifera produced significant decrease in mean immobility time that could be mediated partly through an adrenoceptor as well as alteration in the level of central biogenic amines. Shah 2006

Withania somnifera L. extract indirectly modulates immune activity and probably disengages Listeria-induced suppression of these responses by inducing a higher reserve of myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow, proliferation of lymphocytes and increased INF-gamma levels in mice. Teixeira 2006

The effect of an oral formula containing extract of Withania somnifera (10.71%), was investigated in an ischemic-reperfused myocardium model SD rats, demonstrating that the formula is a safe and effective supplement to boost energy levels and cardioprotection.Thirunavukkarasu 2006

The anti-oxidant, anti-peroxidative and free radical quenching properties of Withania somnifera was evaluated in 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinsonism rat model which revealed that extract of W. somnifera may be helpful in protecting the neuronal injury in Parkinson's disease. Ahmad 2005

Asparagus racemosus was more effective in reducing gastric ulcer in indomethacin-treated gastric ulcerative rats, whereas Withania somnifera was effective in stress-induced gastric ulcer. Bhatnagar 2005

Dianex, a polyherbal formulation consisting of the 8 aqueous extracts including Withania somnifera, produced significant hypoglycemic activity in both normal and diabetic animals. It also reversed other diabetic complications in diabetic mice at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses.Mutalik 2005

Oral administration of the aqueous extracts successfully obliterated salmonella infection in Balb/C mice as revealed by increased survival rate as well as less bacterial load in various vital organs of the treated animals. Owais 2005

Withania somnifera root has chemopreventive efficacy against forestomach and skin carcinogenesis in mice and warrants the identification and isolation of active compounds responsible for its anticancer effects, which may provide a lead for the development of antitumor agents. Padmavathi 2005

Increase in the life span and a decrease in the cancer cell number and tumour weight were noted in the tumour-induced Swiss albino mice after treatment with ethanolic extract of the root of Withania somnifera Dunal against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma. Christina 2004

Treatment of ascitic sarcoma-bearing mice with a formulation of total extracts of Withania somnifera (WS) and Tinospora cordifolia (80:20) and alkaloid-free polar fraction of WS resulted in protection towards cyclophosphamide -induced myelo- and immunoprotection. Diwanay 2004

Evaluation of immunopotentiation of aqueous extract of Ashwagandha using serological & hematological parameters in laboratory animals immunized with DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus) vaccine revealed that treated animals showed increase in antibody titers as compared to untreated animals. Gautam 2004

Treatment with Withania somnifera 50 mg /kg or Vitamin E for 1 month modulated most of the hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological parameters in myocardial injury after ischemia and reperfusion in Wistar rats. Gupta 2004

Withania coagulans Dunal fruits extract at the highest concentration of 1g/kg, lowered the blood sugar, serum cholesterol, serum LPO, and hepatic LPO levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Hemalatha 2004

Prophylactic administrations of both Withania somnifera extract and Withanolide D were ineffective in inhibiting the metastasis of B16F-10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. Leyon 2004

Pretreatment of rats with 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-enolide (20 mg/kg bwt.), isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera, prior to exposing the animals to UV B radiation, prevents the incidence of skin carcinoma and also prevents malignancy in the cutaneous tissue. Mathur 2004

Withania somnifera at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg doses exerts cardioprotective effect in experimental model of isoprenaline-induced myonecrosis in rats. Augmentation of endogenous antioxidants & maintenance of the myocardial antioxidant status contribute to its cardioprotective effect. Mohanty 2004

Impairments in hippocampus and cortex in streptozotocin diabetic mice were associated with an increased free radical mediated oxidative damage (OD) and supplementation of plant extracts like Withania somnifera attenuated OD in both brain regions via antioxidative mechanisms. Parihar 2004

The investigation of the adaptogenic activity of a standardised extract of Withania somnifera (WS) roots against a rat model of chronic stress(CS) revealed that CS induced perturbations were attenuated by WS (25 and 50 mg/kg po) and by Panax ginseng (100 mg/kg po).Bhattacharya 2003

Treatment with hydroalcoholic extract of Withania. somnifera (1 g/kg, p.o.) for 15 and 30 days in middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats revealed that 15 days treatment had no effect but 30 days treatment prevented motor impairment and decreased raised levels of malondialdehyde. Chaudhary 2003

The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased in the spinal cord from adult to aged mice by Withania somnifera and it inhibited both the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modification induced by copper. Gupta 2003

Chronic treatment with Immu-21, a polyherbal formulation, which contains 4 extracts, including Withania somnifera, at 100 mg/kg, prevented cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mice. Jena 2003

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of the roots of Withania somnifera led to the isolation of a new species of withanolide 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide which proved to be an effective agent to counteract the cold-hypoxia-restraint stress in Wistar rats. Kaur 2003

Antiatherogenic effect of Caps HT2, which contain methanolic extracts of 9 plants, including Withania somnifera was evaluated and shown to have antioxidant, anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory, lipoprotein lipase releasing, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidaemic activity in animal models. Mary 2003

Co-administration of Withania somnifera root extracts 100-300 mg/kg, with intraperitoneal haloperidol (1 mg/kg) for 21 days reduced the neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side effects like vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions (orofacial dyskinesia) in rats.Naidu 2003

Dried ethanolic plant extracts of Withania somnifera, Convolvulus pleuricauas and Aloe vera which contain Phenolic antioxidants attenuated hippocampal neuronal cell damage against kainic acid induced excitotoxicity in female Swiss albino mice. Parihar 2003

A new withanolide-free hydrosoluble fraction, isolated from the roots of Ashwagandha exhibited antistress activity in a dose-related manner and was further studied against chemical and physical induced stress in rats and mice. Acute toxicity study in mice showed a good margin of safety. Singh 2003

[Effects of ashwagandha in a rat model of stroke.] Adams 2002

EuMil(100 mg/kg, p.o., 14 days) treatment, a polyherbal formulation with Ashwagandha in rats normalized the perturbed regional nor-adrenaline, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations, induced by chronic stress & attenuated stress-induced increase in rat brain tribulin activity. Bhattacharya 2002

Ashwagandha glycowithanolides (100 & 200 mg, p.o.), administered concomitantly with haloperidol for 28 days, inhibited neuroleptic tardive dyskinesia (TD) induction in which involuntary orofacial movements (chewing movements, tongue protusion & buccal tremors) were assessed as TD parameters in rat. Bhattacharya 2002

Administration of Withania extract was found to enhance the proliferation of lymphocytes, bone marrow cells and thymocytes in responses to mitogens in mice. Natural killer cell activity, Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity were also found to be enhanced in Withania treated group. Davis 2002

Increase in life span was observed when animals were treated with EL4 cells incubated with effector cells generated by mixed lymphocyte culture of Balb/c mice and C57BL/6 mice in the presence (172.73%) and absence of Withania extract (59.09%). Davis 2002

EuMil (dose 100 mg/kg, p.o.), a herbal formulation consists of Withania somnifera extract found to have adaptogenic and anti-stress activity against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations in rats. Muruganandam 2002

Pretreatment with Immu-21, a polyherbal formulation, containing 4 drugs including Withania somnifera extract (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) selectively increased proliferation of splenic leukocyte to B cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide & cytotoxic activity against K 562 cells in mice. Nemmani 2002

The investigation of Withania somnifera hydroalcoholic root extract (400 mg/kg p.o.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin cancer in Swiss albino mice showed that chemopreventive activity may be linked to antioxidant/free radical-scavenging constituents of extract. Prakash 2002

Co-administration of antioxidants carvedilol, melatonin, Withania somnifera, quercetin or St. John's wort reduced lipid peroxidation and restored the glutathione levels decreased by chronic swimming in mice and useful in the treatment of Chronic fatigue syndrome. Singh 2002

The lyophilized aqueous extract of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera produced increase in testicular weight and found to have a direct spermatogenic influence on the seminiferous tubules of immature rats by exerting a testosterone-like effect. Abdel-Magied 2001

Administration of an extract of Withania somnifera at 20 mg/dose/animal i.p. consecutively on 5 days prior to Dimethyl benzanthracene administration reduced the papilloma induced alterations to the antioxidant defense systems. Davis 2001

Withania somnifera root extract improved retention of passive avoidance task, reversed scopolamine induced disruption of acquisition & retention and attenuated amnesia produced by electroconvulsive shock (ECS) and also improved memory consolidation in mice receiving chronic ECS treatment. Dhuley 2001

Withania somnifera (200 mg/kg, p.o.) per se produced significant increase in neutrophil counts. Administration of W. somnifera (200mg/kg, p.o.) for 4 days before paclitaxel (1 mg/kg, i.v. ) treatment & continued for 12 days caused significant reversal of paclitaxel induced neutropenia in mice. Gupta 2001

The antistress neuroprotective effects of root powder extract Withania somnifera was demonstrated using 'Stresscom' capsules on stressed adult female Swiss albino rats. It reduced (80%) the number of degenerating cells (dark cells and pyknotic cells) in the CA(2) & CA(3) sub-areas. Jain 2001

Oral administration of Swiss albino mice with 400 mg/kg body weight of Withania somnifera extract reduced the tumour incidence, tumour volume and enhanced the survival of the mice, compared with 20-methylcholanthrene injected mice. Prakash 2001

A withanolide-free aqueous fraction from roots of Withania somnifera & evaluated for putative antistress activity on hypoxia time, antifatigue effect, swimming performance time, swimming induced gastric ulceration & hypothermia & this fraction exhibited antistress activity in all parameters. Singh 2001

In 25-day-old Wistar rats, the water extracts of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera elicited changes in gonadotrophin levels with increase in ovarian weight and profound folliculogenesis. Numerous primary, secondary, tertiary and antral follicles were present. Al-Qarawi 2000

Glycowithanolides from Ashwagandha roots (20 & 50 mg/kg) in rats induced anxiolytic effect, in elevated plus-maze, social interaction & feeding latency in an unfamiliar environment tests. It reduced brain levels of tribulin, a marker of clinical anxiety & also exhibited antidepressant effect. Bhattacharya 2000

Siotone, a herbal formulation containing 5 medicinal plants including Ashwagandha showed adaptogenic activity comparable to Panax ginseng against a variety of behavioural, biochemical & physiological perturbations induced by unpredictable stress, in CF strain albino rats. Bhattacharya 2000a

Iron overload induced increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation and serum levels of the enzymes, was attenuated by Withania somnifera glycowithanolides in a dose-related manner which explains their hepatoprotective action against heavy metals & other environmental toxins in rats. Bhattacharya 2000b

Administration of Withania somnifera root extract in doses of 0.7 g kg(-1)& 1.4 g kg(-1)body wt. day(-1)along with equivalent doses of lead acetate for 20 days decreased lipid peroxidation & increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, in male mouse thus has ameliorating effect on lead toxicity. Chaurasia 2000

Cyclophosphamide induced urotoxicity was prevented by Withania (20 mg/animal; i.p. for 5 days). Associated with the protection were lower blood protein & BUN and higher bladder glutathione Davis 2000

Administration of Withania somnifera root extract at 20mg/dose/animal i.p was found to inhibit the 20-methylcholanthrene induced sarcoma development in mice and increased the survival rate to 100% of tumour bearing animals. Davis 2000

Withania extract inhibited delayed type hypersentivity reaction in Babl/c mice (Mantoux test) and showed an enhancement in phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages (76.5 pigmented cells/200) in mice. Davis 2000a

Heart weight, glycogen content & swimming time increased in rats given Ashwagandha. It also increased strophanthin-K induced contractility, coagulation time & catecholamine in heart tissue. No toxicity was seen at 100 mg/kg; p.o. for 180 days Dhuley 2000

Effects of herbal formulations studied on hippocampal neuron cell bodies in adult Swiss albino rats revealed that treatment with Semecarpus ancardium, reduced cells with degenerating characteristics to 80%, compared to Withania somnifera, which suggests that they both have cytoprotective properties. Shukla 2000

Corticosterone of adrenal gland increased in mice given Trichopus zeylanicus & Panax ginseng but not Withania somnifera Singh 2000

A protective effect in cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression was observed in animals treated with extracts from Ashwagandha, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), namely WST & WS2, revealing a increase in white blood cell counts & platelet counts.Agarwal 1999

Interferon gamma, IL-2 & Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor increased and TNF-a decreased in mice given Withania root extract Davis 1999

Thyroxine (T4) & hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase increased and liver lipid peroxidation was decreased by Withania root extract, 1.4 g/kg in mice Panda 1999

Tinospora, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica, Withania, Piper longum & Terminalia protect against biological, physical & chemical stressors but problems in evaluation of adaptogens have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs Rege 1999

Cyclophosphamide induced leucopenia was reduced by Withania in mice: white cell count was 6120 vs. 3720 cells/mm3, bone marrow cellularity was 13 vs. 8 Mcells, alpha esterase cell # was 1130 vs. 687. So Withania is useful for cancer therapy Davis 1998

LPS induced lipid peroxidation was reduced by Ashwagandha (100 mg/kg) in rabbits & mice Dhuley 1998

Aspergillus fumigatus infected mice had longer survival with Ashwagandha, 100 mg/kg/d for 7 days, apparently related to increased phagocytosis & intracellular killing of peritoneal macrophages Dhuley 1998

Root extract @1.4 g/kg for 20 days to mice increased liver superoxide dismutase, glucose-6-phosphatase & catalase and increased serum 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) & tetraiodothyronine (T4) Panda 1998

Glycowithanolides of W. somnifera (10 & 20 mg/kg/d, i.p.), for 21 days, induced a dose-related increase in SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity in rat brain; comparable to the benefit of deprenyl Bhattacharya 1997

Streptozotocin diabetes and beta cell oxidation in rats was reduced by Transina (Ayurvedic mix of Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa & shilajit), 200 mg/kg, p.o. Bhattacharya 1997

Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera & Picrorhiza kurrooa inhibited ochratoxin-induced suppression of chemotactic activity and production of IL-1 & TNF-alpha by macropahges in mice Dhuley 1997

Morphine (10 mg/kg) tolerance and withdrawal was reduced by Withania root extract (100 mg/kg) Kulkarni 1997

Ulcers & gastric secretion induced in rats were decreased by Withafastuosin E from Datura fastuosa Maiti 1997

Decreased lipid peroxidation and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase in mice given Ashwagandha root powder (0.7 or 1.4 g/kg/d), for 30 days Panda 1997

Treatment of Ashwagandha root powder for 30 days in mice decreased lipid peroxidation, and increased both superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, which indicates that it possesses free radical scavenging activity. Panda 1997

M1-muscarinic binding of brain cells was increased by Sitoindosides VII-X & withaferin-A but no effect on GABAA & benzodiazepine receptor binding nor NMDA & AMPA glutamate receptors Schliebs 1997

Increases in bone marrow cellularity and total WBC count and reduced leucopenia induced by gamma radiation in mice Kuttan 1996

Tumor growth was inhibited and survival increased by Withaferin, especially when combined with radiation. Best effect was with 2 fractions of 30 mg/kg each. Acute LD50 for withaferin A in Swiss mice is around 80 mg/kg Sharad 1996

Cyclophosphamide, azathioprin, or prednisolone induced myelosuppression was prevented by Ashwagandha in mice. Red cells, white cells, platelets & body weight were increased Ziauddin 1996

Ehrlich ascites carcinoma treated with 10-60 mg/kg i.p. withaferin A improved survival of mice. When given before irradiation it synergistically increased survival even in advanced tumors Devi 1995

Swimming time and weights of the levator ani muscle were increased in mice by Ashwagandha or Ginseng Grandhi 1994

Cyclophosphamide induced leukopenia was alleviated by Brahma Rasayana and Ashwagandha/Rasayana in mice Praveenkumar 1994

18, 38 or 45% complete response of sarcoma in mice by Ashwagandha (500 mg/kg i.p.), radiation (10 Gy) or hyperthermia (43C for 30 min). Ashwagandha increased the benefit of radiation & heat Devi 1993

Antiinflammatory activity was seen in methanolic fractions of Withania aerial parts in rats, comparable to a 5 mg/kg dose of hydrocortisone; probably due to the steroids, notably withaferin A al-Hindawi 1992

Complete regression of sarcoma in mice by Withania root extract was seen above the 400 mg/kg/d dose for 15 days. The 1000 mg/kg/d level produced some mortality Devi 1992

CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity is reduced by 10 mg/kg withaferin A in rats, comparable to hydrocortisone Sudhir 1992

GABA binding was inhibited 20% by 5 microgm Withania root extract and completely by 1 mg. the extract increased Cl influx, which was blocked by bicuculline & picrotoxin; and enhanced by diazepamMehta 1991

Anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema test: Withania somnifera > Apium graveolens > Achillea santolina > Matricaria chamomilla > Myrtus communis Al-Hindawi 1989

"Long term effect of herbal drug Withania somnifera on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats " (no abstract) Begum 1988

Granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma had decreased incorporation of 35S and decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity when Withania was used Begum 1987

Blood pressure fell in dogs with 5 mg/kg of a withanolide from Withania coagulans fruits (blocked by atropine, not by mepyramine or propranolol). The compound is similar to the aglycones of cardiac glycosides, MW=488 6, m. p.=260 Budhiraja 1983

Jejunal absorption of glucose, which is lowered by formalin induced inflammation, is maintained when rats are pretreated with Withania or oxyphenbutazone Somasundaram 1983

Jejunal absorption of leucine, which is lowered by formalin induced inflammation, is maintained when rats are pretreated with Withania or oxyphenbutazone Somasundaram 1983

"On the central effect of different Withania-extracts after oral applications to animals " (German, no abstract) Fontaine 1976


Proposed a novel mechanism withaferin A (isolated from W. somnifera)-dependent kinase inhibition via electrophilic covalent targeting of cysteine residues in conserved kinase activation domains, which could underlie its pleiotropic therapeutic effects in cancer signalling. Chirumamilla 2017

A Withania somnifera extract up-regulated Nrf2 and HO-1 more effectively than Sutherlandia frutescens or Euterpe oleracea (açaí), and inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB reporter activity, in immortalized rat astrocytes. Ajit 2016

A methanolic extract of Withania somnifera leaves showed strong antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines MCF-7, HCT116, and HepH2 (IC50 values, 3.35, 2.19 and 1.89 μg/ml, respectively), in vitro. Alfaifi 2016

The immunomodulatory effects of Withania somnifera were found to employ 15 immune system pathways and 16 distinct proteins, according to in silico analysis. A withanolide-phytosterol interaction is noted. Chandran 2016

Withanone, an active constituent of W. somnifera, attenuated NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in retinoic acid, differentiated Neuro2a cells in vitro. Dar 2016

In a mechanistic study, an aqueous extract of Withania somnifera leaves and its chloroform fraction inhibited microglial activation and migration in vitro, suggesting it as a potential therapeutic candidate for the suppression of neuroinflammation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Gupta 2016

Withaferin A induced HO-1 expression in human endothelial cell lines via upregulation and increase in nuclear translocation of Nrf2. In silico evidence suggests that interaction of the compound with specific cysteine residues in Keap1 might be involved. Heyninck 2016

Withaferin A inhibited IL‑8 production and NF‑κB activation induced by Helicobacter pylori in AGS gastric epithelial cells, in vitro. However, it did not influence the growth of H. pylori, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of Withaferin A was not due to any bactericidal effect. Kim 2016

The blood-brain barrier penetration potential, mutagenicity, drug-likeness, intestinal absorption, and the ability to inhibit N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B were determined for 25 Withania somnifera constituents in silico. Kumar 2016

Withaferin A, a withanolide from Withania somnifera, inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis and synergistically with other ER stress inducers in mouse xenografts. Li 2016

Withania somnifera was among the few (11 out of > 1400 commonly sold natural products tested) agents that demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects at < 250μg/ml in two in vitro models of sepsis (peripheral and microglia cells stimulated with E. coli O111:B4 LPS).Mazzio 2016

Withania somnifera exhibited the greatest in vitro efficacy index among herbs tested in a high-throughput screening of >1400 natural products and over-the-counter drugs for anti-inflammatory effects in LPS/IFNγ-activated glioma cells. Mazzio 2016

The anti-tumor effects of withaferin A were augmented by macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, in vitro. Piao 2016

Withania somnifera withanolides, especially withanolide A, were shown to bind with the human GM-CSFR, an immunomodulatory cytokine receptor, responsible for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of dendritic cells, in an in silico screening. Praveen Kumar 2016

A Withania somnifera root extract reduced rates of cell death and induced increases in the neurite length of neurons, in a model of traumatic brain injury in vitro. Saykally 2016

W. somnifera extracts inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production, and induced Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) with or without LPS, in immortalized murine microglial cells. The withanolides had similar effect; Withaferin A was 10x more effective than Withanolide A. Sun 2016

A dimethyl sulfoxide extract of Withania somnifera roots showed cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on human T leukemia cells. Turrini 2016

Various extracts of Withania somnifera fruits, prepared by solvent partitioning of a methanol extract by sequential extractions with hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, showed antiproliferative activity in various cancer cell lines. Abutaha 2015

Withaferin A showed the potential to inhibit H1N1 influenza neuraminidase, in silico. Cai 2015

An aqueous extract of Withania somnifera root activated rat brain GABAρ1 receptors, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, more actively than the microtransplanted GABAA receptors. The effects were shown to be not related to witaferin or withanolide A activities.Candelario 2015

Withaferin A uncompetitively inhibited the pteridine reductase-1 enzyme of Leishmania donovani, showing the potential as an antileishmanial drug. Chandrasekaran 2015

Withaferin A inhibited activation of T and B cells, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, in vitro, without inducing any cell death. The in vivo efficacy and pharmacokinetics were also studied. Gambhir 2015

Withania somnifera root and leaf extracts increased glucose uptake in myotubes and adipocytes, and increased insulin secretion in basal pancreatic cells, in vitro, thus demonstrating anti-diabetic potential.Gorelick 2015

A water-soluble extract of ashwaganda abrogated TNF-α- and LPS-induced increases in chemokine CCL5 expression, and attenuated those of CCL2 expression and NF-κB activation, in rat kidney cells in vitro, suggesting therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic renal dysfunction. Grunz-Borgmann 2015

A Withania somnifera root extract showed cytotoxicity against human malignant melanoma A375 cells in vitro. Halder 2015

An aqueous extract of Withania somnifera induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression and release, and upregulated plasticity related polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and mature dendrite marker microtubule associated protein, in rat hypothalamic cells, in vitro. Kataria 2015

Withaferin A inhibited Helicobacter pylori-induced production of IL-1β, phosphorylation of IκB-α, and increased expression of procaspase-1, via suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, suggesting benefit for gastric cancer, in vitro. Kim 2015

A methanolic extract of ashwagandha induced apoptosis in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro. Lee 2015

Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c & activation of caspase 9 suggested that a methanol W. somnifera extract lead to activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human head & neck squamous carcinoma cells. Bioactive component, withaferin A, showed similar activity. Lv 2015

Aqueous and ethanol extracts have very negligible effect on PLA2 from Naja naja venom and on malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. However, a 65% inhibition of 5-LOX with an IC50 value of 0.92 mg/mL was observed in 1:1 ethanol extracts. M 2015

An ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera failed to inhibit the growth of cancer stem cell-like cells in vitro. Maliyakkal 2015

Withaferin A inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB, activity of heat shock protein 90, and expression of proteins involved in B cell receptor signaling and cell cycle regulation, in diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells. McKenna 2015

Withaferin A was shown by a proteomics approach to affect the expression of 32 non-redundant proteins in mouse microglial cells, including the up-regulation of multiple heat shock proteins and down-regulation of annexin A1, a key anti-inflammatory regulator in the microglia. Narayan 2015

Withaferin A induced cell death in androgen-insensitive and, less effectively, androgen-sensitive prostate adenocarcinoma cells and normal human fibroblasts, in vitro. Nishikawa 2015

Constituents of Withania somnifera showed antiacidogenic and anti-biofilm forming activities against Streptococcus mutans. Pandit 2015

Withaferin A induced apoptosis in human head and neck cancer cells, in vitro. Park 2015

Interaction of withaferin A with receptors associated with cardiovascular disease was studied in silico. The compound was shown to interact with the β1-adrenergic receptors, HMG-CoA, and the angiotensinogen-converting enzyme. Ravindran 2015

Strong binding affinity of withaferin A to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a novel therapeutic drug target for the treatment of cancer characterized by pathological immunosuppression, was predicted in silico. Reddy 2015

Alcoholic & aqueous extracts of W. somnifera, and withone, a purified component, used at a low dose protected glial and neuronal cells from oxidative and glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent. Shah 2015

Pgp receptor binding activities of bioactive compounds from traditional Indian medicinal plants, including those from Withania somnifera, are reported. Shinde 2015

Methanolic and ethanolic, but not aqueous, extracts (50-100 µg/ml) of Withania somnifera stems showed potent cytotixic activities against human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, with no in vitro toxicity in the normal epithelial Vero cells. Withaferin A was detected in both of the active extracts. Srivastava 2015

Compounds isolated from a methanol Withania somnifera extract were shown to inhibit Hedgehog/GLI1-mediated transcription, and were cytotoxic to human pancreatic, prostate, and breast cancer cells, in vitro. Yoneyama 2015

A methanolic extract of Withania somnifera induced inward currents in mice hippocampal CA1 neurons, via synaptic/extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, in vitro. Bhattarai 2014

A methanolic extract of Withania somnifera leaf showed high effectiveness against Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp., from pus samples from patients in India. Bisht 2014

Withaferin A induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW480 in a dose dependent manner in vitro. Apoptosis induced by Withaferin A is associated with proteasomal degradation of Mad2 and Cdc20, an important constituent of the Spindle Checkpoint Complex. Das 2014

A direct interaction of withaferin A with the IKK-complex, specifically with Cys179 in IKKβ, was shown to mediate its inhibition of NF-κB activation. Heyninck 2014

An methanol:chloroform (3:1) extract of W. somnifera, and its constituent Withanolide A, exhibited protective properties against β-Amyloid1-42, HIV-1Ba-L (clade B) infection and drugs of abuse-induced degeneration in human neuronal cells Kurapati 2014

Despite the antibacterial functions of herbal agents, there was increase in the biofilm formation caused by Streptococcus mutans to orthodontic bands, which had occurred most likely through upregulation of glucosyl transferase expression. W. somnifera was one of the herbs studied. Mishra 2014

HPTLC fingerprinting and assessment of antioxidant and antigout activity of 6 medicinal herbs, including W. somnifera. The plant extracts showed significant (greater than 50%) xanthine oxidase, which was similar to the activity of allopurinol (standard drug) with IC50 values below the standard. Nile 2014

Withaferin A inhibited the constitutive and recombinant human growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (rhGas6)-induced phosphorylation of Axl and STAT3. Withaferin A-mediated down-regulation of the Gas6/Axl signaling pathway mediated the inhibition of cell migration and the induction of apoptosis. Woo 2014

Withaferin A induced apoptosis, mediated by reactive oxygen species generation and PI3K/Akt and JNKinase activation, in rabbit articular chondrocytes. Yu 2014

A study on the effect of methanolic extract of Withania somnifera (WS) on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons using a patch clamp technique revealed potentiation of NMDA receptors with possible glycine mimetic activities inducing memory consolidation. Bhattarai 2013

Withanolides induced apoptotic like death in promastigotes of L donovani through the production of ROS from mitochondria and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in promastigotes of L donovani. Change in promastigote morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Chandrasekaran 2013

Autophagy induction fails to have any meaningful impact on withaferin A-mediated lethality in breast cancer cells, which may be a therapeutic advantage because autophagy serves to protect against apoptosis by several anticancer agents. Hahm 2013

Withaferin A, a triterpenoid component from W. somnifera, stimulated Ca2+ entry, ceramide formation and suicidal erythrocyte death despite the absence of gene expression and key elements of apoptosis such as mitochondria. Jilani 2013

Ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX) reduced cell proliferation & induced cell differentiation as indicated by morphological changes & NF200 expression in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. ASH-WEX caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase & increase in early apoptotic population. Kataria 2013

Withaferin A, a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by suppressing the Akt signaling pathway in the human metastatic cancer cell lines Caski and SK-Hep1. Lee 2013

Withaferin A, a bioactive compound derived from Withania somnifera, suppressed tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced decreases in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 activity and mitochondrial function in skin epidermal JB6 cells. Li 2013

At sub-MIC levels, methanol extract of W. somnifera dose-dependently increased doubling times of S. mutans and S. sobrinus up to 258% and 400%, respectively. Furthermore, it inhibited acid production, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus Pandit 2013

Treatment with withaferin A (WA) substantially improved islet engraftment of syngeneic islets in a mouse model of diabetes compared to marginal graft. Treatment of human & mouse islets with WA prevented cytokine-induced cell death, inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion & protected islet potency. SoRelle 2013

Methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera leaves, fruits and roots possess antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi and these effects were highest in leaf extract. Alam 2012

Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed in 9 Saudi plants including Withania somnifera against three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. Almehdar 2012

Withaferin A (WFA) is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which in vitro binds to the intermediate filament (IF) protein, vimentin. WFA not only affects vimentin but also affects other IF networks such as peripherin, neurofila ment-triplet protein & keratin.Grin 2012

Withaferin A inhibited the predicted leishmanial protein kinase C at its active site with -28.47 kcal/mol binding free energy. Withanone was also found to inhibit LPKC with good binding affinity of -22.57 kcal/mol. Grover 2012

Study provides computational evidence on inhibition of human acetyl cholinesterase by withanolide a as a possible Alzheimer treatment.Grover 2012a

Withanone treatment of cancer cells resulted in dissociation of TPX2-Aurora A complex and disruption of mitotic spindle apparatus proposing this as a mechanism of the anticancer activity of withanone. Grover 2012b

Withanone binds to mortalin and abrogates mortalin-p53 complex resulting in nuclear translocation and functional reactivation of p53 in human cancer cells Grover 2012c

Exposure of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to withaferin A (WA) resulted in suppression of XIAP, cIAP-2, and Survivin protein levels. The WA-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by ectopic expression of XIAP, Survivin, and cIAP-2 in both cells. Hahm 2012

Withania somnifera and its emerging anti-neoplastic effects. [No abstract] Kapoor 2012

Pretreatment with an aqueous extract of Withania somnifera leaf inhibited glutamate-induced cell death and was able to revert glutamate-induced changes in the stress protein HSP70 to a large extent in retinoic acid differentiated rat glioma (C6) & human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells. Kataria 2012

An aqueous extract of W. somnifera strongly inhibited amyloid β fibril formation in a concentration-dependent manner, when compared with control samples. Kumar 2012

Withaferin A (WA) causes activation of Notch2 and Notch4 in cultured and xenografted human breast cancer cells which impede inhibitory effect of WA on breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 migration. Lee 2012

Withanolide D, a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera elicited apoptosis in malignant cells through Bax/Bak dependent pathway in p53-wild type cells, where as Bak compensated against loss of Bax in p53-null cells. Mondal 2012

An Extract of Withania somnifera Attenuates Endothelin-1-stimulated Pigmentation in Human Epidermal Equivalents through the Interruption of PKC Activity Within Melanocytes. [No abstract]Nakajima 2012

Withania somnifera extract attenuates stem cell factor (SCF)-stimulated pigmentation in human epidermal equivalents through interruption of ERK phosphorylation within melanocytes which can serve as a therapeutic tool for SCF-associated hyperpigmentary disorders. Nakajima 2012

In cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes, treatment with a well-defined combination of 5 herbs, including W. somnifera, marketed as Protandim was associated with nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, significant induction of phase II enzymes, and concomitant protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. Reuland 2012

Withaferin A (WA) inhibits constitutive and IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. WA-induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation is associated with a reduction in Janus-activated kinase 2 activity. Down-regulation of the STAT3 signaling pathway mediates withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Um 2012

Withaferin A suppressed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) growth by targeting multiple pathways that include blockage of proteasome activity and stimulation of apoptosis in both in vitro and in vivo murine models. Yang 2012

Withania somnifera and its active ingredient withaferin-A induced dose-dependent physiologically significant melanin dispersal effects in the isolated skin melanophores of Rana tigerina, which were completely blocked by atropine & hyoscine but potentiated by neostigmine. Ali 2011

Larvae of anophelines in Rajasthan were more susceptible to to all the Withania extracts (using different plant parts) tested compared to culicines. Petroleum ether extract of fruit without seeds was found most effective against all the mosquito species. Bansal 2011

Withania somnifera root methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH)& butanol (BuOH) extracts were effective against all multidrug resistant S. aureus strains isolated from local and patient sources. Amongst all the extracts, the BuOH fraction was found to be most active against all the isolates tested. Datta 2011

Withania somnifera & Cardiospermum halicacabum extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on Clostridium histolyticum collagenase activity against the degradation of the extracellular matrix component of bovine Achilles tendon type I collagen as shown by hydroxyproline assay method. Ganesan 2011

Withaferin A is a potent anticancer agent as it has the potential to inhibit the association of chaperone (Hsp90) to its co-chaperone (Cdc37) by disrupting the stability of attachment of Hsp90 to Cdc37.Grover 2011

Ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture and MDA-MB-231 xenografts in vivo in association with apoptosis induction. Hahm 2011

Using MCF-7, T47D, & ER-α overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells as a model, Withaferin has been shown to suppress estrogen receptor-α expression in human breast cancer cells. WA functions as an anti-estrogen, & its proapoptotic effect is attenuated by p53 knockdown and E2-ER-α. Hahm 2011a

Synthesis of withanolide A, biological evaluation of its neuritogenic properties,and studies on secretase inhibition. [No abstract] Jana 2011

Water extract of ashwagandha leaves limits proliferation and migration, and induces differentiation in glioma cells. Kataria 2011

Withaferin A (WFA )induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells through generation of reactive oxygen species and down-regulation of Bcl-2. The susceptibility of cells toward WFA-induced apoptosis correlated with low Bcl-2/Bax and Bcl-2/Bim ratios. Mayola 2011

Withaferin A significantly downregulated expression of HPV E6/E7 oncogenes and restored the p53 pathway, resulting in apoptosis of cervical cancer cells both in vitro (human cells) and in athymic nude mice. Munagala 2011

An antioxidant rich herb extract of W. somnifera (10 µg/mL) elicited a marked depigmenting effect on EDN1 (10 nm)-stimulated pigmentation by preferentially inhibiting EDN1-triggered protein kinase activity. Depigmenting was accompanied by a significant decrease in eumelanin content. Nakajima 2011

Ashwagandha leaf-derived Withanone protects normal human cells from methoxyacetic acid-induced toxicity by suppressing the ROS levels, DNA and mitochondrial damage,and induction of cell defense signaling pathways including Nrf2 and proteasomal degradation.Priyandoko 2011

The docking of 26 withanferin & 14 withanolides from Withania somnifera into the three dimensional structure of Protein kinase G of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using GLIDE identified withanolide E, F & D & Withaferin - diacetate 2 phenoxy ethyl carbonate as potential inhibitors of PknG. Santhi 2011

C. albicans the most susceptible organism to free & bound flavonoids of root, stem, lear & fruit of W. somnifera followed by S. aureus, P. mirabilis, E. coli & P. aeruginosa. Of the tested organisms, A flavus & A. niger were resistant as none of the tested extracts showed activity against them. Singh 2011

Stress-induced increase of corticosterone production in BALB/c mice was blocked by feeding with Ashwagandha extract and even more by WB365, a combination of ashwagandha and maitake extracts. Feeding with WB365 helped overcome the stress-related inhibition of IL-6, IL-12 and IFN-γ production. Vetvicka 2011

Withaferin A derived from W. somniferaenhanced ionizing radiation induced apoptosis in human lymphoma U937 cells. This IR-induced apoptosis is associated with PARP cleavage, caspase-3 activation, & down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Yang 2011

Compared with withaferin A or radiation alone, withaferin A enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis in Caki cells through ROS generation, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt dephosphorylation. Yang 2011

Three chlorinated and diepoxy withanolides isolated from Withania somnifera exhibited a growth inhibition and cytotoxic activity against human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy. Choudhary 2010

Withania somnifera's constituent withaferin A (WA) is a potent anticancer agent as ascertained by its potent NF-κB modulating capability. The MD simulations made clear the dynamic structural stability of NEMO/IKKβ in complex with the drug WA, together with the inhibitory mechanism. Grover 2010

Withanamides in W. somnifera fruit protect PC-12 cells from beta-amyloid peptide, which, with 39-42 amino acid residues (BAP), plays a significant role in the development of Alzheimer's disease.Jayaprakasam 2010

Withaferin-A inhibits Notch-1 signaling & downregulates prosurvival pathways, such as Akt/NF-kappaB/Bcl-2, in three colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116, SW-480, and SW-620). Inhibition of Notch-mediated pro survival signaling facilitates c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines. Koduru 2010

Withania somnifera (L.) dunal aqueous root extract exhibited protective effects against hydrogen peroxide and β-amyloid(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Kumar 2010

Withaferin A from Withania somnifera inhibits constitutive as well as interleukin-6 -inducible activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is an oncogenic transcription factor activated in many human malignancies including breast cancer. Lee 2010

Withanolide D effectively induced apoptosis in a dose & time dependant manner both in myeloid & lymphoid cells being nontoxic to normal lymphocytes & control proliferative cells. WithaD potentially augmented ceramide production in these cells which has potential benefit in leukemia chemotherapy. Mondal 2010

L-asparaginase purified from the fruits of W. somnifera had a LD(50) value of 1.45 +/- 0.05 IU/ml using the [3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) colorimetric dye reduction method. it shows a lot of similarity with bacterial L-asparaginases EC-2. Oza 2010

Ashwagandha leaf extract and withanone cause selective killing of cancer cells by induction of ROS-signaling and hence are potential reagents that could be recruited for ROS-mediated cancer chemotherapy. Widodo 2010

In vitro cytotoxicity of 50% ethanol extract of root,stem & leaves of Withania Somnifera against five human cancer cell lines PC-3, DU-145 (prostrate), HCT-15 (colon), A-549 (lung) and IMR-32 (neuroblastoma) showed cytotoxicity activity ranging 0-98%. Yadav 2010

Withaferin A (WA) exhibited antiproliferative activity in vitro against pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1, MiaPaCa2 & BxPc3. WA binds Hsp90, inhibits Hsp90 chaperone activity thru an ATP-independent mechanism, results in Hsp90 client protein degradation, & exhibits in vivo anticancer effect. Yu 2010

Among 41 extracts of Israeli plants evaluated in vitro against the free-living promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major, Nuphar lutea & Withania somnifera were highly effective. El-On 2009

The withanolide 2,3 dihydro-3-sulphonile withanone, a major constituent of leaf extract of W. somnifera, is responsible for skewing to Th1 immune polarization by stimulating expression of IFN-gamma & B cell switch over to secrete IgG2a while also enhancing expression of integrins. Khan 2009

Withaferin A blocks PAF-induced activation of NFkappaB as determined using reporter assays, IL-8 measurements and high-content fluorescent imaging of NFkappaB subunit p65 translocation in cellular models of Cystic Fibrosis inflammation. Maitra 2009

An overview of the chemical structures of triterpenoid components and their biological activity, focusing on two novel activities, tumor inhibition and antiangiogenic properties of withaferin A and the effects of withanolide A on Alzheimer's disease. Mirjalili 2009

A novel withanolide sulfoxide isolated from an ashwaganda methanol root extract inhibited COX-2 enzyme and suppressed human tumor cell proliferation. Both this compound and ashwangandolide completely suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation at 100 microm. Mulabagal 2009

Withaferin A inhibited the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in human lung epithelial A549 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resulting in the suppression of leukocyte adhesion to lung epithelial A549 cells. Oh 2009

Among 34 plant species screened, W.somnifera was identified as a potential source of the enzyme L-asparaginase on the basis of its high specific activity. The enzyme was purified and characterized & it has a pH optimum of 8.5 and an optimum temperature of 37 degrees C. Oza 2009

Three lowest concentrations (0.007, 0.042, 0.250 microg/ml) of W. somnifera extracted in double distilled water and methanol do not differ significantly in their cytotoxicity of MRC-5 cells, a human embryonic lung-derived diploid fibroblast cell line. Pretorius 2009

Withaferin A, Withanone, Withanolide A & an alcoholic extract of ashwaganda leaves markedly inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner & changed their morphology toward the astrocytic type. They have potential to induce senescence-like growth arrest & differentiation. Shah 2009

Among ten traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, the methanolic extract from only two plants, W. somnifera & Allium sativum, showed appreciable activity against Leishmania donovani. Sharma 2009

Sominone, an active aglycone metabolite of withanoside IV, reinforced morphological plasticity of neurons by activation of the RET pathway and thus enhanced memory. Sominone, because of its low molecular weight, may be a GDNF-independent stimulator of the RET pathway. Tohda 2009

Withanone extracted from ashwagandha leaves caused deceleration of senescence in normal human fibroblasts. A major component of the leaf extract and withanone protected the normal human fibroblasts against the toxicity caused by withaferin A. Widodo 2009

A 30 KDa monomeric acidic lectin-like protein was purified from the leaves of Withania somnifera, by a series of gel filtration and affinity chromatography methods. The inhibitory concentration of the protein ranged from 7 mug to 11 mug against major phytopathogens under in vitro conditions. Ghosh 2008

Withaferin A, exhibits strong growth-inhibitory effect on several human leukemic cell lines and on primary cells from patients with lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia in dose-dependent manner, showing no toxicity on normal human lymphocytes and primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. Mandal 2008

It is indicated that the JNK and Akt pathways and inhibition of NF-kappaB activity were key regulators of apoptosis in response to withaferin A, a major chemical constituent of Withania somnifera, in human leukemia U937 cells. Oh 2008

It is suggested that G2-M phase cell cycle arrest may be an important mechanism in antiproliferative effect of Withaferin A, derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, against human breast cancer cells. Stan 2008

An in vitro study showed Withania somnifera extracts decreased nitric oxide (NO) release by explants from one subset of patients (antiinflammatory response) & significantly increased levels of NO & glycosaminoglycans released by explants from a second subset ('non-responders'). Sumantran 2008

Evaluation of the effect of Withania somnifera on glucose-mediated collagen glycation and cross-linking in vitro shows that Withania could have a therapeutic role in the prevention of glycation induced pathogenesis in diabetes mellitus and aging. Babu 2007

Withania somnifera extract demonstrated the strongest NFkappaB-inhibitory activity, other extracts derived from Laurus nobilis, Psidium guajava and Foeniculum vulgare M. also revealed immunomodulatory NFkappaB activities. Kaileh 2007

Pure withaferin A or withaferin A -enriched Withania somnifera, extracts can be considered as a novel class of NFkappaB inhibitors, which hold promise as novel anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of various inflammatory disorders and/or cancer. Kaileh 2007

Numerous agents derived from plants including curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, genistein, quercetin, boswellic acid & withanolides (ashwagandha) are useful in arthritis which can suppress TNF, interleukin-1beta, cyclooxygenase & lipooxygenase & other cell signaling intermediates. Khanna 2007

Withaferin A induced early ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells' trigger events responsible for mitochondrial -dependent and -independent apoptosis pathways.Malik 2007

The pharmacological evaluation of the diuretic activity of an infusion and a methanol extract of Withania aristata Ait. in laboratory rats was reported. Martín-Herrera 2007

The methanolic extracts of Dendrosicyos socotrana, Withanina aduensis, Withania riebeckii, Dracena cinnabari and Buxus hildebrandtii exhibited the highest toxicity on all tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 0.29 and 5.54 microg/ml. Mothana 2007

Growth inhibitory effect of methanolic leaf extract of Ashwagandha & its active component, withanolide, was studied on HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells revealing that Withanolide induces apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells via mitochondria mediated cytochrome c release & caspase activation. Senthil 2007

The effect of a Withania somnifera (WS) extract was studied on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of normal & rheumatoid arthritis patients & synovial fluid mononuclear cells of RA patients in vitro which showed that WS inhibits NF-kappaB & AP-1 transcription factors. Singh 2007

Extracts of Withania somnifera root, but not E. officinalis fruit, caused a reproducible, dose dependent, inhibition of colony formation of Chinese Hamster ovary cells. Sumantran 2007

It is the first report describing two novel chondroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of Withania somnifera root powder. These extracts caused a significant and reproducible inhibition of the gelatinase activity of collagenase type 2 enzymes in vitro. Sumantran 2007

Seventy-six plant extracts comprising methanolic and successive water extracts of 37 Indian medicinal plants including Withania somnifera (WS) (root), were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). WS root extract showed an IC(50) value of 33.38. Vinutha 2007

The first molecular evidence provides that the leaf extract of ashwagandha selectively kills tumor cells and is, thus, a natural source for safe anticancer medicine. Widodo 2007

The regulation of ubiquitin proteasome pathway by inhibitor withaferin A and withanolide D, from Withania somnifera was assessed in the three-dimensional endothelial cell sprouting assay, by using HCEC- and human umbilical vein endothelial cell-derived spheroids embedded in a collagen I matrix. Bargagna-Mohan 2006

Withania somnifera glycoprotein showed potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, F. verticilloides and antibacterial activity against Clvibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Girish 2006

Withanolides inhibit activation of NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression, which may explain the ability of withanolides to enhance apoptosis and inhibit invasion and osteoclastogenesis. Ichikawa 2006

The inhibitory effect of cowdung fumes, Captan, leaf powders including Withania somnifera, and spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger on aflatoxin B(1) production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from soybean seeds was investigated. Krishnamurthy 2006

The glycoprotein, purified from a folk medicinal plant, Withania somnifera inhibited the hyaluronidase activity of cobra (Naja naja) and viper (Daboia russelii) venoms, which was demonstrated by zymogram assay and staining of the skin tissues for differential activity. Machiah 2006

The glycoprotein of Withania somnifera (WSG)inhibited the phospholipase A(2) activity of NN-XIa-PLA(2,) isolated from the cobra venom, completely at a mole-to-mole ratio of 1:2 (NN-XIa-PLA(2): WSG) but failed to neutralize the toxicity of the molecule. Machiah 2006a

A study conducted with extracts of roots of Withania somnifera against human laryngeal carcinoma cells showed anti-proliferative activity & inhibition of vascular endothelium growth factor on chick chorio-allantoic membrane by revealing cell cycle disruption and anti-angiogenic activity. Mathur 2006

Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts from neem, holy basil, Withania somnifera, and oregano increased the levels of MGMT protein and its demethylation activity in a time-dependent manner with a maximum 3-fold increase after 72-h treatment in human lymphocytes and tumor cells. Niture 2006

In vitro and in vivo research demonstrates that 18 reviewed botanical medicines, including Withania somnifera, modulate the secretion of multiple cytokines. Spelman 2006

A new dimeric withanolide, ashwagandhanolide, isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera, displayed growth inhibition against human gastric, breast (MCF-7), central nervous system (SF-268), colon (HCT-116), and lung (NCI H460) cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the range 0.43-1.48 microg/mL. Subbaraju 2006

Among 25 extracts obtained from 14 plant species 6 extracts including Pulicaria crispa, and Withania somnifera displayed a remarkable cytotoxic activity against human ECV-304 cells. Al-Fatimi 2005

The withanolides 1-3 & 4-5 isolated from Ajuga bracteosa and Withania somnifera, respectively, inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes with IC50 values ranging between 20.5 & 49,2 microm and 29.0 & 85.2 microm for AChE and BChE, respectively. Choudhary 2005

22 crude ethanolic extracts from 14 medicinal plants were subjected to enzyme inhibition screening against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase & lipoxygenase enzymes. The most significant inhibition activities were found in extracts derived from 7 plants including Withania somnifera (roots). Khattak 2005

Treatment with withanolide A (1 muM) induced regeneration of both axons and dendrites, in addition to reconstruction of pre- and postsynapses in cultured rat cortical neurons and recovered Abeta-induced memory deficit in mice. Kuboyama 2005

Among 25 selected medicinal plants, greatest antibacterial activity was exhibited by 10 methanolic extracts including Boswellia elongata, B. ameero, Buxus hildebrandtii, Commiphora parvifolia, Jatropha unicostata, Punica protopunica, Withania adunensis and W. riebeckii.Mothana 2005

Anti-stress activity was carried out on glyco-peptido-lipid fraction from the alcoholic extract of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaerten and demonstrated against a battery of tests in rats and mice. The extract of Withania somnifera root was used to compare the results. Singh 2005

Methanol and hexane extracts of both leaves and roots of Withania somnifera were found to have potent antibacterial activity and a synergistic antibacterial effect was noticed with Tibrim, a combination of rifampicin and isoniazid. Arora 2004

Withania somnifera from field-raised plants had anti-proliferative activity in human tumorigenic cells but it did not protect the oxidative damage caused by high glucose and hydrogen peroxide to human tumor cells. Kaur 2004

Withaferin A inhibits human umbilical vein endothelial cell sprouting in 3-dimensional collagen-I matrix at doses which are relevant to NF-kappa B-inhibitory activity. It exerts anti-angiogenic activity in vivo at doses that are 500-fold lower than that reported to exert anti-tumor activity in vivo. Mohan 2004

From dose-response curve, Ocimum sanctum (OS), was found to be the most effective aldose reductase inhibitor followed by Curcuma longa (CL), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Withania somnifera (WS). The IC(50) values of OS, CL, AI and WS were calculated to be 20, 55, 57 and 89 microg/ml, respectively. Halder 2003

Methanolic extract of Withania somnifera root (1-256 microg/ml) increased inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in a concentration-dependent fashion in J 774 macrophages. The increased NO production by macrophages could account for the immunostimulant properties of Withania somnifera. Iuvone 2003

12 withanolides including withaferin A were isolated from leaves of Withania somnifera & showed antiproliferative effect on NCI-H460 (Lung), HCT-116 (Colon), SF-268 (CNS) & MCF-7 (Breast) human tumor cell lines with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.24 +/- 0.01 to 11.6 +/- 1.9 microg/mL. Jayaprakasam 2003

A glycoprotein phospholipaseA inhibitor purified from Withania somnifera neutralized the enzyme activity and pharmacological properties such as cytotoxicity, edema & myotoxicity of a multi-toxic Indian cobra venom phospholipase but failed to neutralize the neurotoxicity. Deepa 2002

6 of 18 compounds isolated from the methanol extract of Ashwagandha were found to enhance neurite outgrowth in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Thus axons were extended by withanolide A, and dendrites by withanosides IV and VI. Kuboyama 2002

Antioxidant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides (WSG) was assessed in chronic footshock stress induced changes in rat brain frontal cortex and striatum. WSG normalized the augmented superoxide dismutase & lipid peroxidation and enhanced activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Bhattacharya 2001

Ethanolic extracts of 6 plants including Punica granatum, Mangifera indica and Withania somnifera, were tested for their effect on alpha-amylase activity (in vitro). Prashanth 2001

Methanolic extracts from Celastrus paniculatus, Picrorhiza kurroa and Withania somnifera showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging capacity and a protective effect on DNA cleavage induced by H2O2 UV-photholysis. Russo 2001

[Down regulation of p34cdc2 expression with aqueous fraction from Withania somnifera for a possible molecular mechanism of anti-tumor and other pharmacological effects.] Singh 2001

The adaptogenic activity of a glyco-peptido-lipid fraction from the alcoholic extract of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn was evaluated using ashwagandha, the commercial extract of Withania somnifera roots which served as control anti-stress agent. Singh 2001

Carbendazim induced renal and hepatic damges in rats were reversed by Treatment with the powder of tuberous root of Withania somnifera for 48 days which resulted in complete cure of histopathological changes in the liver and kidney. Akbarsha 2000

It was found that the methanol extract of Ashwagandha roots at 5microg/ml increased the percentage of cells with neurites in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells, which suggest that it promotes the formation of dendrites. Tohda 2000

Bone marrow stem cell survival to 2 Gy whole body gamma irradiation was improved by Ocimum sanctum leaf aqueous extract, 10 mg/kg ip; whereas withaferin (steroid lactone) and plumbagin (naphthoquinone) reduced stem cell survival Ganasoundari 1997

V79 Chinese hamster cells are sensitized to radiation by Ashwagandha Devi 1996

Radiation killing of V79 cells was enhanced by Withaferin A at microM levels, which induced a G2/M block Devi 1996

Differentiation of HL60 cells was induced by sitoindoside, genkwanin & lariciresinol with ED50 of 0.069, 1.1 & 18.3 microM, respectivelySuh 1995

"Contributions to the pharmacodynamic study of roots of Withania somnifera. Note III: Testing of analgesic activity of dichlormethanic and methanolic extract from Withania somnifera roots " (no abstract)Sakka Mazen 1990

Review of anti-inflammatory activity of Withania Elsakka 1989

"Activation of peritoneal macrophages by sitoindoside-IV, an anti-ulcerogenic acylsterylglycoside from Musa paradisiaca " (no abstract)Chattopadhyay 1987

"Pharmacological studies on leaves of Withania somnifera " (no abstract) Sudhir 1986

Of 9 Withania derivatives, most potent cytotoxicity was by 4-dehydrowithaferin A & withaferin A diacetate; apparently requiring a double bond at C2-3. Dissociation of the C24-25 double bond or removing the C27 OH did not affect activity Fuska 1984

"Influence of an Indian medicine (Ashwagandha) on acute-phase reactants in inflammation " (no abstract) Anbalagan 1981

"Antimicrobial activities of some antineoplastic and other withanolides " (no abstract) Chatterjee 1980

Immunosuppression of human B & T lymphocytes and mice thymocytes by at low concentrations withaferin A & withanolide EShohat 1978

"Pharmacological investigations on fruits of Withania coagulans " (no abstract) Budhiraja 1977

Spindle microtubules of cells in metaphase were affected by withaferin A. No intact pole-to-pole microtubules or pole-to-kinetochore microtubules found in these normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin Shohat 1976

Spindle microtubules in metaphase and membranes of the cells in interphase were affected by withaferin A in study of mouse sarcoma solid & ascites tumors Shohat 1976

"Mode of action of Withaferin A and Withanolide D " (no abstract)Chowdhury 1975

"Inhibition of immunologically induced inflammation by the plant steroid withaferin A " (German, no abstract) Fugner 1973

"Effect of withaferin A on cells in tissue culture " (no abstract) Shohat 1973

"Antimitotic properties of withaferin A in tissue culture " (Hebrew, no abstract) Shohat 1972

"The effect of Withaferin A on plant cells " (no abstract) Shohat 1971

"Effect of withaferin A on ehrlich ascites tumor cells. II. Target tumor cell destruction in vivo by immune activation " (no abstract) Shohat 1971

"Effect of withaferin A on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells--cytological observations " (no abstract) Shohat 1970

"Studies on Withania ashwagandha Kaul. VI. The effect of the alkaloidal fractions (acetone, alcohol and water soluble) on the central nervous system " (no abstract) Prasad 1968

"Antitumor activity of withaferin A (NSC-101088) " (no abstract)Shohat 1967

"Studies on Withania-ashwagandha, Kaul. V. The effect of total alkaloids (ashwagandholine) on the central nervous system " (no abstract) Malhotra 1965

"Studies on Withania ashwagandha, Kaul. IV. The effect of total alkaloids on the smooth muscles " (no abstract) Malhotra 1965

"Mechanism of antibacterial action of antibiotic isolated from leaves of Withania somnifera. I. Reaction between the antibiotic & glutathione " (no abstract) Das 1964

Analytical Chemistry

Developed an AOAC First-Action Official Method for the determination of withanolides in Withania somnifera, using liquid chromatography. Anand 2016

Determined six major bioactive compounds in the leaf, stem and roots of five Withania somnifera varieties and 26 commercial products by a novel method. Chandra 2016

Performed metabolite profiling of a hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR. A total of 43 possible withanolides were identified. Dihydrowithanolide D and ixocarpalactone A were identified in the plant extract for the first time.Trivedi 2016

An RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of the withaferin A and Z-guggulsterone levels in a polyherbal formulation containing Withania somnifera and Commiphora wightii. Agrawal 2015

The accumulation patterns and contents of withaferin A, 12-deoxywithastramonolide, and withanolide A in the root, stem, fruits and leaves of Withania somnifera were determined by LC-ESI-MS-MS. Gajbhiye 2015

An extract of Withania somnifera and its fractions inhibited thermal-induced protein denaturation. The chloroform fraction caused the most dominant attenuation of 68% at 500 μg/mL. The bioactivity-guided isolation led to identification of isolated withanolides. Khan 2015

Characterized the micromorphology of the foliar trichomes of Withania somnifera and elucidated the location and composition of their secretory products. Two major classes of phytochemical compounds that are of medicinal importance, i.e. alkaloids and phenolic compounds, were found. Munien 2015

The free-radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content were found to be higher in Withania somnifera roots cultured in vitro, compared with those of field-grown plants. Senthil 2015

Developed and validated a simple isocratic RP-HPLC method for detection and estimation of withanolide A. The developed method was used for stability indicating studies on NMITLI-118RT+, a chemotype of W. somnifera's root extract. Ahmad 2014

Analyzed the structure-activity relationship of various withanolides reported in solanaceous species from 1965 to 2013, including those from W. somnifera. Zhang 2014

Metabolic profiling for studying chemotype variations in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal fruits using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy identified the primary and secondary metabolites including MVA, DOXP, shikimic acid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic metabolic pathways. Bhatia 2013

An antifungal principle was identified in the solvent extract of an endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum from Withania somnifera. The bioactive compound has been isolated in pure form from the ethyl acetate extract following bioassay guided fractionation. Kumar 2013

Liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry with data-dependent and targeted MS/MS experiments were conducted to elucidate the structure of observed metabolites of Withania somnifera which identified a total of 62 metabolites including 32 withanamides & 22 withanolides. Bolleddula 2012

A quantitative NMR method for analysis of 3 plant extracts Eugenia jambolana, Withania somnifera & Aegle marmelos & their herbal products without the need of authentic standards was described. Quantitation can be done by using any commercially available pure sample as standard. Chauthe 2012

Neither hawthorn nor withania interfere with serum digoxin measurements using the new homogenous sequential chemiluminescent assay for digoxin, based on the luminescent oxygen channeling technology (LOCI digoxin) for application on the Dimension and Vista platform. Dasgupta 2012

Chemical investigation on the n-hexane extract of Withania somnifera roots yielded octacosane, oleic & stearic fatty acids, stigmasterone,stigmasterol, sitostanone, oleanolic acid along with the ergosterol & 1,4-dioxane derivatives as new compounds. Misra 2012

Comparative root protein profiles of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera) were worked out by two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis. Ginsenosides and withanolides are the secondary metabolites from Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera, respectively. Nagappan 2012

HPLC analysis detected eight polyphenols (gallic,syringic, benzoic, p-coumaric and vanillic acids as well as catechin, kaempferol and naringenin) in methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera fruits, roots and leaves and catechin was detected in the highest concentration.Alam 2011

Metabolic profiling was performed by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy on 4 fresh leaf & root tissue chemotypes of Withana somnifera. The spectroscopy of lyophilized defatted leaf tissue specimens distinguished resonances of important secondary metabolites (withaferin A & withanone). Bharti 2011

Review provides comprehensive summary of 360 natural withanolides isolated and identified between August 1996 to March 2010, including their structural classification, distribution and their diverse biological and pharmacological activities. Chen 2011

Withanolides and related steroids. [No abstract] Misico 2011

Structural elucidation & gas-phase fragmentation of ten withanolides were studied using a positive ion electrospray ionization quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The knowledge of fragmentation pattern was utilized in rapid identification of withanolides by the LC/MS/MS analysis. Musharraf 2011

The metabolic characterization of Withania somnifera leaves, stems, and roots collected in six different regions in India was performed using ¹H NMR spectroscopy followed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. The leaf was found to have the widest range of metabolites. Namdeo 2011

A chlorinated withanolide, 6α-chloro-5β,17α-dihydroxywithaferin A & nine known withanolides, were isolated from Withania somnifera & their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (IR, HRESIMS, 1D/2D NMR). Tong 2011

Metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaf and root of Withania somnifera was carried out using NMR and hromatographic (HPLC and GC-MS) techniques which revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the secondary metabolites between the leaf and root tissues. Chatterjee 2010

Describes the purification, characterization, and in vitro cytotoxicity of L-asparaginase from W. somnifera. This is the first report of the plant containing L-asparaginase with antitumor activity. Data obtained from the MTT assay showed a LD(50) value of 1.45 +/- 0.05 IU/ml. Oza 2010

Among 34 plant species screened for L-asparaginase enzyme, Withania somnifera L. was identified as a potential source of the enzyme on the basis of high specific activity of the enzyme. Oza 2009

It is found that Solanum torvum Sw., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal could accumulate considerable levels of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (44 and 34 mg kg(-1), respectively).Abhilash 2008

A reversed-phase HPLC method for the simultaneous analysis of nine structurally similar withanolides was developed and applied to the analysis of leaf and root tissues of Withania somnifera for withanolide content. Chaurasiya 2008

One new withanolide, (17S,20S,22R)-14alpha, 15alpha, 17beta,20beta-tetrahydroxy-1-oxo witha-2,5,24-trienolide) named coagulanolide along with 4 known withanolides have been isolated from Withania coagulans fruits and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Maurya 2008

2-Mercaptoethanol reacts selectively with the 5beta,6beta-epoxy steroids isolated from Withania somnifera substituting the epoxide by a six-membered oxyethylene-2'-thio ring. The structure of the product was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Misra 2008

Two new and seven known withanolides along with beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside, stigmasterol glucoside, alpha+beta glucose were isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera. Misra 2008a

Reverse-phase preparative HPLC analysis of the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract of Withania somnifera Dunal (leaves) afforded a novel chlorinated withanolide, namely withanolide Z, along with four known withanolides, including withanolide B & withanolide A.Pramanick 2008

Analysis of products by thin layer chromatography revealed that the primary metabolites were incorporated into withanolide A, demonstrating that root-contained withanolide A is de novo synthesized within roots from primary isoprenogenic precursors.Sangwan 2008

A sensitive, selective, specific, robust, and validated densitometric HPLC method was described for the simultaneous determination of 3 key withanolides, namely, withaferin-A, 12-deoxy witha stramonolide, & withanolide-A, in Ashwagandha plant samples. Srivastava 2008

When cultured using the aeroponic technique, the medicinal plant Withania somnifera was found to produce a new natural product, 2,3-dihydrowithaferin A-3beta-O-sulfate, as the predominant constituent of methanolic extracts prepared from aerial tissues. Xu 2008

Among the medicinal plants studied the amount of total phenolic content varied from 2.8 mg/g (Withania somnifera, roots) to 107.8 mg/g (Cassia fistula, fruits) and the antioxidant from 24.2% (Curcuma zeoderia, leaves) to 96.9% (Trewia nudiflora, leaves). Prakash 2007

Three new withanolide glycosides named daturametelins H-J (1-3), together with two known ones, including daturataturin A (4) were isolated from the MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Datura metel L. Structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques including 2D-NMR and MS experiments. Ma 2006

Withania somnifera root extract grown in solid medium showed 93.2% hydroxyl radical trapping activity at 100 mg L(1) concentration & at 500 mg L(1) showed 83.6% in case of brain lipid peroxidation assay. HPLC analysis demonstrated the presence of withanaloids in hairy root extracts. Kumar 2005

Four (1, 8-10) and six known (2-7) withanolides were isolated from the leaves of Withania somnifera. Among the new compounds, 10 possessed the rare 3-O-sulfate group with the saturation in A ring and 9 contained unusual 1,4-dien-3-one group. Misra 2005

A total of 2 new and 4 known withanolides were isolated from the whole plant of Withania somnifera. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and were found to be active against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Choudhary 2004

Selected withanolides were isolated from the root extract of Withania somnifera by repeated column chromatography, identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR and mass spectral data and analyzed by Electrospray Ionization on a mass spectrometer in Selected Ion Mode. Khajuria 2004

Three new withanolides, bracteosin A, bracteosin B and bracteosin C with inhibitory potential against cholinesterase enzymes were isolated from the whole plants of Ajuga bracteosa. Their structures were deduced by spectral analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.Riaz 2004

Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector & capillary electrochromatography were developed for the simultaneous analysis of withaferin A, withacnistin and iochromolide. Cherkaoui 2003

Two withanolides, 20beta-hydroxy-1-oxo-(22R)-witha-2,5,24-trienolide & withacoagulin, along with a known withanolide, were isolated from Withania coagulans. Structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. ur-Rahman 2003

Structures of 2 new steroidal lactones of the withanolide-type, from the fruit of Withania somnifera Dunal together with two known coumarins, scopoletin & aesculetin, a known triterpene, viz. Beta-amyrin, along with stigmasterol& sitosterol have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Abou-Douh 2002

Structures of 5 new withanolide derivatives from roots of Withania somnifera together with 14 known ones determined by spectroscopic & physiochemical evidence. They showed neurite outgrowth activity at a concentration of 1 microM on a human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Zhao 2002

The distribution of eight calystegines (A(3), A(5), B(1), B(2), B(3), B(4), C(1) and N(1)) and their contents were investigated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in 8 solanaceous plants including Withania somnifera and W. frutescens. Bekkouche 2001

7 new withanosides I, II, III, IV, V, VI, & VII were isolated from Ashwagandha, with four known compounds, including withaferin A, physagulin D, and coagulin Q. The structures of withanosides I, II, III, IV, V, VI & VII were determined based on chemical & physicochemical evidence. Matsuda 2001

Withanolides identified in Dunalia brachyacantha Silva 1999

Two new withanolides (steroidal lactones), coagulin F [27-hydroxy-14,20-epoxy-1-oxo-(22R)-witha-3,5,24-trienolide] and coagulin G [17beta,27-dihydroxy-14,20-epoxy-1-oxo-(22R)-witha-2,5, 24-trienolide] from Withania coagulans whole plant Atta-ur-Rahman 1998

Two antifungal withanolides: 14,15 B-epoxywithanolide I [(20S,22R) 17 B, 20 B-dihydroxy-14 B,15 B-epoxy-1-oxo-witha-3,5,24-trienolide] & 17 B-hydroxywithanolide K (20S,22R) 14 a,17 B,20 B-trihydroxy-1-oxo-witha-2,5,24-trienolide] from W. coagulance Choudhary 1995

Withanolides, alkaloids, 18 fatty acids, beta-sitesterol, polyphenols and phytosterols in Withania somnifera Elsakka 1990

Withaferin A was dehydrogenated to inactive 4-dehydrowithaferin A by Arthrobacter Fuska 1987

"Hydrolysis of withaferin A-4,27-diacetate " (no abstract) Proksa 1986

Withaferin-A is transformed to 15 beta-hydroxywithaferin-A & 12 beta-hydroxy-withaferin-A by Cunninghamella elegans Fuska 1982

14-alpha-Hydroxylation of withaferin-A by Cunninghamella elegansRosazza 1978

"High-pressure liquid chromatography of derivatives and microbial metabolites of withaferin-A " (no abstract) Gustafson 1977

"Variations in the antitumour constituents of withania somnifera dunal " (no abstract) Chakraborti 1974

"A phytochemical investigation of Withania somnifera tissue cultures " (no abstract) Yu 1974

"A C28-steroidlacton from the roots of Withania somnifera " (German, no abstract) Menssen 1973

"Tumor inhibitors. XXXIX. Active principles of Acnistus arborescens. Isolation and structural and spectral studies of withaferin A and withacnistin " (no abstract) Kupchan 1969

Pharmacokinetics (ADME)

Nonpolar and low molecular weight withanolides (withanolide A and B, and withanone) showed high permeability in an in vitro model of human intestinal epithelium, while glycosylated and polar withanosides IV and V were less permeable; paradoxical results were obtained for withaferin A. Devkar 2015

A pharmacokinetic study to determine withaferin A & withanolide A in mice plasma using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry showed rapid absorption after oral administration of aqueous root extract. Withaferin A has one & half times more bioavailability compared to withanolide A. Patil 2013

A cytosolic sterol glucosyltransferase was purified 3406 fold to near homogeneity from Withania somnifera leaves and studied for its biochemical and kinetic properties. Madina 2007


Transfection of Withania somnifera plants with a gene, involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis, from Pelargonium geranium enhanced production of withanolides in W. somnifera. Jadaun 2016

Genetic transformation of Withania somnifera plants with the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (GrDXS) gene from Pelargonium sp. enhanced withanolides production in W. somnifera. Jadaun 2016

Genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis the leaf and root tissues of different chemotypes of Withania somnifera were identified. Gupta 2015

WsMAGO2 a duplicated protein in Withania through interactions with MPF2-like proteins affects male fertility by producing fewer flowers and aborted non-viable pollens/seeds regulated by anther-specific GAATTTGTGA motif. Ihsan 2015

Revealed topological characters and conserved nature of two sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) from W. somnifera (WsSGTs). The difference between WsSGTL1 and WsSGTL4 is briefly described by difference in stability (binding energy) of enzyme-substrate complexes through comparative docking. Pandey 2015

RNAi silencing of WsSGTL1 gene, a sterol glycosyltransferase of W. somnifera, showed that WsSGTL1 performs glycosylation of withanolides and sterols resulting in glycowithanolides and glycosylated sterols respectively, affects the growth and development of transgenic W.somnifera. Saema 2015

Ectopic overexpression of the sterol glycosyltransferase gene in Withania somnifera promoted plant growth, enhanced glycowithanolide production, and induced tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Saema 2015

A transcriptome analysis of Withania somnifera leaf and root tissues, cultured in vitro, was performed, and a putative withanolide biosynthetic pathway was determined. Senthil 2015

Cotransformation of hairy roots of Withania somnifera with cryptogein, a fungal elicitor protein, drastically decreased the contents of withaferin A and withanolide A, compared with normal hairy roots. Sil 2015

Withania somnifera candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR were evaluated. Singh 2015

Current developments and future prospects of biotechnological intervention in Withania somnifera are reviewed. Singh 2015

Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes, resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance. Singh 2015

Light and auxin responsive cytochrome P450 genes from Withania somnifera were cloned and characterized. Srivastava 2015

Withania somnifera oxidosqualene cyclases, branch points for redirecting metabolic flux toward specific secondary metabolism, were characterized. Dhar 2014

Two A-type P450 monooxygenases which play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of withanolides in Withania somnifera were cloned and characterized. Rana 2014

Bioinformatics approaches were used to determine structural and functional characteristics of proteins involved in withanolide biosynthetic pathways in Withania somnifera. Sanchita 2014

In silico modeling of the 3D-structure of Withania somnifera squalene synthase and molecular docking study of its considered substrates were performed. Data anaylsis revealed that 29 residues of motif 2 might be important for catalytic/functional activity of SQS enzyme of W. somnifera. Sanchita 2014

Cloning and functional characterization of the reductase gene from Withania somnifera encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR; EC catalyzing the key regulatory step of the isoprenoid biosynthesis. Akhtar 2013

De novo assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis of Withania somnifera leaf and root transcriptomes identified putative genes involved in the withanolides biosynthesis. Gupta 2013

Characterization of two genes from Withania somnifera encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS; EC and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductase (DXR; EC enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. Gupta 2013a

MPF2-like genes belonging to STMADS11 superclade were duplicated into MPF2-like-A & MPF2-like-B in Withania (WSA206). By interacting with SOC1 & MAF1 genes, MPF2-like genes in phase transition control flowering times. Khan 2013

Compared to Withania, transformation of WsSGTL1 gene in A. thaliana showed better germination, salt tolerance, heat/ cold tolerance. The promoter of the gene in W.somnifera was found to have stress responsive elements. The 3D structure showed functional similarity with sterol glycosyltransferases. Mishra 2013

The cloning and characterization of two paralogs of cytochrome P450 reductase from W. somnifera have been described which showed that the full length paralogs of WsCPR1 and WsCPR2 have open reading frames of 2058 and 2142 bp encoding 685 and 713 amino acid residues, respectively. Rana 2013

Describes the cloning, characterization and expression of squalene epoxidase (SE) gene from W. somnifera. SE is one of the rate limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids. Highest levels of SE are found in leaves, as compared to stalk and root tissue. Razdan 2013

Morphogenic transitions of W. somnifera were found to be tightly linked to the pattern of accumulation of withanolides. This report describes qualitative and quantitative variations in withanolides and expression of some pathway genes during different stages of morphogenesis. Sabir 2013

Describes function characterization of a glycosyltransferase gene from Withania somnifera (UGT73A16) showing 85-92% homology with uridine diphosphate (UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGT) from other plants. Singh 2013

Cloning &characterization a gene encoding squalene synthase (EC from a withaferin A rich variety of W. somnifera, a key enzyme in isoprenoids biosynthesis. Squalene synthase catalyses dimerization of 2 farnesyl diphosphate molecules into squalene, a key precursor for sterols & triterpenes. Bhat 2012

Identification of 3 members of sterol glycosyltransferases (SGT)gene family through RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) W. somnifera expresses a family of SGT genes and there is a functional recruitment of these genes under both biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Chaturvedi 2012

In plants, isoprenogenesis occurs via two routes: mevalonate (MVA) pathway in cytosol and non-mevalonate or DOXP/MEP pathway in plastids. Withanolide biosynthesis has been shown to recruit both mevalonate and DOXP pathways of isoprenogenesis in Ashwagandha Withania somnifera L. Chaurasiya 2012

Functional characterization and differential expression studies of squalene synthase from Withania somnifera by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that Withania somnifera squalene synthase expresses more in young leaves than mature leaves, stem and root. Gupta 2012

The three-dimensional model of flavonoid specific glycosyltransferases (WsFGT) from Withania somnifera was constructed based on the crystal structure of plant UDP-glycosyltransferases. The resulted model was assessed by various tools and the final refined model revealed GT-B type fold. Jadhav 2012

The evolution of MPF2-like genes entailed degenerative mutations in a core promoter CArG-box & an auxin response actor binding element in the large 1(st) intron in the coding region. MPF2-like genes duplicated into MPF2-like A & B through genome duplication in Withania & Tubocapsicum. Khan 2012

Plant hormones like ethylene are recruited in calyx inflation in Solanaceous plants including Withania which provide an insight into the role of hormones in generating floral morphological diversity during evolution. Khan 2012

Withaferin A & withanone have differential binding properties to 4 cellular targets (mortalin, p53, p21 & Nrf2) that can potentially instigate differential molecular effects. Parallel experiments on specific gene responses to either Wi-N or Wi-A in human normal & cancer cells validated the findings. Vaishnavi 2012

A gene from Withania somnifera (winter cherry), encoding a highly stable chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli which showed a high degree of resistance to detergent, ethanol and protease digestion. Madanala 2011

l-Asparaginase gene from W. somnifera was successfully cloned into E. coli BL21 (DE3) and showed high asparaginase activity with a specific activity of 17.3 IU/mg protein. Oza 2011

Application of RAPD method for genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin including Withania somnifera collected from Saudi Arabia for molecular characterization provided an easy & rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants. Arif 2010

Describes Agrobacterium tumefaciens (strain LBA4404 containing the binary vector pIG121Hm) -mediated transformation of Withania somnifera. The gusA reporter gene with intron under the transcriptional control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was also used. Pandey 2010

Describes generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from leaf and root of W. somnifera as part of an effort to elucidate the differential gene expression in two vital sites where withanolides are found. Senthil 2010

Metabolic clustering of a core collection of Withania somnifera through DNA, isoenzyme, polypeptide & withanolide profile diversity revealed that the accessions clustered together with respect to their profile of major withanolides are withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D/A. Chaurasiya 2009

MPF2-like-a MADS-box genes control the inflated Calyx syndrome in Withania, a close relative of Physalis. Positive Darwinian selection was observed in the branch leading to Withania MPF2-like-A proteins.Khan 2009

Genetic investigation of Iranian natural populations of W. somnifera and W. coagulans using the RAPD markers and HPTLC to compare their withaferin A content showed that there is a high level of variation in the Iranian natural population of Withania. Mirjalili 2009

Ashwagandha treatment significantly downregulated gene and protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1beta, chemokine IL-8, Hsp70 and STAT-2, while a reciprocal upregulation was observed in gene and protein expression of p38 MAPK, PI3K, caspase 6, Cyclin D and c-myc. Aalinkeel 2008

The PCR-RAPD technique was utilized to determine the genetic relationship among Sicilian, Sardinian and Indian samples, and the HPLC analysis of whitaferin A was used as a marker to evaluate the phytochemical differences. Scartezzini 2007

The distribution of SGTL1 transcript in Withania somnifera, determined by quantitative PCR, showed higher expression in roots and mature leaves. Expression of the SGTL1 transcript in the leaves of W. somnifera was enhanced following the application of salicylic acid. Sharma 2007

The main active components and genetic profile of 15 selected accessions of Withania somnifera Dunal. were analyzed by using HPLC &AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers.Dhar 2006

A study on the effect of Leaf extract of Ashwagandha (Lash) a commonly used shrub in Ayurveda, Indian traditional medicine, against MNNG-induced genotoxicity in onion root tip cell revealed that Lash offered substantial protection against the mutagenic effects of MNNG. Rani 2005

Pretreatment of aqueous extracts of Spirulina, Withania and Boswellia on colchicine induced chromosome damage showed weakness of clastogenic activity in Swiss albino mice. Ghoshal 2001

The inter- and intraspecific genetic variation present in 35 individuals of Withania somnifera and 5 individuals of W. coagulans using amplified fragment length polymorphism marker technique was investigated. Negi 2000

"On the trial cultivation of Withania somnifera DUNAL. 3. Fertilizer experiment of the three essential nutrients " (Japanese, no abstract)Kawatani 1969

"On the trial cultivation of Withania somnifera Dunal. II. Effect of sowing season on the growth and root yield " (Japanese, no abstract)Kawatani 1968

Literature Reviews

The pharmacological properties associated with different extract preparations, phytochemical constituents, and the protein component of Withania somnifera are reviewed. Dar 2016

Review focused on the use of Withaferin A alone, or in combination with other treatments, as a newer option for therapy against the most aggressive variant of brain tumors, Glioblastoma. Dhami 2016

Reviewed Ayurveda's insights and traditional usage, as well as contemporary investigations, for translational, integrative applications to manage Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. Included in the review were effects of two medicinal plants - Withania somnifera and Curcuma long. Pathak-Gandhi 2016

Summarized the effects of withanolides from Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), especially of withaferin A, against all the four major pathways (MAPKs and NF-κB) of innate inflammation. Purushotham 2016

Review discussed experimental evidence pointing to mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer chemoprevention by promising phytochemicals, including withaferin A from ashwagandha (Withania somnifera).Sehrawat 2016

Withania somnifera is one of the plants used for the treatment of male infertility in traditional Persian medicine, for which at least some scientific evidence has been found, according to the review.Tahvilzadeh 2016

Reviewed the discovery and variety of withanolides, their anti-inflammatory properties, mechanisms of action, and clinical applications in inflammation-mediated chronic diseases (including arthritis, autoimmune, cancer, neurodegenerative, and neurobehavioral). White 2016

Reviewed the evidence of the neuropharmacoligical effects of Withania somnifera, with a focus on clinical studies and patents.Yenesetti 2016

The pharmacological activities, mechanisms of action, and potential therapeutic applications of Withania somnifera are reviewed. Dar 2015

The biological activities and use of Withania somnifera in food are reviewed. Hussain 2015

The traditional uses of Withania somnifera and experimental evidence of its chemopreventive potential are reviewed. Palliyaguru 2015

Reviewed the evidence for anticancer potential of Withania somnifera. Rai 2015

Reviewed the key preclinical studies demonstrating anticancer effects of withaferin along with its molecular targets and mechanisms related to its anticancer effects. Anticancer potential of other withanolides is also discussed. Samadi 2015

Reviewed the potential benefits of ashwagandha extracts and their constituents for brain pathologies, the underlying molecular mechanisms, as well as the nootropic potential of ashwagandha leaves. Wadhwa 2015

Withania somnifera and Withaferin A are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation based on inhibition of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. Imokawa 2014

Reviewed various effects and mechanisms of Ashwagandha extracts and related compounds on in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injury. Kuboyama 2014


Modern Methods of Preparation

A phytosomal complex of a standardized ethanolic extract of a new chemotype of Withania somnifera was prepared, and showed beneficial effects in an ischemic stroke model, in rats, vs. the extract per se. Ahmad 2016

A liposomal form of a standardized ethanolic extract of a new chemotype (NMITLI-118) of Withania somnifera roots was developed. The extract per se and the liposomal formulation ameliorated cerebral ischemia in rats, with the liposomal form excelling in the post-treatment group. Ahmad 2016

An antimicrobial cream containing silver nanoparticles was prepared with an aqueous extracts of Withania somnifera leaves. The AgNP creams possessed significantly higher antimicrobial activity against the tested human pathogens. Marslin 2015

The optimum values of factors for pressurized microwave-assisted extraction of aerial parts of W. somnifera were 150 s time, 68°C extraction temperature and 17 mL of methanol : water in the ratio 25 : 75 as extracting solvent. Mirzajani 2010

Physicochemical stability and biological activity of Withania somnifera extract under real-time and accelerated storage conditions were studied which suggested that adequate control of temperature and humidity is important for storage. Patil 2010

The methanol:water extract of Withania aristata Ait., (100mg/kg) showed most interesting diuretic activity (25%; p<0.01), which suggested that increase in the polarity of the extracting solvent led to an increase in the concentration of the polar compounds responsible for the diuretic effect. Martín-Herrera 2008

A novel 27beta-hydroxy glucosyltransferase was purified to near homogeneity from cytosolic fraction of Withania somnifera leaves and studied for its biochemical and kinetic properties. Madina 2007

"Morphology and anatomy of Indian roots of Withania somnifera " (German, no abstract) Menssen 1974


Conduct a search on Withania or ashwaganda in the title, abstract or claims section of the US patent database


Pictures & Distribution Maps

Husked fruit; in Chelsea Physic Garden, London, UK. Henriette's Herbal

Branch in fruit in Chelsea Physic Garden, London, UK. Henriette's Herbal

Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology

Priming of Withania somnifera seeds with biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. AJ15 increased plant performance on petroleum-contaminated soil. Das 2016

An improved and efficient protocol for micropropagation of Withania somnifera was developed. Fatima 2016

Leaf extracts with high levels of withanone and withaferin A were obtained from hydroponically cultivated Withania somnifera by manipulating light condition. Kaul 2016

Application of ammonium sulfate (a nitrogenous fertilizer) to Withania somnifera enhanced withanolide biosynthesis in potted plants growing in the glasshouse and in the open field. Pal 2016

Micropropagation of Withania somnifera is discussed. Singh 2016

Silencing of sterol glycosyltransferases in Withania somnifera led to enhanced accumulation of withanolide A, withaferin A, sitosterol, and stigmasterol, but also increased pathogen susceptibility. Singh 2016

Secondary metabolites of Streptomyces sp. MTN14 and Trichoderma harzianum ThU enhanced the yield (3.58 and 3.48 fold respectively) and withanolide A concentrations (0.75-2.25 fold) in Withania somnifera plants, more effectively than live cultures. Singh 2016

Leaf spot disease, induced by Alternaria alternata, was shown to adversely affect total phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and withanolide biosynthesis in Withania somnifera. Singh 2016

Harvesting Withania somnifera in accordance with the classic Ayurvedic texts recommendations as for the lunar phase and collection season was associated with higher total phenolic, flavonoid, and carbohydrate content in the material. Tavhare 2016

Established methods for in vitro axillary bud shoot multiplication and ex vitro rooting of the obtained microshoots of Withania somnifera.Fatima 2015

Pseudomonas strains acting as plant growth promotory rhizobacteria enhanced the growth of Withania sominfera on petrol oil-contaminated soil. Kumar 2015

The Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of fifteen plants growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region, including W. somnifera, were evaluated. Most of the selected plant species were sensitive to air pollution. Noor 2015

High concentrations of iron in the liquid medium induced oxidative stress and disturbances in the uptakes of other nutrients in in vitro grown Withania somnifera. Rout 2015

Physiological, biochemical, and gene expression responses of Withania somnifera plants to drought stress were studied. Sanchita 2015

W. somnifera plants showed more arsenic accumulation upon exposure to arsenite than to arsenate, resulting in higher toxicity of arsenite. Plants could tolerate small amounts of exposure through increase in antioxidant enzymes and by augmented synthesis of thiols. Siddiqui 2015

Studied the innfluence of sucrose and nitrogen concentration on in vitro flowering and fruit setting in elongated shoots of W. somnifera. Production of withanolide A and B was highest in fruits; withaferin A was highest in flowers; withanone production was the same in fruits and flowers. Sivanandhan 2015

The effects of extracts of seaweeds, Gracilaria edulis (GE) and Sargassum wightii, on the growth of and withanolide production in hairy root cultures of Withania somnifera were studied. The GE extract significantly augmented the withanolides content.Sivanandhan 2015

Sonication, vacuum infiltration, their combination, and thiol compounds enhance the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Withania somnifera nodal explants in vitro.Sivanandhan 2015

Root weight, pith diameter and internodal distance of Withania somnifera roots harvested on full moon days were found to be higher as compared to those harvested on new moon days. Tavhare 2015

Withania somnifera is listed as one of the more commercially important African medicinal plants. Van Wyk 2015

Nitrogen metabolism-dependent molybdenum uptake was found to correlate with the withanolides accumulation in the Withania somnifera roots. Devkar 2014

A technique for in vitro propagation of nodal explants from ashwagandha (W. somnifera), with the view of their use for plant proliferation and withaferin A production, is described. Mir 2014

Optimized protocol for commercial level production of withanolides in cell suspension culture using shake-flask culture and bioreactor by exploiting elicitation and precursor feeding strategies. Sivanandhan 2014

Supplemental ultraviolet B radiation increased the concentrations of secondary metabolites in the roots and leaves of field-grown Withania somnifera plants. Takshak 2014

Hair roots induction by Agrobacterium tumefaciens augmented withanolide A production in Withania somnifera in vitro culture. [Article in Chinese] Wang 2014

Cell suspension cultures developed to assess the effect of Agrobacterium. tumefaciens showed a 4x increase in squalene synthase activity and 2.5x-increase in withanolide A content compared to non-transformed cell cultures. Further, transformed cell suspension cultures also produced withaferin A. Grover 2013

In a root suspension culture of W. somnifera, biomass of adventitious roots was optimal when the initial medium pH was 5.8 (113.26 g L(-1) FW and 11.33 g L(-1) DW) but the withanolide A production was highest at the medium pH level of 5.5 (9.09 mg g(-1) DW). Murthy 2013

The Withania somnifera extract at higher concentrations demonstrated allelopathic potential by affecting seed germination and radical elongation of both Cicer arietinum and Triticum aestivum in a concentration dependent manner. Chandra 2012

Chitosan, Triadimefon (a fungicide) & nitric oxide increased withaferin A in hairy root cultures of W. somnifera. Jasmonic acid decreased withaferin A. Acetyl salicylic acid increased both withaferin A & withanolide A. Doma 2012

A study on the role of growth regulators on in vitro regeneration & histological analysis in W. somnifera showed that the highest regeneration frequency (95%) and number of shoots (36.1 ± 0.33) were obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium fortified with 6-benzyladenine (2.5 μM) and NAA (0.5 μM). Fatima 2012

Using leaves of Withania somnifera for explants, the effects of different plant growth substances on callus and shoot induction were studied, and the different medium and plant growth substances for rooting induction was optimized.[Article in Chinese] Luo 2012

A study on the influence of macro elements & nitrogen on Withania somnifera revealed that the highest accumulation of fresh and dry biomass was recorded in the medium with 0.5x concentration of NH(4)NO(3) and that of withanolide-A was recorded in the medium with 2.0with 2.0× KNO(3). Murthy 2012

The first report in India of red two-spotted carmine spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, found on aerial apical parts of W. somnifera plants occurred during April-June 2010 in the Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The spider mites fed on the leaves. Sharma 2012

A promising approach on biomass accumulation and withanolides production in cell suspension culture of Withania somnifera was developed which can be utilized for large scale cultivation of WS cells in industrial bioreactors for mass synthesis of major withanolides.Sivanandhan 2012

The highest production of withaferin A and withanone in hairy root culture of W. somnifera was achieved when sucrose and sucrose+glucose were used individually as carbon sources.Sivanandhan 2012

Between the two elicitors, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate, SA improved the production of major withanolides as well as minor constituents in adventitious root cultures derived from leaf derived callus of the Kolli hills variety of W. somnifera. Sivanandhan 2012a

Copper and zinc ions enhanced in vitro regeneration and induced change in photosynthetic pigments, biomass and proline content from nodal explants in W. somnifera. Fatima 2011

A study on the herbicidal activity of Withania somnifera against the noxious weed parthenium showed that the foliar spray of aqueous and methanol extracts, and soil amendment with leaf residue of W. somnifera, can control the germination and growth of parthenium.Javaid 2011

A study on metabolic alterations of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal fruits at different developmental stages by NMR spectroscopy indicated specific stages when fruits can be harvested for obtaining substantial bioactive ingredients for desirable pharmacological activity. Sidhu 2011

Growing the medicinal plant Withania somnifera under soil-less aeroponic conditions produce unusual withanolides 3α-(uracil-1-yl)-2,3-dihydrowithaferin A and 3β-(adenin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydrowithaferin A. Xu 2011

Studies on mycorrhizal inoculation on dry matter yield & root colonization of herbs grown in stress & forest soils showed that mycorrhizal inoculation increased the dry matter yield of herbs in all soils under study. It also helps in survival of Withania sominifera in fly ash. Chandra 2010

Both roots and shoots of W. somnifera contain herbicidal constituents against Phalaris minor Retz., one of the most problematic weeds of wheat in Pakistan. Javaid 2010

Cell suspension cultures of Withania somnifera were established & the effect of growth regulators (auxins, & cytokinin), inoculum density, different media (MS, B5, NN & N6), carbon source (sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose)& pH were determined for the production of withanolide A. Nagella 2010

Bioconversion of artemisinin to its nonperoxidic derivative deoxyartemisinin was achieved through suspension cultures of Withania somnifera Dunal by the enzyme artemisinin peroxidase.Sabir 2010

Four glycowithanolides--Withanoside IV, Withanoside VI, Physagulin D and Withastraronolide--were isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of W. somnifera utilizing shoot tip apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with BAP. Ahuja 2009

A study on the production dynamics of Withaferin A in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal complex showed the presence of Withaferin A in all Indian populations (wild/cultivated), as well as in the two identified Indian chemotypes (AGB002 and AGB025). Kaul 2009

When cultured using the aeroponic technique, Withania somnifera produces a new natural product, 2,3-dihydrowithaferin A-3beta-O-sulfate as a constituent of methanolic extracts prepared from aerial tissues. It undergoes spontaneous conversion to withaferin A. Xu 2009

Various abiotic elicitors and biotic elicitors (cell extracts and culture filtrates of Alternia alternata, Fusarium solani, and Verticilium dahaliae) were tested at different concentrations to enhance withaferin A production in suspension culture of transformed cells.Baldi 2008

Chemical inducers of the pathogen defense response was used to increase metabolite and biomass production in transformed root cultures of the medicinal plant, Withania somnifera, and the weed, Convolvulus sepium. Chaudhuri 2008

Cultured hairy roots of Withania sominifera, synthesized withanolide A, a steroidal lactone of medicinal and therapeutic value & the concentration of withanolide A in transformed roots (157.4 microg/g dry weight) was 2.7-fold more than in non-transformed cultured roots.Murthy 2008

Multiple shoots cultures exhibited an increase in withanolide A accumulation compared to shoots of the mother plant. In vitro generated root cultures as well as callus and suspension cultures also produced withanolides albeit at lower levels. Sabir 2008

Developmental variability was introduced into Withania somnifera using genetic transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes, with the aim of changing withasteroid production. Bandyopadhyay 2007

The 5 endophytic bacteria (EB) associated with Piper nigrum & P.colubrinum, 4 EB associated with Taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana, 2 EB associated with Withania somnifera, & 2 bacteria common to all these plant species were isolated & characterized in in vitro plant cultures. Kulkarni 2007

Withanolide-A, was hardly detectable in the aerial parts of field-grown Withania somnifera (explant source), accumulated considerably in the in vitro shoot cultures of the plant. Sangwan 2007

A protocol was developed for plant regeneration from encapsulated shoot tips collected from in vitro proliferated shoots of Withania somnifera. The best gel composition was achieved using 3% sodium alginate and 75 mM CaCl2.2H2O. Singh 2006

The number of microorganisms was higher on old leaves of Withania somnifera than on young ones in most cases and it was found that low altitude exhibited more microorganisms than high altitude. Alwadi 2001

In vitro propagation of Withania somnifera and isolation of withanolides with immunosuppressive activity indicated that Withania species require longer time and better differentiation and also natural environment for the production of withaferin A. Furmanowa 2001

Supplementation of MSSM (solid) agar medium with 4% sucrose enhanced accumulation of both withaferin A (0.16%) and withanolide D (0.08%) in multiple shoot cultures of Withania somnifera and reduction of agar concentration to 0.16% increased the number of microshoots induced per explant to 25.5. Ray 2001

"Trial cultivation of Withania somnifera Dunal " (Japanese, no abstract) Kawatani 1965

Related Links

Research articles from 2001-2003, revided 2010 by Pankaj Oudhia which formerly appeared on Oudhia 2010

Crop factsheet from Purdue University's Guide to Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Oudhia 2004

Taxonomic information for W. somnifera at USDA's Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)

Taxonomic family (Solanaceae) descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval by L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz from the DELTA DB

Entry (including abstract, plant parts, objective and a ‘disease link’ to diseases other than diabetes) in literature database of medicinal plants used to treat hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions DiaMedBase

Monograph from Himalaya Healthcare

Monograph at

Search for phytochemicals in Withania somnifera in Dr. Duke'sPhytochem and Ethnobot DB

Monograph at Plants for the Future

Short monograph by S Tilgner

Asgandh (Withania somnifera) based Indigenous Herbal Medicines for Sexual Health (Aphrodisiac) Oudhia Medicinal Plant Database

Scroll down index of herbs to find Radix Withaniae within the pdf file in WHO monograph


Live PubMed Searches

Withania somnifera and Analytical Chemistry

Withania somnifera and Animal Studies

Withania somnifera and Case Reports

Withania somnifera and Clinical Trials

Withania somnifera and Drug Interactions

Withania somnifera and Ethnobotanical Use

Withania somnifera and Genetics

Withania somnifera and In Vitro Studies

Withania somnifera and Pharmacodynamics

Withania somnifera and Pharmaokinetics

Withania somnifera and Preparations & Formulary

Withania somnifera and Reference Standards

Withania somnifera and Safety & Toxicology

Withania somnifera and Therapeutic Activity

Withania somnifera and Tissue Culture

History of record

  • ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Soaring Bear, Ph. D.    1998

  • MAJOR REVISIONS BY: Michael C. Tims, Ph. D. cand.     2001

  • LATEST UPDATES BY: Pavel Axentiev    February 2017