Thursday, 26 May 2016

Composition of essential oils and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Lippia species: Identification, quantitation and antioxidant capacity

Volume 10, Issue 4, 1 July 2016, Pages 485-496
Open Access

a  Division of Preventive Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Im Neuenheimer Feld 460/German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, Heidelberg, Germany
b  Departamento de Química Orgânica e Inorgânica, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil 


The principal components of essential oils, obtained by steam-hydrodistillation from the fresh leaves of five species of the genus Lippia, namely Lippia gracilis AV, Lippia sidoides Mart, Lippia alba carvoneifera, Lippia alba citralifera and Lippia alba myrceneifera and ethanol extracts, were evaluated. The greater antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 980 μg/mL; p < 0.05), assessed by the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, was determined in the essential oil obtained from Lippia alba carvoneifera, while the remainder were comparatively inactive (IC50 > 2000 μg/mL). Major compounds in the oils were, thymol (Lippia sidoides Mart, 13.1 g/k), carvone (Lippia alba carvoneifera, 9.6 g/kg), geranial (Lippia alba citraleifera, 4.61 g/kg; Lippia alba myrceneifera, 1.6 g/kg), neral (Lippia alba citraleifera, 3.4 g/kg; Lippia alba myrceneifera, 1.16 g/k), carvacrol (Lippia gracilis AV, 5.36 g/kg) and limonene (Lippia alba carvoneifera, 5.14 g/kg). Of these, carvone (IC50 = 330 μM) along with thymol (1.88 units), and carvacrol (1.74) units, were highly active in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, and ORAC assays respectively. The following compounds namely 1: calceolarioside E, 2: acteoside, 3: isoacteoside, 4: luteolin, 5: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy flavone (spinacetin), 6: naringenin, 7: apigenin, 8: 6-methoxy apigenin (hispidulin), 9: 5,7,3´-trihydroxy-3,6,4´-trimethoxy flavone, 10: 5,7,4´-trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy flavone, 11: naringenin-4´-methyl ether, 12: 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,4´-trimethoxy flavone (santin), 13: 5,7-dihydroxy-6,4´-dimethoxy-flavone (pectolinaringenin) and 14: 5-hydroxy-3,7,4´-trimethoxy flavone were identified in the ethanol extracts. Of the leaf ethanol extracts, strong antioxidant capacity was only evident in that of Lippia alba carvoneifera (IC50 = 1.23 mg/mL). Overall, the data indicates that use of the leaves of Lippia species in food preparations, should be beneficial to health. © 2016 ACG Publications. All rights reserved.

Author keywords

Antioxidant assays; Carvone; HPLC; HPLC-ESI-MS; Hypoxanthine; Mass spectrometry; Xanthine oxidase

Indexed keywords

EMTREE drug terms: 1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl; 5 hydroxy 3,7,4' trimethoxyflavone; 5,7 dihydroxy 3,6,4 trimethoxyflavone; 5,7 dihydroxy 6,4' dimethoxyflavone; 5,7,4 trihydroxy 3,6 dimethoxyflavone; acteoside; apigenin; carvone; centaureidin; citral; essential oil; hispidulin; hypoxanthine; isoacteoside; limonene; Lippia alba carvoneifera extract; Lippia alba citralifera extract; Lippia alba myrceneifera extract; Lippia gracilis extract; Lippia sidoides extract; luteolin; narigenin 4' methyl ether; naringenin; plant extract; plant medicinal product; reactive oxygen metabolite; spinacetin; thymol; unclassified drug; xanthine oxidase
EMTREE medical terms: antioxidant activity; Article; concentration response; controlled study; high performance liquid chromatography; IC50; Lippia; Lippia alba carvoneifera; Lippia alba citralifera; Lippia alba myrceneifera; Lippia gracilis; Lippia sidoides; nonhuman; phytochemistry; plant leaf
Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: 1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl, 1898-66-4; acteoside, 61276-17-3; apigenin, 520-36-5; carvone, 99-49-0; centaureidin, 17313-52-9; citral, 106-26-3, 141-27-5, 5392-40-5; hispidulin, 1447-88-7; hypoxanthine, 68-94-0; isoacteoside, 61303-13-7; limonene, 138-86-3, 5989-27-5; luteolin, 491-70-3; naringenin, 480-41-1, 67604-48-2; thymol, 89-83-8; xanthine oxidase, 9002-17-9
ISSN: 13076167Source Type: Journal Original language: English
Document Type: Article
Publisher: ACG Publications

  Owen, R.W.; Division of Preventive Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 460, Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, Germany;
© Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.