Tuesday, 28 March 2017

Coffea arabica, C. canephora





CoffeeBerry(R), coffee fruit


Clinical Trials

Fasted subjects treated with a single, 100mg dose of green coffee caffeine powder, grape seed extract powder or whole coffee fruit concentrate powder increased levels of plasma increased levels of by about 31%, 31% and 143%, respectively, compared to baseline.Reyes-Izquierdo 2013

Investigation was carried out to evaluate the changes in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and aerobic and anaerobic performance induced by supplementation of coffeeberry (CB) formulation for 4 weeks in college athletes. Results showed that CB formulation slightly increased antioxidant capacity. Ostojic 2008

Observational Studies/Case Reports

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Traditional and Folk Use

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Adverse Effects & Toxicity

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Animal Studies

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A single-dose, placebo-controlled, within-subject study confirmed earlier results of a pilot study showing that ingestion of single dose whole coffee fruit concentrate powder increased blood levels in brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Reyes-Izquierdo 2013

A polyphenol-rich beverage induced changes in several blood biomarkers related to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.Nemzer 2011b

The safety of CoffeeBerry products was evaluated in 3 genotoxicity studies, 3 short-term oral toxicity studies, & a 90-day dietary toxicity study. Bacterial mutagenicity studies & a micronucleus test using murine peripheral cells showed none of the 3 products had mutagenic or genotoxic potential. Heimbach 2010

This article summarizes the active components, pharmacologic properties, and clinical effectiveness of a number of natural antioxidant ingredients including soy, feverfew, mushroom extracts, teas, Coffea arabica (CoffeeBerry), Pinus pinaster (Pycnogenol), and Polypodium leucotomos. Berson 2008

Botanical compounds that have been used for dermatologic purposes or show promise for such applications, including: rosemary, polypodium leucotomos, propolis, oatmeal, olive oil, grape seed extract, lavender, mushrooms, and coffeeberry are discussed.Baumann 2007

The science behind some of the newest topical antioxidants: Idebenone, green tea, and Coffeeberry extract are discussed and outlined how they can be used as part of a comprehensive skin care regimen. Farris 2007

Analytical Chemistry

Different extraction methods of phenolic compounds from agricultural residues (including coffee cherry husk) were analyzed for their total phenolic content, total tannin content and total flavonoids content.Vijayalaxmi 2015

A review of the biochemistry, germanation and microflora associated with green coffee beans, starting with the germination process that occurs while the seeds are still inside the coffee berry. Waters 2015

Chlorogenic acids, caffeine, and polyphenolic content of air-dried whole coffee fruits, beans, and husks were analyzed. Mullen 2013

An analysis of the extraction procedures of whole coffee fruits showed that the antioxidant and chlorogenic acid profiles were affected by the extraction procedure. Mullen 2011

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Hypothenemus hampei, a coffee berry borer to volatiles of different phenological stages of Coffea arabica fruits were studied in order to identify volatile semiochemicals used in host location. Mendesil 2009

The analysis of volatile emissions of coffee berries in different physiological states of ripeness was performed using dynamic headspace and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis for Coffea arabica, var. Colombia. Ortiz 2004

Fresh and 3-day-old coffee pulp of the Arabica variety was analyzed for polyphenol composition followed by characterization by thiolysis - HPLC. Molecular size of oligomericproanthocyanidins was obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Ramirez-Coronel 2004

Pharmacokinetics (ADME)

No Records


This study is an analysis of the expression of the beta-tubulin and endo-beta-mannanase genes during different phases at the end of the development and in different tissues of Coffea arabica seeds (including during the cherry stage). Santos 2015

The cloning and the biochemical and molecular characterization of Coffea arabica β-galactosidase expressed in the pericarp and the endosperm of coffee fruits in all phases of ripeness are described.Figueiredo 2011

Study was carried out for the characterization and expression of two cDNA encoding 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase isoforms in coffee (Coffea arabica L.). CaHMRG2 was expressed in all tissues and during all fruit development stages examined. Tiski 2011

The biosynthesis of caffeine was studied by examining the expression of genes involved in this biosynthetic pathway in coffee fruits containing normal or low levels of this substance. Maluf 2009

Molecular characterization of an ethylene receptor gene (CcETR1) in coffee trees, its relationship with fruit development and caffeine content. Bustamante-Porras 2007

It is indicated that sucrose synthase plays an important role in sugar metabolism during sucrose accumulation in the coffee fruit. Geromel 2006

A full-length cDNA (pF6), corresponding to a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene (CcPAL1), was isolated by screening a Coffea canephora fruit cDNA library and its corresponding genomic sequence was characterized. Mahesh 2006

Three types of cDNAs encoding N-methyltransferases were isolated from immature fruits of coffee (Coffea arabica) plants, and designated as CaXMT1, CaMXMT2, and CaDXMT1, respectively. Uefuji 2003

Literature Reviews

Review of scientific literature for data on "anti-inflammaging" additives such as vitamins A, C and E and green tea and evidence available on argan oil, rosemary, pomegranate, Coenzyme Q10, and Coffeeberry.Suggs 2014

This review summarizes the published information on the determination of antioxidant activity in coffee samples by various methods and the antiradical activity of coffee products. Yashin 2013

Coffeeberry was included in a review of complementary and alternative medicine that show promise for dermatologic applications.Baumann 2007

Identified and described the science behind Idebenone, green tea, and Coffeeberry extract as new and innovative topical antioxidants, which can be used as part of a comprehensive skin care regimen.Farris 2007


Modern Methods of Preparation

Different extracts of coffee pulp have been used for the production of bioethanol and and coffee pulp can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L. Menezes 2013

In this review, the most common natural ingredients used for skin depigmentation and their major published studies are described. Ingredients include soy, licorice extracts, kojic acid, arbutin, niacinamide, N-acetylglucosamine, COFFEEBERRY(™) and green tea. Leyden 2011


Methods are provided for isolating a nutrient from coffee cherries or for producing a food product that comprises a coffee cherry. US Patent 8,603,563

Low-mycotoxin coffee cherry nutritional product. US Patent 8,603,564


Pictures & Distribution Maps

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Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology

A study on Endophytic microbial diversity in coffee cherries of Coffea arabica from southeastern Brazil by Phylogenetic analyses of cloned sequences from Firmicutes revealed that most sequences fell into 3 major genera: Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Paenibacillus. Oliveira 2013

A combination of pathological, molecular & geographical data was used to investigate the recent emergence of the fungus Colletotrichum kahawae & it emerged as a specialist pathogen causing coffee berry disease in Coffea arabica, owing to its unparalleled adaptation of infecting green coffee berries. Silva 2012

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is endemic to Africa and is the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide and was found to exist in coffee fruits in Kona, Hawaii in August 2010. Burbano 2011

The impact and contribution of various drying surfaces (soil, cement, and tarpaulin) and raking frequencies (1 and 4/day) on the incidence of toxigenic molds, ochratoxin A (OTA) production, and on the overall cup quality during preparation of arabica and robusta coffee cherry in India was evaluated. Velmourougane 2010b

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Hypothenemushampei to volatiles of different phenological stages of coffee. Coffea arabica fruits were studied in order to identify volatile semiochemicals used in host location. Mendesil 2009

The effects of shade on bean characteristics and sugar metabolism was assessed by analyzing tissue development, sugar contents, activities of sucrose metabolizing enzymes and expression of sucrose synthase-encoding genes in fruits of Coffea arabica plants submitted to full-sun and shade conditions. Geromel 2008

Lipoxygenase (LOX) presence was investigated in coffee berries to determine its involvement in lipid degradative metabolism of plants grown in organic and conventional cultivations. Patui 2007

The effect of the frequency of the mixing of coffee cherries put out for sun drying on the kinetics of the drying, fungal growth and kinetics of ochratoxin A production was evaluated. The results showed that the more coffee cherries were mixed, the quicker they dried. Kouadio 2006

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides can overwhelm C. kahawae under conditions of higher environmental temperature and humidity and may enhance the coffee berry disease infection process under field conditions. Chen 2005

In a study of mineral nutrition of coffee plants remobilization and re-utilization of 15N and 85Rb labelled nitrogen and potassium reserves for new growth and fruit formation were examined under greenhouse conditions using both normal and deficient young coffee plants. de Lima Filho 2003

It is shown that fruit set of the self-fertilizing highland coffee (Coffea arabica) is highly variable and related to bee pollination. The results give empirical evidence for a positive relationship between ecosystem functions such as pollination and biodiversity. Klein 2003

Related Links

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History of record

  • ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: J. Mohanasundaram, MD, PhD    April 2013

  • LATEST UPDATES BY: Kerry Hughes, M.Sc.    February 2017