Sunday, 31 July 2016

The Chilean wild raspberry (Rubus geoides Sm.) increases intracellular GSH content and protects against H2O2 and methylglyoxal-induced damage in AGS cells

Volume 194, 1 March 2016, Pages 908–919


Rubus geoides increases intracellular GSH content in AGS cells.
The fruit phenolics protected against H2O2 and MGO-induced damage in AGS cells.
The phenolic composition of Rubus geoides was analyzed by HPLC–DAD-MS.
The main phenolics were flavonoid glycosides with antioxidant activity.


The Chilean raspberry Rubus geoides Sm. (Rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the Patagonia. Five R. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and protective effect against H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced stress in epithelial gastric AGS cells. The HPLC–DAD/ESI-MS profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. R. geoides presented higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than Rubus idaeus. Two out of the five phenolic enriched R. geoides extracts (PEEs) exhibited better antioxidant activity than R. idaeus in the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed when AGS cells were pre-incubated with extracts and subsequently challenged with H2O2 or MGO. Treatment with the PEEs increased the intracellular GSH content. R. geoides fruit extracts may induce the activation of intracellular protection mechanisms against oxidative and dicarbonyl-induced stress.


  • ABTS, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt;
  • AGS, human gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma cells;
  • CE, cyanidin equivalents;
  • DAD, diode array detection;
  • DPPH, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl;
  • ESI, electrospray ionization;
  • FBS, fetal bovine serum;
  • FRAP, ferric reducing antioxidant power;
  • GAE, gallic acid equivalents;
  • GSH, reduced glutathione;
  • HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography;
  • IRh, isorhamnetin;
  • K, kaempferol;
  • MGO, methylglyoxal;
  • MeOH, methanol;
  • MS, mass spectrometry;
  • MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide;
  • NAC, N-acetyl-l-cysteine;
  • PEE, phenolic enriched extract;
  • Q, quercetin;
  • QE, quercetin equivalents;
  • ROS, reactive oxygen species;
  • TE, trolox equivalent;
  • TEAC, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity;
  • TF, total flavonoids;
  • TP, total phenolics;
  • TPTZ, 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)1,3,5-triazine;
  • HHDP, hexahydroxydiphenoyl


  • Rubus geoides;
  • Rosaceae;
  • AGS cells;
  • Methylglyoxal;
  • Glutathione;
  • Oxidative stress
Corresponding author.